Plum Kabardin early by many gardeners is recognized as the most delicious of all early varieties of plum. At the same time, this very old variety, in addition to a number of advantages, has many disadvantages, in particular, it is considered very picky in care. Suffice it to say that the early Kabardian tree is a southern tree, and in other regions it feels uncomfortable.
Description of the Kabardinka plum and its varietal characteristics
The early Kabardinskaya plum variety (popularly known as Kabardinka) has been known since the 1950s. It is believed that it was obtained by accident by pollination of Anna Shpet plum flowers. Already in 1959, the variety was registered in the State Register and recommended for cultivation only in the southern regions, more specifically, in the regions and republics of the North Caucasus. This is due to the low winter hardiness of the tree. Even small recurrent spring frosts destroy both flowers and ovaries, and the wood does not tolerate medium frosts (about -10 ... -15 aboutFROM). This plum is capricious for unfavorable summer weather: it does not tolerate both drought and prolonged rains.
According to the entry in the State Register of the Russian Federation, the Kabardinskaya early belongs to the varieties of the early middle ripening period, but gardeners consider it one of the earliest plums. This is a self-fertile and rather early maturing variety for universal use. Fruit ripening occurs in the second half of July. The first fruits of the plum bear at 4-5 years of age. The maximum yield is observed at the age of 10-15 years, the average term of the productive life of a tree is about 30 years.
A tree of medium height, with a round-oval medium dense crown. Relatively little is affected by red spot and gray rot, in an average degree the moth is dangerous for it. Fruiting occurs on annual branches, as well as on bouquet branches. The yield is considered very high: up to 15 buckets of fruit are harvested from an adult tree.
On some branches, the fruits are located almost like on sea buckthorn
Fruits are above average size, often they are even called very large: the average weight is 45 g, the maximum is 65 g. The shape is broadly oval, with a well-defined abdominal suture. The color of the skin is red-violet, almost black in fully ripe fruits. Numerous light dots are clearly visible on the surface, the fruit is covered with a waxy coating. The pulp is medium-dense, yellow in color, the juice content is very high. The taste is sweet, assessed by the tasters as excellent. The small bone from the pulp is easily separated.
The advantages of the variety include:
- separability of the bone;
- early maturity;
- great taste;
- excellent presentation.
The disadvantages are:
- very poor frost resistance;
- mass falling of fruits during their ripening;
- dependence of taste on the weather;
- capricious care.
You can make all kinds of blanks from Kabardinka, but mostly they try to use the fruits fresh.
Planting plum varieties Kabardinskaya early
Unfortunately, it is impossible to recommend the early Kabardinskaya plum for planting not only in the middle lane, but even in the Chernozem region. It is impossible to protect a large tree from frost, and other varieties must be selected for these regions. Even in the south, spring planting of this plum is recommended, so that during the summer period the seedling will properly take root and grow stronger.
The landing itself is carried out in the traditional way and does not have any special features. Both one- and two-year-old seedlings, if they are healthy, take root equally well. Seedlings in containers can be planted even in summer, but not on the hottest days. For landing, you should choose lighted areas with reliable protection from the winds. Plum prefers fertile soils, but light. Best of all - neutral loams. Wetlands are completely unsuitable for this tree. In the case of a close location of groundwater, you can build an artificial mound up to half a meter high.
If the groundwater is close, a mound will be organized instead of a pit.
When preparing the site, they dig it up, removing the rhizomes of the weeds and applying the usual doses of fertilizers. Acidic soils are limy. A landing pit is being prepared in the fall. Its dimensions are at least 50 cm in each dimension, or better - more. The preparation of the pit is traditional: a small layer of gravel drainage is laid on the bottom, then fertile soil mixed with fertilizers. Enough will be 1-2 buckets of humus, buckets of peat, 300 g of superphosphate and a couple of handfuls of wood ash. In the fall, you can also drive in a stake for a sapling garter, protruding a little more than half a meter above the ground.
It is better to buy a seedling just before planting. Having delivered it to the site, proceed as follows.
- The roots are lightly pruned and soaked for a couple of hours in water, after which they are dipped in a clay chatterbox.
Clay and mullein chatter facilitates seedlings engraftment
- Having taken out the required amount of soil from the pit, they form a mound in it, on which the seedling is placed, straightening the roots. It is important to position it so that the root collar is several centimeters above the soil level.
Any plank placed on the edges of the pit will help to control the height of the landing.
- Holding the seedling with your hand, gradually cover the roots with soil extracted from the pit, compact it with your hands, and then with your feet.
The soil is poured and compacted in layers
- The stem is tied to the stake with any soft rope using the "figure eight" method.
The "eight" method is reliable and gentle
- Water the tree with at least two buckets of water, restore the soil surface and form a roller for subsequent watering.
A roller on the edges is needed so that the water does not spread
- Since planting is carried out in spring, mulching of the trunk circle should not be powerful, but a layer of humus or peat of 2-3 cm is desirable.
Cutting the seedling when planting is not worth it; you can only shorten the side branches if some of them are disproportionately long in comparison with others. Watering the tree in the first year is necessary often, not allowing the soil under it to dry out.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
Plum Kabardian early requires qualified care. All operations are normal, but they must be performed rigorously and efficiently. Throughout the life of a tree, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture in the near-trunk circle: neither waterlogging nor drying out should be allowed. Watering is carried out regularly, in severe drought - even twice a week. The plum needs moisture especially during the formation and intensive growth of the fruit.
They begin to feed the tree a year after planting. In the spring - with urea, in the summer - with wood ash, and in September or October, humus and superphosphate are introduced in the usual doses for plums (1-2 buckets and 30-40 g, respectively). It is advisable to keep the near-trunk circle under black steam: turfing with a plum is not very welcome. The soil under young trees is periodically loosened, under adults they are kept under a layer of mulch.
It is not customary to grow plums under turf.
This variety of plum requires annual pruning. In addition to sanitary pruning (removal of diseased and dried branches), a shaping one is needed, which, in fact, turns into a thinning one. In addition to thinning, every spring most branches are shortened by 15–20 cm. Prevention of diseases consists in maintaining cleanliness in the trunk circle, timely pruning and spring processing of the tree with Bordeaux liquid.
Video: harvest of plum Kabardian early
Diseases and pests, the fight against them
With proper care, the plum itself copes with most diseases, especially since not all of them are characteristic of this variety. Kabardian early is almost not susceptible to spotting and moniliosis, but often gets sick with clasterosporiosis. The witch's broom and gum flow are also dangerous for her, sometimes plum pockets are also found. Fungal diseases are mainly treated using Topaz, Skor, Horus according to the instructions. Only in the case of the appearance of a witch's broom with a plum will have to part. During gum removal, it is imperative to clean the wounds, treat them with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and cover them with garden varnish.
The pests are plum moth, mites, aphids, plum sawfly. In the fight against insects, any insecticides are effective, with mites - acaricides. Traditionally, amateur gardeners use Karbofos, Fufanon, Aktara, etc.
Plum Kabardinskaya early is an old, but very good variety for the southern regions. It is not considered to be hassle-free, but it is loved by gardeners for its delicious fruit flavor.
Early plum - Kabardinka variety
It is extremely difficult for a modern gardener now to choose varieties of fruit trees, their choice is so huge. Plum trees are no exception, and these trees are happily planted in garden plots. Which kind of plum to choose? How do they differ from each other? You can find out about this by reading articles that describe certain varieties of plums.
In this article, the story will focus on a plum bred in Kabardino - Balkaria, and named in her honor Kabardinka.
Plum Victoria is a medium-sized tree with a sprawling, sparse, rounded crown. Shoots are thick and short, brown-green in color.
Description of Queen Victoria Plum Fruit:
- wide oval shape
- weight - 30-40 g
- red-violet coloration
- white dots and a waxy coating on the peel
- yellow juicy pulp
- the middle oval bone is freely separated from the pulp.
The plum pulp contains 10.3% sugars, 0.9% acids and 2.7 mg per 100 g of ascorbic acid. Taste is rated at 4.2 points out of 5.
In Russia, the Queen Victoria variety is grown both in the southern regions and in colder climates.
How to care for a plum
This variety is not picky about care and growing conditions. Trans-river early drainage requires only regular watering. Also, care includes pruning, feeding and loosening.
How to water plums correctly
Newly planted trees need to be watered every 7 days.
In the second year, irrigate a couple of times a month. If the heat is intense and there is no rain, increase watering to once a week.
Plum of this variety loves a lot of water, the fruits are juicy and sweet. Watering is required from early spring to late October. In early November, 2-3 weeks before frost, carry out moisture-charging irrigation before wintering.
In the first years after planting, before the beginning of fruiting, the plum does not need additional dressing. Starting from 3-4 years old, apply fertilizers twice a season - in spring and autumn. Apply nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter.
Apply as follows:
- in spring - urea solution (60 g per 10 l)
- in summer - nitrophoska solution (90 g per 10 l)
- in late summer or early autumn - superphosphate (60 g per 10 l).
Urea can be applied several times per season, foliar dressing can be carried out. See how to properly fertilize with urea.
Is the plum cut
Every spring and autumn, sanitary pruning from broken, diseased and dry branches is required. It is also important to deal with the formation of the crown of the tree. Abundant fruit can break branches, so it is recommended to install supports.
Start formative pruning immediately after planting the seedling. Try to cut so that you get a short trunk, and the shoots are 0.5-0.6 m long.
Remove improperly growing branches, inside the crown. So, all fruits will receive enough light and oxygen, and diseases will not develop. Leave 5-6 main branches at a 45-degree angle to the trunk.
How to prepare a plum for winter
The tree is compact, so it is easy to prepare it for winter.
- Whitewash the trunk to protect it from rodents.
- Wrap with a special net and insulate with burlap, spruce branches.
- Mulch the trunk circle with peat or sawdust, needles.
- If it is possible to be in the garden often in winter, shake off the snow from the branches so that it does not break them.
Plum follow-up care
Kabardian early is one of the most capricious varieties of plum, but in the first year of planting, caring for it comes down to standard activities.
- Pruning. When planting a seedling in the spring, to stimulate growth, its top is shortened. In the future, the formation of the crown of Kabardinka will be an obligatory part of caring for it, since when the crown is thickened, yield suffers.
- Watering. After planting, it is important to monitor the soil moisture in the near-trunk circle: it should not dry out and crack, but it should not be swamped either. In subsequent years, Kabardian early is watered abundantly throughout the season, until the ripening of the plums. In drought, they will lose their size and taste.
- Top dressing. In the first two years, there is no need to feed Kabardinka, since all the elements were laid in the pit during planting.
- Winter preparation and rodent protection. Annual plum saplings of this variety can be covered with hay, twigs, twigs and tied with a rope at the top. To protect the root system from frost, the trunk circle is mulched. The trunk of the Kabardinka can be protected from frost by wrapping it in several layers with paper.
There are two ways to protect a tree from voracious rodents: either wrap the trunk with breathable materials (nylon, mesh, burlap, etc.), or treat it with a deterrent solution with a pungent unpleasant odor.
Careful care of Kabardinka early after planting will help her quickly adapt and endure her first winter on the site.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Diseases and pests of the early Kabardian plum are summarized in tables.
Table 1 - Possible diseases of the plum
Cutting to healthy tissue and burning sterile thickening branches. After that, the place of the cut on the tree is disinfected and painted over.
Before planting the plant, it must be warmed up at a temperature of +46 0 C. The young plum is immersed in water heated to the specified temperature for 15 minutes.
The black sooty bloom is thoroughly washed off, after which the tree is treated with a solution of any fungicide.
Compliance with the tree planting scheme, timely thinning of the crown. When grown in humid climates, preventive fungicide treatments are required.
The disease is incurable, there are no drugs and folk methods to eliminate it. The infected plums are dug up.
Purchase of planting material only from reliable sources, timely treatment of damage to the tree, planting plums away from poplars.
Table 2 - Pests of the Kabardinka variety
Spraying with Fufanon, Fitoverm, Danadim preparations before flowering (when larvae appear) or treatment with Apollo, Neoron, Sunmayt preparations with severe plum lesions.
Timely application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, preventive treatment in spring and autumn with insecticides.
From folk methods, they use wormwood, coniferous infusions or a solution of gasoline. Chemical processing is carried out with Chlorophos, Karbofos or Fufanon.
Digging the trunk circle in the fall, collecting and destroying the carrion. Timely collection of affected fruits from the tree will help prevent the pest from settling.
Plum variety Dasha
Late variety of homemade plum. It is poorly distributed. Below is a description of V.P. Yagunov:
The genetic origin is unknown. Obtained at the Suzdal State Variety Site. Author: V.P. Yagunov. Late ripening. Harvesting begins in the second half of September. Unripe fruits ripen well in maturation, without losing taste and marketability. Consumption time until November. The winter hardiness of the tree and flower buds is high, at the level of the Eurasia-21 variety. Fast-growing, begins to bear fruit in the 3-4th year after planting in the garden. Fruiting is regular and abundant. The variety is partially self-fertile. High transportability.
The tree is medium-sized. The crown is pyramidal, of medium density.
Fruits are large, weighing 40-50 g, oblong-oval. The color of the skin is pink-red with a bluish-gray waxy bloom and numerous dark subcutaneous dots. The skin is of medium density, thin.The pulp is orange, juicy, tender, fibrous, sweet-sour dessert taste The stone is semi-detached, medium size.
The newest promising variety. Recommended for testing in the middle and northern fruit growing zones
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