Apricot for high yields and high-quality fruits requires some attention from the gardener. Noticing a disease or the appearance of a pest in time, you can quickly intervene and eliminate the problem. What are the diseases of apricot, what are their causes. What pests can attack it, how to prevent it and how to deal with it - these are topical issues when growing apricots.
Diseases of apricot trees and their treatment
Apricot is, at first glance, a thermophilic and demanding plant. Often exposed to various fungal and infectious diseases that can affect all parts of the plant - bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. You need to know the enemy in person in order to effectively deal with him, or even better, not even let him near the apricot trees. Applying preventive measures on time and competently, it is possible (and necessary), in general, to avoid the manifestation of diseases and not lead to treatment.
Diseases of the apricot bark and the fight against them
Various fungi can settle on and under the bark of apricot, causing diseases such as cytosporosis (stem rot), gum decay, and cracking of the bark. And also mosses and lichens can settle on the bark.
Why does the bark crack on the apricot
Sometimes cracks appear on the bark of the apricot. This may be due to the following reasons:
- Fungal diseases. Diagnostics and treatment methods will be discussed below, in a special section.
- Frostbite. It occurs in winter, during frequent temperature fluctuations, as well as on sunny, frosty days. On the sunny side, the crust can be heated to high positive temperatures (+ 15–20 ° C), while on the shady side the temperature of the crust can be -10–15 ° C. Such a large difference leads to the appearance of cracks.
Cracks on the bark of apricot from frost, appear with frequent temperature changes
- Damage by rodents (mice, hares). Often, especially on young trees, rodents damage a significant part of the bark around the entire circumference of the trunk. The tree dies. Preventive measures - tie the lower part of the trunk for the winter with protective materials - burlap, roofing felt, etc.
Regardless of the reasons for cracks in the bark (with the exception of fungal and cancerous diseases), the treatment method is the same.
- The site of damage is thoroughly cleaned with a knife and a steel brush, removing all damaged bark until healthy, green tissue appears. The same applies to wood. This operation can be carried out at any time of the year, except for the period of active sap flow (spring).
- Leave the wound alone for a while to dry.
- Disinfect the wound with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. Other antifungal medications can be used.
- Treat the prepared area with special healing putties.
- Garden pitch based on wood resin or natural wax. Avoid formulations with refined petroleum products (gasoline, kerosene, tar, coal tar, etc.), they can do more harm than good.
- Garden putty BlagoSad based on lanolin (fat obtained from sheared sheep's wool).
- Self-prepared putty made from equal parts clay and mullein. Such a putty should not be used in hot, dry seasons, because after drying, the clay will absorb moisture from the bark.
When cleaning a crack, do not be afraid to cut off some of the healthy tissue. They will overgrow. But rotten and dead remnants of bark and (or) wood, accidentally left in the wound, will be a source of infection and a focus of a new round of development of the disease.
White spots appeared on the trunk of the apricot
Most likely, it is a lichen. Lichens usually grow on old trees, although they can appear on relatively young ones. The bark of a tree for these organisms is only a platform for living, they receive moisture and minerals for development from the atmosphere with rains, fogs and dust.
Lichen more often settles on old trees
There are two opposing points of view about whether to remove lichens.
- One group of gardeners and specialists of various qualifications argues that lichens do not bring any harm to trees, and also testify to the cleanliness of the ecology in the place of growth. And scraping them from a tree inevitably damages the bark and causes harm. Therefore, they should not be deleted.
- Another, no less numerous group, expresses the exact opposite opinion. Lichens growing on the bark prevent the penetration of air into the interior, create foci of high humidity and conditions for the appearance and development of fungal and viral diseases. And also scabbards and other pests can hide under them. And therefore, lichens need to be removed.
Since there is no consensus and recommendations on this issue, everyone decides for himself - to remove or not to remove the lichen from the apricot.
For those who decide to remove the lichen that has appeared, it is recommended to do this as carefully as possible, using a sharp knife and nylon brushes. After removal, the surface of the bark should be washed with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate or other antiseptic. Whitewashing trunks in autumn with a lime mortar significantly reduces the likelihood of lichens and mosses.
But it is not at all necessary that the white bloom that appears on the bark is lichen. Perhaps this is the appearance of some kind of fungal disease. A distinctive feature will be the fact that the fungus usually infects different parts of the plant at the same time - leaves, flowers, ovaries, fruits, shoots. Not all at the same time, but different. And if any fungus has been diagnosed, timely treatment with modern methods and drugs usually brings positive results.
Fungal diseases of apricot
Many plants are susceptible to fungal diseases and apricot, unfortunately, is no exception.
A list of the main types of this class of diseases:
- Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot).
- Curly leaves.
- Scab, etc.
The methods of dealing with various fungal diseases, preventive measures and the drugs used are in many ways similar.
Fight against clasterosporium disease
Clasterosporium disease is a fungal disease that affects all stone fruits. Apricots and peaches are particularly and often affected by this disease. Another name for the disease is perforated spot. The causative agent hibernates in fallen leaves, the upper layer of the soil, in the bark.
The disease begins and proceeds as follows:
- Small dark spots appear on apricot leaves.
- Developing, the dots turn into rather large, round spots of red-brown, brown color.
- Within two weeks, the inner part of the spots dries up and falls out, holes are formed.
- Affected leaves turn yellow and fall off.
In addition to leaves, buds and shoots are also affected. Affected kidneys do not open and fall off. Lesions on the bark of the shoots look the same as on the leaves - overgrowing spots, the formation of holes in the bark, causing the release of gum. In advanced cases, the tree may die.
Photo gallery: klyasterosporium
The fight against this disease first of all begins with prevention.
- Fallen leaves are collected and burned.
- Sick shoots are cut out (not forgetting to lubricate the cut sites with garden varnish or putty) and also burned.
- In late autumn, trunk circles are dug up.
- In late autumn and (or) early spring, during the absence of sap flow, they are treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate.
- They try to use varieties that are relatively resistant to fungal diseases (Red-cheeked, Pineapple, Hungarian best, etc.).
- During the season, it is advisable to spray trees with biofungicides (biological means of fighting fungi). Quadris and Horus have proven themselves well. They can process trees even during the fruiting period (Quadris for 5 days, Horus for 7 days before picking berries). Due to the addiction of the fungus to the drugs, treatments are carried out no more than three times per season each. The interval is two weeks.
Recently, organic preparations with high efficiency, broad spectrum of action and low toxicity have proven themselves well.
Table: organic preparations for combating clasterosporia and other diseases
Apricot moniliosis, how to save a tree
Moniliosis or monilial burn is a fungal disease that affects the leaves, flowers, and shoots of a tree. Spores of the fungus overwinter in fallen leaves, shoots, and on the bark. Primary infestation usually occurs in spring during flowering. Spores with the wind, and more often with the help of bees, fall on a blossoming flower, through a pistil they get inside and further into leaves and shoots. The first to curl up and die are flowers, then leaves and shoots. The ends of the branches turn black, and the leaves also turn black and hang. Outwardly, the plant looks as if burnt.
With spring infection with moniliosis, the flowers are first affected, then the leaves and shoots of the apricot
An inexperienced gardener may mistake the spring symptoms of moniliosis infection for frostbite or excessive spring drug treatment.
The second form of damage manifests itself in the summer, in the form of gray rot, affecting fruits, leaves and bark. The difference from other similar diseases is the chaotic arrangement of black dots on the surface of the fruit.
Preventive and curative measures:
- Removal and destruction of fallen leaves, as well as affected fruits.
- Late autumn loosening of near-trunk circles.
- Cutting out affected shoots with a part of healthy wood 15–20 cm long or under a ring.
- Late autumn and early spring treatment with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture.
- Before swelling of the kidneys, a single treatment with DNOC or Nitrafen.
- Regular treatment during the season with biofungicides (Horus, Quadris).
- Avoiding waterlogging, dampness.
- Avoiding thickening of plantings and crowns.
Apricot protection from pests
Apricots, like other fruit plants, can be attacked by various insects - moths, leafworms, aphids, and ticks. In addition to insects, rodents - mice, hares - bring great harm to plants.
How to save an apricot if the bark is eaten by mice
First you need to determine the scale of the damage, and then choose the option of actions, which are very few.
- If the bark is nibbled completely and deeply, then, most likely, nothing can be done. You can try cutting the trunk almost to the ground. If you are lucky, a new shoot will grow from the root, which will become a new tree.
- If the bark is nibbled in a circle to a small height, there are two ways:
- Bridge inoculation.
- Bark transplant.
- If you are lucky and the cambial layer of the mouse has not been touched, then you just need to wrap the damaged part of the trunk with electrical tape, stretch film or bandage, placing sorrel leaves. In the fall, the bandage is removed.
Cambium is a layer between bark and wood, which is a conductor of sap.
What is cambium is easier to show than to tell
How to graft with a bridge
- Harvesting cuttings. Of course, it is better to prepare them in the fall, but then it was not yet known about the attack of rodents. Therefore, most likely, they will have to be cut in the spring, as soon as it became known about the trouble, before the start of sap flow. The variety of the donor tree does not matter. The length of the cuttings should be 10-15 cm longer than the length of the damaged area, the number of buds is also not important, they will still need to be removed. The larger the trunk diameter, the more cuttings need to be grafted.
- T-shaped incisions are made on the bark of the tree on one and the other side of the wound with a sharp knife.
- On the cuttings, oblique cuts are made on both sides and inserted into the cuts so that the cambium layers are combined with each other. The cuttings should be slightly curved in an arc.
- The grafting sites are lubricated with garden varnish or putty and tightly wrapped with electrical tape, fum tape, etc.
- The crown is cut by 30%.
In this way, you can save a tree gnawed by mice.
How the bark is transplanted
Quite an exotic way, but sometimes used. For him, you need a donor tree (it must be an apricot, it can be wild), which you do not mind donating.
- A template is cut from a suitable material (thin cardboard, film, etc.) to the size of the damage.
- A patch is cut out from the bark of the donor tree according to the template, which is carefully removed and quickly applied to the wound.
- The patch is firmly fixed with a tape, you can use small carnations.
- The area of operation is coated with garden varnish or putty, wrapped with twine and roofing felt.
- The crown is pruned.
Apricot root pests
Not many insects prefer to feed on the roots of trees, but still, sometimes there are such lovers. Most often, the roots of young seedlings can suffer from pests, which the larvae of beetles and weevils, which winter in the upper layers of the soil of the trunk circles, are happy to feed on. If you dig up the soil under the trees in late autumn, turning over the layers, the larvae will be on the surface and die from the cold.
The fight against beetles
There are a lot of varieties of beetles. It is a flying beetle ranging in size from 8–12 mm (April beetle) to 35–38 mm (marble beetle). The most famous and well-known to all is the May beetle. Beetles are omnivorous and, if not dealt with, can cause great damage to many plants in the garden and vegetable garden.
Beetles feed on plant roots
- Early spring preventive treatment with insecticides (chemical insect control agents) - decis, nitrafen, etc.
- Diazinon and preparations based on it are introduced into the soil for digging at the end of May-June, when the larvae are still in the upper layer of the soil. 1 m2 spend 10-20 g of Bazudin or 5-10 g of 10% Diazonin. The drug works for 20 days, does not accumulate in plants.
- The drug Marshal, which has a prolonged effect (up to 17 months), is very effective. But, due to its high toxicity, it should be used carefully and only in critical situations.
- You can place a small, warm, damp pile of humus or compost next to the tree. The larvae will settle there with pleasure - all that remains is to collect and destroy them in time.
Weevils are small (4–6 mm) beetles with an elongated proboscis.
The weevil eats young leaves, buds, ovaries in early spring
There are many varieties of this insect. They can overwinter in the bark, fallen leaves, the upper layers of the soil. In spring they feed on young leaves, buds, flowers, fruits. At the beginning and middle of summer, eggs are laid in the fruits, from which the larvae hatch. Some species of weevils lay their eggs in the soil and the hatched larvae actively feed on young roots.
Weevil larvae hatched in the soil feed on young roots
How to fight:
- In early spring, when the weevils came out of their shelters and settled in the crown of the apricot, you can collect them by hand. To do this, in the morning, when the air temperature has not risen above + 5–7 ° C and the beetles are sleeping, a cloth or film is spread under the tree, on which the insects are gently shaken off. Then they are destroyed.
- Before the buds swell, the tree is treated with insecticides.
- After flowering, if necessary, can be treated with drugs such as Fufanon, Actellik, etc. 20 days before harvesting, the processing is stopped.
- During the laying period, diazonin-based soil preparations can be used.
- In the fall, the fallen leaves are removed and destroyed, the damaged bark is cleaned, and with the onset of cold weather they dig up the soil.
Apricot treatment for diseases and pests
To prevent the occurrence of various diseases and attacks of pests, preventive treatments of the apricot are carried out.As a rule, the first treatment is carried out in late winter or early spring, before bud break.
At this time, the tree is treated with one of the following drugs:
- DNOC is a complex, potent drug for combating fungi, mites and insects. They treat the tree with it once every three years. Apply a 1% solution at a temperature of 5 ° C, but not higher than 13 ° C.
- Nitrafen is a drug close to DNOC in action. For 10 liters of water add 200-300 g of the drug. One-time processing.
- Decis is a broad spectrum issecticide. Dissolve 50 g in 5 liters of water. Consumption from 2 to 5 liters per tree. Re-processing is possible if necessary.
- And others are similar.
In spring and summer, especially after rains, it is advisable to treat with antifungal agents - Horus, Quadris, Fufanon, etc.
If, despite the prevention, the apricot has undergone any disease or attack by pests, act on the basis of the situation in accordance with the recommendations for a particular case.
Frequently asked questions by gardeners
In the process of growing an apricot, the gardener often faces various problems and questions, a significant part of which is presented below.
Why apricot does not bloom
This is a fairly common problem due to several reasons.
- Features of the variety. Some apricot varieties begin to bloom 5-7 years after planting. Under unfavorable conditions, these periods may increase. It may not be time for flowering yet.
- Wrong choice of landing site. A tree growing in the shade will begin to bloom and bear fruit only when its crown rises towards the sun. And it will bloom precisely on those branches that are illuminated by the sun.
- Unsuitable soil. Apricot will not bloom on acidified soils, it needs a slightly alkaline or neutral environment.
- Groundwater flooding, even short-term, harms fruiting. With constant flooding, the tree will die.
- Freezing of fruit buds, which can occur during prolonged winter thaws or spring frosts.
Why do flowers fall from a blooming apricot
Either sick or unfertilized flowers fall.
With spring infection with moniliosis, as noted above, flowers are primarily affected and killed.
If the apricot variety is not self-fertile, then the reason for the fall of flowers may be:
- The absence of a pollinator tree in sufficient proximity (up to 100 m).
- There is a pollinator tree, but for some reason it does not bloom.
- Unfavorable weather (low temperature, strong wind), which reduces the activity of bees and other insects.
Why do apricots rot on a tree
This can come from improper care and disease.
- Fungal diseases (clasterosporium, moniliosis, scab, etc.) during the formation and ripening of fruits lead to their defeat and, as a result, to decay.
- Excessive watering. The apricot should be watered 2-3 times per season, and if there is enough rain, it is necessary to completely abandon watering.
- An overdose of fertilizers also leads to cracking of the fruit and, as a result, to rot.
- Increased acidity of the soil.
Rotting apricot berries on a tree can be caused by various reasons.
Why apricot does not grow
We planted an apricot, but it doesn't grow. Possible reasons:
- Inconsistency of the selected variety with the growing region. Perhaps a seedling for the southern regions was planted in a more northern one.
- Late or autumn planting. It is necessary to plant the seedling at rest, until the buds swell.
- Inadequate seedling:
- More than two years old.
- Grown when oversaturated with nitrogen fertilizers.
- Bad root system.
- Close occurrence of groundwater and flooding.
- Insufficient pruning at planting resulting in poor growth. The weakened plant goes into winter, which it will not survive.
The ends of the apricot branches turned black in the spring
This phenomenon has two reasons:
- The branches are frozen. Trim to healthy wood and treat with garden varnish or putty.
- Infection with moniliosis. Cut the branches 15–20 cm from healthy wood or under a ring. Treatment of the disease is described above.
The branches dry on the apricot after flowering
Most likely, this is the same moniliosis.
Why do flowers rust on the apricot tree
If brown spots (rust) appear on the flowers, this may be due to several reasons:
- The onset of a fungal disease, usually moniliosis.
- Attack of insects, primarily weevil.
- Burns from an overdose of certain chemicals when spraying (for example, copper sulfate).
Why apricot does not bear fruit
Apricot fruiting does not occur in such cases:
- The apricot does not bloom. Considered above.
- It blooms, but the ovaries are not formed and the flowers crumble. Considered above.
- It blooms, ovaries are formed, but they crumble.
- Fruit has formed on the unpolished tree (this is possible). But such fruits are defective, the embryo of the seed in them does not develop, and without its absence the fruit does not develop, which as a result crumbles.
- The abnormally warm January contributed to the awakening of the kidneys. As a result, the pistils were damaged, which caused the fruit to shatter.
- The tree had given a bountiful harvest in the previous year, was exhausted, but did not receive sufficient nourishment to restore vitality.
Apricot is not the most capricious representative of horticultural crops. With proper agricultural technology, preventive and sanitary measures are carried out in due time, the gardener rarely has to deal with the treatment of diseases. Caring for an apricot does not require much effort and is quite accessible to both an experienced and a novice gardener. And modern, low-toxic drugs will relieve the invasion of pests and allow you to get a decent harvest of sweet and healthy berries.
Hello! My name is Peter Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
Rate the article:
(14 votes, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Apricot diseases - description with photos and treatment methods: gardeners' secrets
Our beloved apricot comes from the warm regions of Armenia, India, China. Diseases of apricot trees are associated with changes in habitat conditions. In a climate uncharacteristic for a tree, fungal and non-infectious diseases develop, reducing the productivity of the garden. Only prevention and proper care will help prevent the spread of disease.
Diseases and pests of apricot: protection against them, photos and videos showing signs, agrotechnical measures
In most cases, trunks and skeletal branches break off under the weight of the first wet snow, ice or large snow cover. This also often happens when transporting or planting trees.
Therefore, from the fall, it is better to tie young trees with twine or rope and periodically shake off the snow from them.
The first time after planting or transplanting, the plants should be tied to a support, this will protect against bending and breaking of the trunks.
Any mechanical damage, frost cracks and cuts of trunks and branches should be disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with oil paint on natural drying oil. It is in the places where the cuts are made that the wood cracks and dies, and the branches and trees gradually dry out.
In years with frosty winters, when damage by low temperatures and sun-frost burns in spring are possible, it is necessary to immediately cover longitudinal cracks in the bark with a solution of clay or oil paint in the spring.
This is necessary so that the exposed wood is covered with callus tissue and does not die off.
Fungal diseases of apricot and the fight against them (with photo)
Fungal diseases of apricot are very common and dangerous. Further, some apricot diseases are considered in detail and the fight against them using garden tools available to everyone.
See what diseases and pests of apricot look like in the photo, which shows their typical symptoms and signs of presence:
Brown spot, or gnomoniosis, apricot
In the photo Brown spot of apricot
The causative agent is the mushroom Gnomonia erythrostoma (Fr.) Auers, f. armeniaka, has a conidial stage - Septoria pallens Sacc. Spotting appears on leaves, petioles, less often on fruits.
The spots are initially inconspicuous, vague, yellow, numerous, gradually they turn brown, dry out in the central part, and bright yellow outlines appear along the edges. Necrotic tissue thickens, becomes folded, often cracks. Affected leaves curl up, dry out prematurely and often remain on the branches.
The spots on the fruits are brown, dryish, cracking, the affected pulp dries to the stone. Affected green ovaries crumble, and more ripe fruits are underdeveloped and have an ugly shape. Sporulation develops on the affected tissues, and by autumn numerous black dots of small fruiting bodies appear.
Spotting causes premature drying and leaf fall, which negatively affects the winter hardiness of trees and their productivity.
Look at the manifestations of this apricot disease in the photo, where you can see the characteristic signs of damage to parts of the tree:
Control measures. Spraying trees before bud break and immediately after flowering with Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes (HOM, Abiga-Peak).
With a strong spread of the disease, spraying is carried out in the summer and at the beginning of autumn with the drug chorus, taking into account the waiting times for this drug.
Timely pruning of dried branches with covering the cuts with oil paint, removing affected plant residues.
Look at these apricot diseases and the fight against them in the photo, which illustrates the symptoms and agrotechnical protection measures:
Diseases of apricot fruits and their treatment (with photo)
The causative agent of macrosporious spotting as a disease of apricot fruits is the fungus Macrosporium sp. The disease manifests itself at the end of summer, when a wide, blurry strip of red-violet color forms along the edges of the leaves.
Necrotic tissue brightens in separate areas and sporulation of the pathogen fungus develops in them in the form of a brown plaque. When ripe, the fruits soften and are affected by brown spots of plaque. Physiologically old leaves before leaf fall are affected.
The infection persists in the affected leaves.
Look at the apricot diseases and their treatment in the photo, which illustrates the characteristic symptoms and agrotechnics of tree care:
Control measures the same as against brown spot, or gnomoniosis.
The following shows the signs of this disease of apricot fruit in the photo: typical damage to the fruit is visible.
Diseases of seedlings and new shoots in the apricot tree and their treatment (with photo)
Powdery mildew of apricot (photo) In the photo, powdery mildew affects the plum
Powdery mildew Is a disease of new apricot shoots, the causative agent for it is the mushroom Podosphaera tridactyla (Wallr.) De Vagu.
The disease in new shoots of apricots also affects plums, sometimes cherries and cherries. The disease manifests itself mainly on the leaves, less often on the bark of young shoots, with a delicate white cobweb bloom.
On leaves with apricot tree disease, plaque is located in the form of separate spots on both sides of the leaf.
With the course of the disease of apricot seedlings, the plaque thickens, darkens, small spherical fruiting bodies of the wintering stage of the fungus are formed in it. Affected leaves become slightly wavy and yellowish-red in color. Young shoots at the sites of mycelium development turn brown, thicken, may be slightly deformed, and fruiting bodies of the wintering stage of the fungus are formed in the bark.
With a strong manifestation of the apricot disease and the absence of treatment, premature leaf fall, poor ripening of shoots, weakening of trees and a decrease in their frost resistance are observed. The infection persists in the affected shoots and in the fallen affected plant debris.
Control measures. Pruning affected dried shoots, collecting and burning fallen leaves. With a strong manifestation of the disease, trees are sprayed during the period of swelling of the kidneys with the drug thiovit Jet. Immediately after flowering, you can carry out treatments with preparations of rayok or fast.
Look at the diseases of apricots and their treatment in the photo, where you can see the signs of pathology and how to deal with it:
Apricot pests and their photos
The following are the most common apricot pests that affect tree trunks, skeletal branches, foliage and buds.
Look at the photo of apricot pests so that you can timely recognize the signs of their presence on the site:
In the photo, Gall midge ocellar
Gall midge Thomasiniana oculiperda Rubs. - a small yellowish-gray mosquito 1.2 mm long, with six long thin legs. Larva 2-2.5 mm long, initially white, later dark red. The larvae overwinter in the soil at a depth of 5 cm; in May, mosquitoes pupate there and soon fly out.
Females lay eggs on the buds at the sites of budding. The hatched larvae bite into the buds and grind oblong passages in the wood of the grafted bud. Damaged kidneys dry out quickly. Gall midge causes great harm to fruit crops and roses, especially in nurseries where planting material is cultivated.
Control measures. Preventive spraying of trees in the spring, before the leaves bloom, with fufanon or its analogs (Kemifos, karbofos), timely removal and burning of dried damaged eyes from the stock.
In the photo, Whitespotted flatworm
White-spotted flatworm, or white-spotted croesia Croesia holmiana L. (syn. Acalla holmiana L., Peronea holmiana L.), Is a pinkish-orange butterfly with a wingspan of 12-15 mm. The forewings are rusty-orange, light at the base and at the posterior margin.
On the leading edge there is a large triangular spot with a dark border. The fringe of the forewings is ocher-yellow, the hindwings are gray and darker at the edges. Caterpillar is greenish-yellow, 12-15 mm long, with a light brown head and black thoracic legs.
There are two black spots on the sides of the yellowish-brown thoracic scutellum. Caterpillars roughly eat leaves, and after finishing feeding, pupate in leaves folded on the side.
The leafworm damages pome and stone fruit crops, as well as many deciduous trees and shrubs of the Rosaceae family.
Control measures. Prophylactic spraying of all trees and berry bushes in spring, during bud break, with fufanon or its analogs (kemifos, karbofos).
Apricot pests and the fight against them in spring
All apricot pests are activated in the spring, begin their feeding cycle and at the same time cause destructive harm to the entire garden. Further to your attention are presented the dangerous pests of apricot and the fight against them in the garden with acceptable means.
Pictured is a shy leafworm
Shy leafworm Ancylis achatana Den. et Schiff. - a butterfly with a wingspan of 16-20 mm. The forewings are silvery-gray with dark and light streaks and spots, the hind wings are brownish-gray; males have a bend with a tuft of hairs.
Caterpillars 15 mm long, brown, with light hairs and warts. Head, thoracic and anal shields, thoracic legs, dark or black. Pupa 8 mm long, dark brown with black transverse stripes on abdominal segments. One generation develops.
Caterpillars of the third instar winter in a spider cocoon in the forks of thin branches, usually covered with a dry leaf. Since April, the caterpillars begin to feed, nibbling the blossoming buds, as a result of which juice drips from them, and later damages the buds, ovaries, young leaves and shoots.
Unlike other leaf rollers, shy leaf rollers do not curl leaves. Caterpillars pupate in June, butterflies fly out after 11-14 days.
Females lay up to 160 eggs, placing them 1-3 along the central vein on both sides of the leaf. After 6-10 days, caterpillars hatch, skeletonize the leaves and skin of the fruit. Caterpillars weave a spider's nest and hide in it at the slightest danger.
Feeding continues until early August, caterpillars molt twice, reach 5 mm in length, weave a cobweb cocoon and enter diapause until next spring.
The leafworm damages pome crops, stone fruits and many deciduous plants, especially those of the Rosaceae family.
Control measures. Preventive spraying of trees in spring, during bud break and immediately after flowering orchards, with fufanon or its analogs (kemifos, karbofos).
Fruit moth Erannis defoliaria Cl. (syn. Hybernia defoliaria Cl.,) - a butterfly with a male wingspan of 40 mm. Females are wingless, ocher-yellow with black dots on the back. The wings of the male are light yellow, on the front ones there are two transverse dark brown lines and a black dot in the middle, the base and apex are rusty-brown with small dark dots.
In the photo, the moth caterpillar-stripped
Caterpillars are brown with two dark stripes on the back and one yellow on the sides. Pupae 10-15 mm long, light brown. Eggs overwinter on branches at the base of the buds. When the buds open, caterpillars hatch, which feed first on the buds, then on the buds, ovaries, and then on the leaves, pulling them together with a cobweb. They severely harm stone fruit crops, in which the ovaries are damaged.
Having finished feeding, the caterpillars go into the soil and pupate at a depth of 5-10 cm in an earthen capsule. In September, butterflies come out, which fly until late autumn. Wingless females climb trees and, after fertilization, lay from 200 to 350 eggs each, one by one or in groups. Moth - polyphagous
th pest, damages all fruit and many deciduous trees and shrubs.
Control measures. Preventive spraying of all trees and shrubs in the spring, during bud break and immediately after flowering of fruits, with fufanon or its analogs (kemifos, karbofos).
In autumn, in September, you can use glue belts on stems to catch butterflies, and with a large number of the latter, spray the trunks and stems with the same preparations that were used in the spring, strictly observing the waiting times for late-ripening varieties of fruit trees.
Watch the pests and diseases of the apricot in the video, which gives practical advice on organizing the care of your garden:
Fighting garden diseases: plan for autumn treatments
There is hardly a garden that does not suffer from disease. But in some trees, as in a picture, there are isolated problems, while in others there is no living space. And all because they did not treat their plants on time. And now, in the fall, it's time to fix the situation.
This disease affects only two plants - pear and juniper. More precisely, in order for rust to live, it needs 2 host plants. Neither juniper nor pear can infect themselves.
Symptoms The first signs of the disease can be found in the second half of April, immediately after flowering - rounded yellow-orange spots appear on the leaves. Then the rust spreads to the petioles. And in the years of epidemics, shoots and ovaries are covered with spots.
In the middle of summer, the dots on the leaves become noticeably larger, they acquire an irregular shape with a diameter of 1–1.5 cm, become light brown with a black dot in the middle.
And, finally, in autumn, rust reaches its peak of development: on the lower side of the leaf, "horns" are formed - outgrowths filled with spores. They open up and infect ... no, not a pear.
Where the pathogen hibernates. In summer, rust lives on a pear, and in winter - on a juniper. In the fall, spores, falling on a coniferous plant, begin to quickly form a mycelium. Rust affects the needles, shoots, fruits, wounds, rushes and swelling form on the branches. In spring, spores ripen on juniper, they scatter, infect the pear, and so it repeats from year to year.
Are you surprised because you don't have junipers? Surely the neighbors have them. Or in the vicinity - the spores of a pathogenic fungus can fly 40-50 km! Warm and humid weather is especially favorable for them. However, such weather does not always happen in early spring, so most often the infection cycle stretches for 1.5–2 years.
What to do. In general, rust, although it looks unpleasant, does not cause much harm to pears. But if the disease manifests itself from year to year for a long time, then gradually the tree will weaken and can freeze out in winter. Therefore, the disease still needs to be treated.
To treat, as you understand, you need both plants - both a pear and a juniper. But it is quite difficult to cure rust. Even if it seemed to you that the disease had receded, treatments should be carried out for another 3 years.
Action plan for pear:
1. A few days before leaf fall: treat the trees with the "Revus" preparation (6 ml per 5 l of water) - it kills pathogenic fungi and restores the plant's immunity.
2. In early spring, before bud break: treat the pear with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride (HOM). After a couple of days, sprinkle the trees with Skor (2 ml per 10 l of water).
3. At the very beginning of flowering: repeat this treatment with Bordeaux liquid and "Fast".
4. Immediately after flowering: repeat the treatment again - Bordeaux liquid, then "Speed".
5. 10 days after the previous treatment: carry out the last treatment - this time with Bordeaux liquid alone.
6. During the summer cut severely affected branches 5–10 cm below the focus of the disease. Clean the wounds to healthy wood, then disinfect with a 5% solution of copper sulfate, then treat with Heteroauxin (0.5 g per 10 l of water), and finally cover with garden varnish. It's summer.
In addition, once a month water the pear under the root with an infusion of wood ash (500 g per 10 liters of water, leave for 2 days). Consumption rate: for mature trees - 10 liters, for young - 4-6 liters. This will help the pear regain its strength.
7. At the end of August treat the pear with the "Skor" apparatus (2 ml per 10 l of water), and the next day with the biofungicide "Fitolavin" (20 ml per 10 l) - it will help get rid of bacteria that always accompany fungal diseases.
Action plan for juniper:
There are no special remedies for treating juniper from rust - just cut out the infected branches in time and burn them immediately. At the end of autumn, treatments with copper-containing preparations are also useful.
To protect a capricious apricot from parasites and various ailments, it needs to be provided with comprehensive care, which includes a number of measures - agrotechnical, protective, biological and chemical:
Find out how and what you can plant an apricot on.
- timely and careful pruning of shoots in spring and autumn
- avoiding thickening of the crown
- mandatory prophylactic spraying of the tree in spring, before the budding phase, with fungicides
- tree trunk care: weed control, loosening and mulching of the soil
- control of soil moisture and dosages of applied fertilizers
- compliance with a comfortable neighborhood. Do not plant apricots near tobacco, strawberries, potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshade crops
- careful cover of the tree for the winter, avoiding sudden changes in temperature indicators of the air
- systematic visual examination of the culture to identify symptoms of diseases or the presence of parasites
- timely removal and destruction of affected tissues: leaves, fruits, branches
- strict adherence to instructions for the treatment of a particular ailment in the event of its appearance.
Preventive treatment of the apricot orchard against diseases and parasites is an integral part of plant care. To get a decent harvest of tasty and aesthetically pleasing apricots, you need to be extremely careful about the trees and provide them with competent care.
Did you know? Turkey is considered to be the leader in the cultivation of apricots. The second place belongs to Iran, but the honorable third place is taken by Uzbekistan. Timely identification of pests or the first signs of ailments will not only preserve good fruiting in plants, but also, possibly, save them from death.