Plant Arabis (lat.Arabis), or rezuha belongs to the genus of herbaceous perennials of the Cabbage family, or Cruciferous, which has more than 100 species. In nature, the Arabis flower is found in the mountains of tropical Africa and in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The origin of the Latin name for Arabis is not known for certain, but the razuha Arabis is called because of the hard hairs of the pubescence, which can injure hands. The plant has been cultivated for more than two hundred years.
In landscape design, Arabis is used in mixborders and flower beds, to decorate borders, rabatoks and alpine slides. In our article, we will tell you how to plant and care for a crusher in the open field.
Planting and caring for Arabis
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in October, sowing seeds for seedlings - in April, planting seedlings in the garden - in late May or early June.
- Bloom: in May-June.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: loose, sandy, moderately moist, pre-fertilized.
- Watering: moderate and only in severe drought.
- Top dressing: one per season: in early spring, before flowering, a complex mineral fertilizer is applied. The plot is mulched with humus.
- Reproduction: cuttings, layering, dividing the bush and seeds.
- Pests: cruciferous fleas.
- Diseases: viral mosaic.
Read more about the cultivation of Arabis below.
Arabis flowers are grown as annual and perennial ground cover plants with rooting creeping stems. Arabis can reach a height of 30 cm. The leaves of the razuha are green, densely pubescent, whole, cordate, sometimes serrated at the edges. Pink, white, purple or yellowish flowers, simple or double, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, collected in small but dense racemose inflorescences. The lush and long-lasting flowering of arabis, which begins in the second half of spring, is accompanied by a pleasant aroma, to which bees flock en masse. The fruit is a pod with flat seeds, winged in some species.
Relatives of arabis are plants such as alyssum, horseradish, rape, cabbage, mustard, iberis, radish and other cruciferous crops. In addition to a strong aroma, rezuha is undemanding to growing conditions, so planting and caring for Arabis in the open field is easy and pleasant.
Growing Arabis from seeds
How to sow seeds
Rezuha thrives on seeds, which can be purchased at garden centers, shops or flower shows. Seeds are sown directly into the ground before winter in October or early spring (in April) for seedlings in boxes or containers with garden soil with the addition of sand or small stones in a 3: 1 ratio. Seeds are planted shallowly - 5 mm - and germinated at 20 ºC. To increase the germination capacity, the container is covered with a non-woven material, for example, agrospan.
After 20-25 days, when Arabis shoots appear, the cover can be removed, watering is somewhat reduced and the container with crops is transferred to a bright, warm place. They take care of the Arabis seedlings, like any other: as necessary, water and gently loosen the substrate.
In the development phase of the first true leaf, if you want to grow Arabis as a separate plant, the seedlings dive at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other, and even better, plant them in separate containers. If you want to grow Arabis as a soil cover, you can skip the pick.
Before planting in open ground, the seedlings are hardened for 10-12 days, daily taking them out into the open air for a while and gradually increasing the duration of the sessions. During hardening, make sure that the seedlings are not in a draft. Once the seedlings have adapted to the conditions in the garden, they can be planted outdoors.
Planting Arabis in open ground
When to plant
Planting arabis, or planting rezuha in the ground, is carried out at the beginning of June or at the end of May, but not before the seedlings develop three true leaves. They choose sunny, well-blown areas for Arabis, although it grows well in partial shade, but it does not bloom so luxuriantly and does not grow so much.
How to plant
The soil on the site for Arabis should be loose, sandy, not too wet, well-cultivated, free of weeds and fertilized with mineral and organic fertilizers. To increase moisture and air permeability, you can add sand, small pebbles and sod to the garden soil. But if you plant it in calcified or poor acidic soil, it will grow too, although not as violently. Planting scheme for Arabis 40x40 cm. You can plant 3-4 seedlings in one hole.
Immediately after planting, the site is watered, and if fertilizers were not applied to the soil before planting, then literally a day or two after planting the Arabis, feed it with complex mineral fertilizer. Arabis blooms from seeds in the second year after planting.
Caring for Arabis in the garden
Cultivation of Arabis includes simple and familiar procedures - watering, feeding, weeding, pruning, loosening the soil and protecting against pests and diseases, if such a threat arises. Rezuha is drought-resistant and tolerates the absence of moisture more easily than its excess, therefore it should be watered exclusively during periods of prolonged drought and heat, but even then it must be done, observing the measure.
Caring for Arabis involves weeding it frequently, at least until the crusher is so strong that the weeds will not have a chance to develop near it. It is necessary to regularly prune the fast growing shoots of arabis, maintaining the shape of the bush. To extend the flowering period of arabis, you need to remove wilted flowers.
Reproduction of Arabis
Arabis propagates not only by seeds, but also by cuttings, layering and dividing the bush. We have already told you about the seed method by which mainly species arabis are propagated. Rare or terry varieties of arabis propagate by cuttings. As a cutting, you can use a razuha leaf with a heel - part of the cambial layer, which will give the roots. To get such a stalk, you do not need to cut the leaf, but tear it off with a guy, separating, together with the leaf, part of the bark of the stem with the subcortex pulp. This is done after the cesspool has faded.
You can also use the top of the shoot as cuttings - a segment about 10 cm long, from which the lower leaves are removed. The cuttings are planted at an angle in a loose substrate, after which the container is covered with a transparent cap and the greenhouse is placed in a bright, but not sunny place. Keep the substrate slightly damp, allow the cuttings to breathe daily and remove condensation from the hood. As soon as the upper leaves restore turgor, and this can happen in three weeks, you can prepare for transplanting cuttings into open ground.
In order to get a layering of arabis, bend its shoot to the ground and attach it in the area of the leaf node to the soil, and pinch the top. When the leaf node grows roots in the soil, separate the layers and plant them.
The division of the bush is resorted to when propagating a particularly valuable or terry variety. The bush is dug up, divided into parts and planted. It is better to do this after the arabis has faded.
Actually, you can divide the Arabis bush without digging out the plant, but simply pinning its shoots to the ground, wait until they take root in the leaf nodes, then separate the layers from the mother plant, divide them into segments according to the number of root bundles and transplant to a new one a place.
Pests and diseases
Quite resistant to harmful insects and diseases, Arabis sometimes suffers from a viral mosaic and the eternal pest of cabbage cruciferous flea crops. Symptoms of the viral mosaic look like small brown spots on the leaves that gradually increase in size and eventually merge with each other. The mosaic is incurable, so the diseased specimen must be immediately removed and burned, and the soil in which it grew must be shed with a strong solution of potassium permanganate and nothing must be grown in this place for at least a year.
As for the cruciferous flea, you should not waste time on laborious dusting of arabis with wood ash, it is better to immediately treat the area with Aktellik, Aktara, Biotlin, Karbofos or Iskra.
Arabis after flowering
How and when to collect seeds
Select the most beautiful Arabis inflorescences during flowering and outline them. It is necessary to collect seeds after the first frost, on a dry fine day, since seeds collected in wet weather have a low germination capacity. Cut off the inflorescences with a part of the stem and dry them in a dry, well-ventilated room, suspended, then husk the seeds and store them in a cardboard box in a dark, dry place.
Preparing for winter
Arabis can withstand cold temperatures down to -5-7 ºC, but in case of more severe frosts, it dies without shelter. With the onset of winter, the shoots of Arabis are cut off, leaving only 2-4 cm above the surface, which are covered with dry leaves, spruce branches or covering material.
Types and varieties
In culture, the following types of arabis are most often grown:
Alpine Arabis (Arabis alpina = Arabis flaviflora)
It grows in the Far East, in the north of Scandinavia, in the Polar Urals, in the highlands of North America and Western Europe. This is a perennial Arabis, a plant reaching a height of 35 cm, with ascending generative shoots and very branched whip-like vegetative shoots pressed to the ground that do not die off in winter and form clumps in the form of pillows. Basal leaves of Alpine Arabis are oval, and stem leaves are arrow-heart-shaped. Fragrant pink or white flowers up to 1 cm in diameter, forming racemose inflorescences up to 5 cm long, open in April and bloom for about a month.
Alpine arabis has such garden forms:
- schneeshaube - Plants no more than 25 cm in height with white flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in a brush up to 15 cm long;
- terry - differs from the original species in larger inflorescences, similar to Levkoi;
- pink - Arabis up to 20 cm high with pink flowers up to 2 cm in diameter in inflorescences up to 12 cm long.
Planting Alpine Arabis and caring for it were the basis of the article.
Originally from the subalpine and alpine belt of the mountainous regions of Albania, Greece and Bulgaria. It is a cushion-shaped perennial up to 10 cm high with small, oval, ciliate leaves covered with felt down, collected in rosettes, and white flowers, which, in an amount of 3 to 6 pieces, form loose corymbose inflorescences;
Some scientists consider it a subspecies of Alpine Arabis. It grows in the Caucasus, Crimea, the Mediterranean, Central and Asia Minor. At the time of flowering, this perennial reaches a height of 30 cm. The leaves of the Caucasian Arabis are small, gray-green from dense white pubescence, oblong, with large teeth along the edges. White flowers up to 1.5 cm in diameter in racemose inflorescences up to 8 cm long bloom for a month from the beginning of June. But individual flowers can appear on the plant until autumn. The fruit of the plant is a long, narrow cone. In culture, the species has been since 1800. There are such garden forms of Caucasian Arabis:
- flora-pleno - a plant that blooms profusely with double white flowers on long peduncles;
- variegata - a variety with yellowish leaves at the edges;
- Rosabella - variety with pink flowers.
Arabis running out (Arabis procurrens)
In the wild, it is found in the Balkans. This is a ground cover plant up to 12 cm high with small rosettes of leaves and faded flowers. Most often, the plant is used to anchor sliding slopes. Arabis running out is unpretentious and frost-resistant, but it is still desirable to cover it for the winter. The most famous variety is Variegata, with green leaves with a wide white border and a bunch of purple flowers that gradually turn white;
Arabis undersized (Arabis pumila)
In nature, it grows in the Apennines and the Alps. It grows up to 15 cm. Its white, nondescript flowers that have no decorative value open in May or June. The fruits of stunted arabis are attractive - because of them it is grown in culture;
It grows on the rocky slopes of Turkey at an altitude of 2300 m. It is a perennial 5-10 cm high with small oval pointed leaves, collected in rosettes, and white flowers in loose shields;
Arabis ciliate (Arabis blepharophylla)
Growing in the California mountains at an altitude of 500 m, it is a ground cover perennial up to 8 cm high with a bush diameter of about 25 cm. Its leaves are gray-green, and the flowers are dark pink. In culture, varieties are most often grown:
- Route Sensation - a plant with elongated leaves and bright pink flowers;
- Frühlingshaber - variety with small leaves and pink flowers.
Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii "Variegata"
Semi-evergreen plant with a height of no more than 5 cm and a bush diameter of about 30 cm. This arabis is prized for its abundant and long flowering. It has attractive, light green leaves with white, yellow or pinkish edging and white flowers. Wide pillows of leaf rosettes look spectacular. With good drainage, this plant can tolerate cold temperatures.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Flowering Plants on A
Growing arenaria from seeds at home
To grow seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the soil and shed it abundantly. After that, evenly distribute arenaria seeds over the surface and sprinkle with soil lightly on top. After planting, it is necessary to carefully spray the soil so as not to wash the planted seeds out of it.
There are two ways to grow seeds: sowing seeds in January and sowing seeds in November-December.
Seeds planted in January. It is necessary to germinate seeds planted at this time at a temperature of no more than 20 degrees. The first shoots should appear in 1.5 weeks. If the seeds have sprouted poorly, then do not be upset. You need to cover the boxes with seeds with foil and place them in the refrigerator for about 1.5 months. After you need to get the boxes and continue germination.
Seeds planted in November-December. For two weeks, the boxes with the planted seeds need to be held without shelter. After the expiration of this period, the boxes must be properly covered with plastic wrap and taken out into fresh air for the whole winter. After the onset of spring, the boxes should be brought back to the house and germination should be continued.
After the shoots appear, it is necessary to remove the film and begin regular spraying of the shoots. When the seedlings have two real leaves, they must be planted in different pots.
Approximately 2 weeks after transplanting, the seedlings can be planted in open ground. The distance between the bushes should be at least 30 cm. Arenaria grown in this way will bloom only next year.
Facts for flower growers and saliva photos
Due to the fact that saliva has a long flowering and tends to form a large number of buds, it is often used as an ornamental culture. The plant can form clumps and serve as a ground cover due to the outlines of the foliage. Many varieties are used in medicine to make products with many properties. It can also serve as a spicy-aromatic culture.
In order to use Anacyclus as a base for medicinal products, root harvesting is recommended. Harvesting is carried out in the autumn after September-October, at which time the vegetation process ends. Drying is carried out in the fresh air or in a room with good ventilation. If the roots are dried and ready for use, then their color becomes grayish-brown, their length is about 25 cm.
Mainly medicinal properties are possessed by the variety Anacyclus pyrethrum, which include analgesic and salivary effects. This is because in the root processes there is a poisonous substance that is an alkoloid - pellitorin, and besides this, anacyclin and pellitorin, multiple essential oils with inulin. Also, drugs based on it can stop toothache. If the roots are ground into powder, they are used to treat rheumatism or paralysis symptoms. By introducing the herb salivary into certain herbal preparations, they will help in the treatment of impotence. This property is used in the drug Tentex Forte. This remedy is a herbal remedy, produced by its only pharmaceutical company in the world - Himalaya. It is prescribed for erectile dysfunction, since it has the properties of stimulation and general toning of the human body, and also has the ability to stimulate androgenic activity.