Apricot Khabarovsk has been successfully grown in the Far East region for more than half a century. High winter hardiness and excellent qualities of the berries allowed him to hold the lead for decades. It will be useful for gardeners from other regions to get to know this strong and hardy handsome man.
Description of the variety
The tested variety, isolated at the Far Eastern Research Institute of Agriculture by Grigory Tikhonovich Kazmin back in 1949. It was transferred for state variety trials in 1971 and in 1978 entered into the State Register. Zoned in the Far Eastern region, grows better in the southern regions of the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, and is also available for cultivation in Central Russia.
The tree is strong and vigorous. By the age of ten it reaches five meters in height and the same crown in diameter. Skeletal branches and annual shoots are thick, straight. The crown is round, spreading, thin. Fruiting occurs on two three-year-old wood. Large fruit buds are formed on long and short fruit branches growing perpendicular to the main ones. The flowers are white and large.
The variety has high winter hardiness and frost resistance, provided it grows in high places. In lowlands, winter hardiness decreases sharply. Flower buds tolerate winter well and rarely freeze. Some gardeners note that Khabarovsk is not winter-hardy enough and can freeze out. But there is reason to believe that these gardeners either chose the wrong planting site, or neglected certain planting and care rules.
When planting and growing apricots in extreme conditions for it, every little thing is important. Violation of the rules of landing and leaving leads to disappointment. Alas…
Partially self-fertile, in the Far East, Snezhinsky and Amur varieties are used for additional pollination. The beginning of fruiting is 4–5 years. The yield is quite high - up to 40 kg per tree in a good year.
A young Khabarovsk apricot tree begins to bear fruit for 4-5 years
Fruits ripen very early - in the twenties of July. Due to this feature, some nurseries call this variety - Khabarovsk Early. This marketing ploy has nothing to do with breeding, it only misleads gardeners.
The berries of the variety are round-conical, medium in size. With good yields, the weight of the fruit is on average 30 g. If the yield is lower or its normalization has been carried out, the berries can grow up to 45 g. The color is pale greenish, in places it has a dotted orange-red blush. The pubescence is dense, the surface is tuberous. The stone is very small and can be easily separated. The kernel is sweet.
Khabarovsk apricot berry has a pale green color with a dotted, orange-red blush
The taste of the berries is pleasant, sweet and sour. Tasting score 4 points. Transportability and keeping quality are average. The fruits are more often used for fresh consumption.
The variety reproduces well by seeds without losing its characteristics. However, it is better to propagate it by grafting onto frost-resistant rootstocks. The immunity to clasterosporium and moniliosis is average, sometimes it is affected by the moth.
Landing rules and step-by-step instructions
Apricot varieties Khabarovskiy are grown, as a rule, in regions with a harsh climate and unstable weather conditions. He does not tolerate dampness and stagnant water in the soil. If snow melts in the near-trunk circle during the winter thaw, then it will surely freeze and form an ice crust. This crust will injure the bark of the trunk, and in the case of repeated repetition of this phenomenon (which usually happens at the end of winter), the tree may die. It follows from this that the site for planting must be chosen elevated, without accumulations of water and with a deep bed of soil waters. Apricot grows well on slopes, especially southern and southwestern ones, since excess moisture never stagnates there, it just flows down.
Any apricot does not like cold northern winds - you will have to look for a place protected by natural barriers for it. Such protection can be walls of buildings, a fence or tall, dense trees located to the north or northeast of the planting site. But you should not make a mistake - place the tree in the shade. In this case, the gardener will not wait for the harvest, since the apricot does not bloom in the shade. In the absence of natural protection, an artificial one should be equipped. To do this, knock down wooden shields and paint them white, for which you can use a lime solution. The white color reflects the sun's rays, creating additional illumination and warming the crown of the tree.
Apricots grow well on hillsides
Step-by-step instructions for planting an apricot
When planting an apricot tree, the following steps are sequentially performed:
- In the fall, seedlings are purchased. One or two-year-old plants with well-developed roots and healthy wood are chosen.
- They are laid for storage in the basement or buried in the ground. Before this, the roots are dipped in a mullein and clay mash, then wrapped in wet burlap or moss.
Until spring, the seedling can be kept buried
- In the fall, a landing pit is prepared in the following order:
- They dig a hole 90x90 cm in size and 60–80 cm deep.
- Drainage from crushed stone, broken brick, expanded clay, etc. is laid at the bottom.
Drainage from crushed stone, broken brick, expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the planting pit
- Then the pit is filled with a nutrient mixture consisting of
- black soil;
- sand - these components are taken in equal parts;
- superphosphate 300-400 g;
- wood ash 2-3 liters.
The planting pit is filled with nutrient mixture
- A wooden stake is driven in at a distance of 15–20 cm from the center of the pit. Its height above the ground should be at least one and a half meters.
- Cover with waterproof material until spring.
- They start planting in early spring before the start of sap flow. To avoid stagnation of water and freezing, first prepare a mound with a diameter of 2 meters and a height of at least 70 cm.Place it directly above the filled planting pit. For its manufacture, the same nutrient mixture is used, which was laid in the planting pit.
- In the center of the hill, next to the stake, they dig a hole sufficient to accommodate the roots of a tree, and already a small mound is formed in it.
- The root collar of the seedling is placed on the top of the mound, the roots are straightened down.
- Now, carefully, layer by layer, fill the hole, tamping well.
- Tie the seedling to the stake with elastic material. At the same time, the trunk cannot be squeezed.
- A roller is formed on the hill along its diameter, which will keep the irrigation water from flowing out.
Planting an apricot on a hill will save the plant from stagnation of water and drying out of the roots.
- Water the tree abundantly. All loose soil must be saturated so that air sinuses formed during backfill disappear.
- The trunk circle is mulched with freshly cut grass, humus, rotted sawdust, etc.
- The seedling is cut by 60–80 cm, if there are branches, they are shortened by a third.
Features and subtleties of growing and care
The cultivar in the process of cultivation requires the observance of the usual rules and techniques of agricultural technology, but some of them have features associated with the region of cultivation of the cultivar. Let us remind the reader briefly about these rules, dwelling in detail on the points that are important for this sort.
There is an opinion that apricots can grow by themselves and if pruning is carried out, then sanitary, cutting out dry and diseased branches. This is fundamentally wrong. Any fruit tree (and apricot is no exception) needs various types of pruning to increase productivity. Khabarovsk does not require any special approach in this regard. Therefore, in short:
- Crown formation should be carried out in the first 4–5 years of the tree's life.
- Due to the rather high growth, it is better to use a sparse-tiered crown shape.
Apricot Khabarovsk forms a sparse-tiered crown
- Sanitary pruning is carried out annually in late autumn.
- Since the crown of Khabarovsk is rare, regulatory pruning is unlikely to be required.
- No one exempted one-year-old shoots from the summer minting. This will increase yields.
- Well, in the mature age of the apricot, the gardener may think about rejuvenating pruning.
An important agrotechnical technique. The degree of growth of young shoots and fruits depends on it, especially in the first half of the growing season. We must not forget:
- Apricot is a drought-resistant plant. But, if there is not enough moisture in the soil, he will devote all his strength to preserving the tree. The growth of young shoots and fruits will slow down, the yield will decrease.
- Apricots are rarely watered, but abundantly, moistening the soil to a depth of 30–40 cm.
- After watering, the trunk circle is loosened and mulched.
- After the autumn water-charging irrigation, the roller of the near-trunk circle is removed, giving the mound a cone-shaped appearance. This technique will not allow moisture to stagnate in winter, after possible thaws, melt water will run down.
- Watering is especially important for young (3-5 years old) trees, the root system of which has not yet reached the aquifers.
Needed to maintain a high yield of the tree. They start with them the next year, after the first harvest. It is important to keep them balanced.
An excess of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, will do more harm to the apricot than a deficiency.
Table: approximate fertilization schedule for apricot
Video: how to feed an apricot
Diseases and pests, how to deal
Most apricots are not too susceptible to diseases and pests. Under favorable weather conditions - sunny summers and the absence of prolonged rains - apricots rarely get sick. The rainy season promotes the development of fungal diseases. The most important factor in resisting troubles of this kind is the regular implementation of simple preventive measures.
Table: sanitary and preventive measures to combat diseases and pests
The main diseases to which the Khabarovsk apricot is susceptible
With strict implementation of the recommendations for prevention, diseases in the vast majority of cases can be avoided. But you still need to know what the signs of the manifestation of the main possible diseases look like.
Hole spotting is the second name of this dangerous disease, often found on apricots. Infection with spores of the fungus usually occurs for the first time in the spring. It is carried both by the wind and by insects. In the future, fungal spores can overwinter in the bark, fallen leaves and the upper layers of the soil.
It primarily affects leaves on which dark red or burgundy dots appear. Then the dots grow, reach significant sizes (up to 5–10 mm), the inner part of the spots dries up and falls out, forming holes. Then the leaves turn yellow and fall off. If the plants are not treated with fungicides in time, in August the gardener will be able to observe the phenomenon that is popularly called summer leaf fall. A weakened tree may not withstand the coming winter and die.
With clotterosporia, holes form on the leaves
In addition to leaves, the fungus affects fruits and shoots. Similar dots appear on the affected fruits, growing to spots. Further, a continuous covering of berries with a scab is possible.
Treatment consists of regular fungicide treatments. The sooner you resort to treatments, the better the result will be.
Has a second name - monilial burn. The first infestation usually occurs in the spring during flowering. The spores of the fungus on their paws are carried by bees along with the pollen. The process is pretty fast. The fungus begins with a flower, through the stalk penetrates the shoot, leaves. The affected parts of the plant droop, then turn black, giving the impression of a burn.
Inexperienced gardeners may confuse moniliosis infection with early frostbite of a tree or with an overdose of chemicals during preventive treatment.
Having diagnosed moniliosis, they immediately cut out the infected shoots with a part of healthy wood and treat the tree with fungicides. Apply them according to the attached instructions. In the summertime, the fungus affects the fruit in the form of gray rot.
In the summer, the fungus infects fruits in the form of gray rot.
The pathogen, like other fungi, can winter in the bark of a tree, leaves and soil.
Fungal infection of the bark of a tree. It is facilitated by the presence of unhealed cracks, into which the spores of the pathogen fall. As the fungus develops, it eats away at the bark, it loosens and becomes rotten. Abundant gum flow occurs from the crack. Treatment, like prevention, consists in cleaning damaged areas to healthy bark and wood, disinfecting with 1% copper sulfate solution, treating with fungicides and protecting the wound with garden varnish.
Cytosporosis can completely destroy the bark and wood of apricot
It is interesting. The first chemical agent to combat fungal diseases of fruit plants was invented by the French botanist Alexander Milliard in 1885. This is the so-called Bordeaux liquid, which to this day is often used by agronomists and gardeners all over the world.
Apricots are attacked less often than diseases, but they can cause no less harm.
This small bug with a long proboscis hibernates in soil, fallen leaves and bark. In early spring, it rises along the trunk into the crown and begins to satisfy hunger. At this stage, lime whitewash and a trapping belt should stop him. The weevil feeds on everything that comes across. It starts with buds and buds, then moves on to leaves, ovaries, young shoots. Insecticides help - in early spring DNOC, Nitrafen, then Decis, Fufanon. It is still cold and the air temperature in the morning does not exceed + 5 ° C, the beetles sit numb on branches. At this time, they can be shaken off onto a pre-laid fabric or film.
Weevil eats buds, buds, leaves
In May, the weevil, as well as other beetles (May, April, etc.), begin to lay eggs in the soil. By the beginning of summer, larvae will crawl out of the eggs, which are called beetles. In the weevil, they are small - 4–6 mm, in the May beetle, they are more impressive - 20–25 mm, the largest larvae in the April beetle are 30–35 mm. One thing unites them - over the next few weeks they will feed on the roots of plants, including apricot. Then, at a depth of 30–50 cm, the larvae pupate. The pupation period lasts 2–4 weeks. Then, in late summer or early autumn, a beetle emerges from the pupa, but remains in the cradle until next spring. Further, the cycle is repeated. The gardener will collect some of the pupae during the autumn digging.
Beetles feed on plant roots
During the active life of the beetles, they are destroyed with the drug Diazonin. They cultivate the soil in near-trunk circles. The exposure period is three weeks, which is quite enough to cause significant damage to the population. Diazonin does not accumulate in soil and fruits.
Additionally, you can arrange traps. A mound of moist humus or compost is poured near the plants and covered with a black film to create a greenhouse effect. The larvae will rush to comfortable conditions for them. After a while, having stirred up a pile, they are collected and destroyed. The operation can be repeated. At the same time, slugs will crawl into this heap, if they are on the site.
A small insect that has many varieties. It feeds on juicy leaves and young shoots, while secreting sweet mucus. This slime is to the taste of ants. In order to feast on it, ants on their backs carry aphids onto the crown of a tree and plant them on the leaves. This will not happen if the barrel is whitewashed and a trapping belt is installed on it. Aphids can be detected by the presence of twisted leaves. Unfolding such a sheet, you can see many of the smallest insects.They can have different colors - black, green, yellow, white, etc. Treatment with insecticides will have a limited effect, since the drug will not be able to penetrate into the folded leaf. To enhance the effect, you must first cut off the twisted leaves as much as possible.
Aphids are located on the inside of the leaf
Apricot Khabarovsk has indisputable advantages - winter hardiness, fruit quality, yield. Minor flaws do not prevent him from successfully occupying a large niche in his region. Gardeners of the Middle Lane should take a closer look at this variety, since it is willingly adapted to the conditions of the area.
Hello! My name is Peter Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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One soldier in the field: self-fertile varieties of apricot
Garden passions will never subside around this southern culture: domestic farmers have learned to grow apricots in the harsh climate of Siberia and the Urals, this was helped by modern breeding, which provided many cold-resistant varieties with stable immunity to many fungal diseases. But, thanks to the achievements of modern agricultural science, the range of apricots is constantly replenished. Here is a selection of self-fertile apricot varieties that are capable of producing crops without additional pollination. Surely the luminaries of gardening will definitely appreciate them.
Self-fertile apricots: what is their fundamental difference from ordinary
Looking into history, one can find out that most of the apricot varieties that appeared in the first half of the 20th century are mostly self-fertile (for example, Musa, Hekobarsh, Seraphim). The emergence of cultivars capable of producing crops without additional pollination, or with partial pollination, is a scientific achievement of domestic and foreign breeders.
Self-fertility is the ability of trees to bear fruit without cross-pollination with other tree varieties.
The harvest of apricots depends on the observance of agricultural technology
Experts say that this varietal trait of stone fruits can be traced in different climatic conditions in different ways. And also the yield of a fruit tree, the number of ovaries of which does not depend on pollination, is largely influenced by:
- tree age
- compliance with the rules for pruning fruit crops
- prevailing weather conditions.
The self-fertility of apricot depends on the specific region. It is checked by simply putting a bag on a branch before flowering and counting the number of flowers in this bag and the resulting fruits as a result.
The fundamental difference between self-fertile apricots is that such trees are capable of bearing fruit without additional pollination. Their yield indicator will differ little from the average varietal indicators proposed by the authors of the cultivar. But the weather and the observance of agricultural practices of culture no less affect the return of the tree. Planting an apricot and forgetting about it before harvesting will not work. Without proper care, even a self-fertile variety will not produce abundant ovaries.
Most self-fertile apricots are fast-growing.
Do not forget that the concept of self-fertility is conditional. The absolute indicators (determined by the varietal characteristics) of the yield can be obtained with proper care, and they will not depend on the pollination of the apricot. Indeed, self-fertilization will be productive in the absence of the possibility of cross-pollination. But the yield of the cultivar will be much higher if other apricots grow on the site and self-fertile varieties are additionally pollinated.
One of the first self-fertilizers we had was the Northern Triumph (planted in the spring). He was chosen for the reason that he really wanted apricots, and the seedlings were expensive, and they dreamed of planting other trees. But it was not possible to check it for self-fertility - in the fall of the same year, the Saratov ruby appeared on the site, another variety with an unknown name from friends from Rossosh. The first fruits appeared simultaneously on all trees after 4 years. Perhaps the harvest would have been earlier, for example, at the Triumph, but in previous years there were return frosts in April, and this is why we associate the absence of ovaries in the 3rd year. This year (the 6th year of tree growth) there was a sea of apricots, but this year was also “apricot”, despite the moniliosis that appeared in late spring.
Self-fertilized apricots: an overview of varieties with photos and descriptions
A varied assortment of the State Register of the Russian Federation and the All-Russian Scientific Institute VNIISPK offers a choice of several self-fertile varieties of apricots. In foreign breeding and amateur gardening, there are almost a dozen time-tested self-fertilized cultivars with good yields, suitable for growing in different regions of our country.
Red-cheeked - popular both in the south and in the Moscow region
The old Soviet apricot variety is intended to grow in the Caucasus and the Volga region, but has spread throughout central Russia. It ripens early - in early July, the harvest ripens unevenly. A bright pink blurred blush is always present on the fruits, it is especially pronounced on the "sunny" side of the apricot. Fruits weigh up to 45-50 g. The taste of Krasnoshekogo is a separate conversation - one of the most delicious, aromatic, rather sweet, at the same time easy-going and transportable varieties. With proper care, the first crop of the cultivar can be seen in the 4th year of growth. Like other varieties, Krasnoshchekom needs the prevention of fungal diseases.
Red-cheeked is a self-made boat worthy of attention
Video: Apricot Red-cheeked
Northern Triumph - the favorite of the middle lane
This is the most common self-fertile apricot in central Russia. Triumph is growing well both in Belarus and in the North-West of our country. A vigorous variety, ripening in August, will give the first fruits only in the 4th year from the moment of planting. Triumph fruits are orange (weight 40-50 g) with a dark-burgundy blurred blush, sweetish, with a pleasant aroma. According to experts from the Association of Michurin Gardeners of the APPNPM, the variety is resistant to frost, with annual prevention of diseases, it is practically not damaged and yields stably up to 50-60 kg of selected fruits from one tree.
The Northern Triumph is popular among the gardeners of our country
I read a lot that the Triumph is self-fertile, maybe that's why it bore fruit. And the smell! My Northern Triumphs have a trail of sweet, strong scent. Apricots are very tasty, fragrant, juicy, but they stick tightly to the tree. The trees have grown by 4 meters in 3 years.
Video: Apricot Northern Triumph
Veteran of Sevastopol
This is the development of specialists from the Institute of Horticulture of Ukraine UUAN. The medium-sized variety is fast-growing - yields a harvest already in the 3rd year, the fruits are ready for harvest in the 1st half of July. Distributed in Ukraine, southern Russia, in the southern regions of the middle zone. Veteran's fruits are round-oval, slightly compressed from the sides, toasty, weigh from 50 to 80 g. The yield of the cultivar reaches 98-110 kg / ha. The variety is characterized by winter hardiness and high immunity to many diseases. Gardeners note the resistance of the flower buds of the cultivar to return frosts and excellent resistance to heat.
I have both of these varieties, but if the Veteran of Sevastopol has been bearing fruit for a long time, then Hargrand has not yet bearing fruit. The veteran of Sevastopol is winter hardy, disease resistant and generally a very good variety. Many gardeners note its high winter hardiness and large-fruited.
Veteran of Sevastopol is popular among Ukrainian gardeners
Early of Morden
The Canadian cultivar is considered one of the most frost-resistant - tolerates frost down to -35 degrees - and immune-resistant self-fertilized. APPJAPM specialists more than 15 years ago approved this cultivar - it often grows in industrial gardens of the European part of Russia. The fruits of this variety resemble a miniature lemon: with a "spout", slightly flattened, yellow, with a slight orangey blush, weighing 40-50 g, the flesh is sweet and sour. And also Early from Morden fell in love with early maturity - already in the 2nd year the first ovary appears on the trees. The yield of the cultivar reaches 280 centners per hectare, in the 7-8th year of life one tree of the variety gives up to 27-35 kg of fruit. The variety is relatively resistant to fire blight and moniliosis.
Experts believe that the Early from Morden variety certainly requires thinning of the ovaries.
Champion of the North
The variety is capable of producing crops both in regions with a mild climate and in the continental one - in Siberia, the Urals, and Belarus. VNIISPK experts claim that the medium-sized variety tolerates frosts down to -25 degrees well, rarely gets sick. Fruits appear on trees already in the fourth year - large, round-sided, weighing up to 65 g, light-brown, ruddy on the sides, juicy and pleasantly sour. The yield of the cultivar ranges from 200 kg / ha. The disadvantage of this variety is its low resistance to clasterosporium disease.
Its main distinguishing qualities from many other varieties: drought-resistant, winters well and gives very high yields. The tree is tall - up to five meters - with powerful skeletal branches and a thin conical crown. The fruits are red-orange with a blush all over the cheek! Sweet and sour and quite large for apricots in our latitudes - up to 60g (the Orlovchanin variety has become generous only by 40-50g).
From the fruits of the Champion of the North variety, excellent jam and jam are obtained
Obolonskiy, a promising apricot variety, is the development of Ukrainian breeders (author A. Denisyuk). A powerful cultivar with large - up to 60 g fruits, pink, with yellowish tan marks. Obolonsky's apricots are very similar to peaches, even the taste is identical - the pulp is orange, sweet, liquid, juicy. The peculiarity of the variety is that it is not afraid of moniliosis and is quite cold-resistant. The variety is widespread in Central Russia, Ukraine. This is a fast-growing apricot - the first ovaries appear in the 3rd year of life. The harvest ripens in mid-July.
Obolonsky is able to give up to 25 kg from a tree
Video: apricot Obolonsky
This cultivar has become popular recently among domestic gardeners and farmers of the neighboring countries. Pineapple is very similar to Pineapple Tsyurupinsky, but the latter is not self-fertile, it is listed in the State Register of the Russian Federation. Self-fertile pineapple - an apricot selection by Kostin K.F., common in Ukraine, but also found in private gardens in the south of Russia, in Belarus, in the south of the Volga region. The peculiarity of the variety is elongated light yellow fruits with almost no pubescence, which have a pleasant fruity aroma, but it is difficult to call it the smell of pineapple (fruit weight 40 g). These apricots are quite easy to handle, easily tolerated and highly resistant to fungal diseases. The yield of the variety reaches 160 c / ha, fruiting starts 3-4 years after planting.
The variety is self-fertile and bears excellent fruit in single-variety plantations. Even if the tree is planted in a single version on the site, the yield will be high. However, the presence of other varieties nearby can significantly improve the taste of the fruit. The fruits ripen in mid-July, 5-6 days later than the Krasnoshekiy variety. Fruit ripening is uneven, extended, for 1-2 weeks. When fully ripe on the tree, the fruits tend to become mealy, overripe fruits crumble heavily, especially with a lack of moisture in the soil. In this regard, the harvest has to be removed several days before the fruit is fully ripe (at the stage of technical ripening), and in several steps in order to obtain the maximum yield of marketable products. It is advisable to pick the fruits when they acquire a rich yellow color, but the flesh is still quite dense.
Pineapple has a pleasant, slightly velvety fruit
The cultivar belongs to the old selection of the Nikitsky Garden (1930), but is absent from the State Register of the Russian Federation. The taste of the cultivar fruits will appeal to the most demanding gourmets: apricots of a decent size - up to 50 g, with velvety pubescence, sweet, orange-golden, juicy, dense flesh. The variety is appreciated not only for self-fertility and early maturity (fruiting in the 3rd year), but also for its resistance to many fungal diseases, drought resistance. Nikitsky prefers a mild climate - it is successfully grown in Ukraine, in the south of our country. The only drawback is that the crop quickly overripens and becomes soft, unsuitable for transportation.
Apricot Nikitsky has a decent taste - suitable for fresh consumption and canning
Partially self-fertile varieties of apricots
Apricots, characterized by partial self-fertility, are able to pollinate up to 20% of the ovaries with their own pollen. The most famous cultivars from this group are presented below.
This variety is partially self-fertile - the absolute absence of pollination reduces the yield of the cultivar. Orlovchanin is a mid-season apricot intended for cultivation in the Black Earth and Volga regions, the variety feels good in Belarus. In the 3rd year after planting, you can already taste the first fruits of the cultivar: ovoid, orange-yellow, weigh up to 33 g, slightly pubescent, sweet-sour, friable flesh, easily separates from the stone. A resident of Orlov is not afraid of clasterosporium disease and is able to give an average of 147 c / ha.
Orlovchanin - frost-resistant variety
According to VNIISPK, this is a partially self-fertile variety of apricots, ripening in the 20th of July. This tree is ready to give its first harvest in the 4th year. The fruits of the cultivar are slightly elongated (weight 20 g), covered with a yellow skin with reddish spots, the flesh is loose, bright orange, dryish, but sweet. The gardeners attribute to the advantages of the variety the good winter hardiness of the Pearl, the excellent resistance of flower buds to spring frosts (up to -7 degrees), and relatively good transportability. The disadvantages of the cultivar are that if the fruits are overexposed on the tree, they crumble. The pearl yield is about 240 centners per hectare. The variety is cultivated in central Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.
Apricot Pearl Zhiguli is capable of giving up to 26 kg from one tree for the 6-7th year of growth
The dark-fruited hybrid of apricot and cherry plum is partially self-fertile (according to the Michurinsk Gardeners Association). The first harvest ripens already in the 3rd year. Cultivar tree with a powerful crown, medium-sized fruits (weight 30 g), but quite tasty: sweet, aromatic, dark purple, slightly pubescent. The harvest of the variety ripens at the end of July - this is a mid-early apricot. Velvet tolerates drought well and belongs to cold-resistant varieties. Plucked fruits can lie up to 2-3 weeks, are well transported over long distances. It is successfully grown in the south and in central Russia, in Belarus and Ukraine.
Video: Black Velvet variety
How to care for self-fertile varieties
This culture is a deciduous tree, the distribution area of which extends from the south of the European part to the Caucasus and Krasnodar Territory. Although apricots grow well in the north of the middle zone, in the Volga region, in Siberia and the Urals, in the North-West and in Belarus. Now it is easy to find the newest varieties on sale, which are more cold-resistant and perfectly tolerate temperature changes.
Apricots, or zherdel in the local dialect, are a popular culture in Ukraine. The local mild climate is very conducive to the cultivation of a thermophilic fruit tree. On Ukrainian soil, you can find popular varieties, known in our country, and local cultivars.
Apricot is a thermophilic crop, but we have learned to grow it even in Siberia and the Urals
It is difficult to determine the characteristics of self-fertile apricots, in addition to their varietal characteristics regarding fruiting without pollination. All agricultural technology of self-fertilization differs little from the care of ordinary cultivars from this fruit category.Apricots are planted on the sunny side of the site, preferably in the south or southeast. Ideal - when trees are protected from the north winds by a wall or behind a fence. This culture prefers fertile loose soil, sandy loam filled with humus.
The peculiarities of culture are in the observance of agricultural technology.
- Apricots need annual sanitary and formative pruning.
- Abundant, but infrequent watering is a guarantee of the longevity of the tree (from 15 to 40 liters of water - depending on the age of the tree and the weather).
- Apricot requires periodic feeding: in early spring - urea or superphosphate (15–20 g per trunk circle) during fruiting - complex mineral fertilizers according to the instructions after fruiting - in mid-August - the trunk circle is filled with humus and spilled with water, then mulched in the fall - watered with a solution phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (15–20 g per bucket of water).
- This culture needs to regulate fruiting - the ovaries are partially removed, especially with abundant flowering.
- Prevention of moniliosis and other fungal and bacterial diseases is indispensable for apricots (treatment with Skor, Horus, etc. according to the instructions).
Selection does not stand still: every year in amateur gardening, new varieties of apricots appear, among which there are self-fertile ones. They deserve attention especially when the garden area is small and does not involve growing a large number of trees. Among such cultivars there are frost-resistant, with a different type of crown, immune-resistant. And, importantly, fruits with different taste characteristics are a worthy choice. And with the yield, self-fertilized apricots will not let you down.
Follow-up care of the culture
Pruning of young Ulyanikhinsky apricot is carried out as follows:
- for the first time, the branches are cut immediately after planting, to a height of 40 cm from the ground
- until the third year of 5-7 main branches form a crown in layers
- further pruning of the apricot tree is carried out for rejuvenating and sanitary purposes, as well as to prevent excessive thickening of the branches.
Ulyanikhinsky is advised to water the apricot three times a season:
- before flowering
- during the growth of shoots
- two weeks before the fruits ripen.
The apricot tree of the Ulyanikhinsky variety necessarily needs regular and correct feeding:
- in the spring, mineral fertilizers (in particular, urea), as well as organic matter are introduced into the soil
- in summer they additionally enrich the soil with nitrogen-containing substances
- in the fall, the emphasis is on potash, calcium and phosphorus dressings.
In winter, the Ulyanikhinsky apricot needs additional protection:
- the surface of the trunk circle is generously covered with straw, spruce branches, reeds - this will not allow the roots to freeze
- the area of the root collar should be wrapped tightly with burlap
- the ground part of young trees is hidden under protective shelters made of oilcloth or spunbond
- a metal mesh wrapped around the trunk will protect the bark from rodents.