Growing exotic plants at home in our time is not an exception, but rather the norm. Many are engaged in this, but not many know how to handle them so that they develop normally, and even give at least some kind of harvest. Grooming for persimmons is no different from grooming lemons, feijoa, figs, pomegranates, etc.
Growing at home
For the normal development of this plant, it is necessary to withstand the required temperature and humidity, both in summer and in winter. This is especially true for the winter period. For its overwintering, certain conditions are necessary: the temperature is not more than +10 degrees, light is not required, but regular, although not abundant, watering is needed. For this, a basement or cellar may be suitable, if there are none, then you can insulate the balcony or loggia or use an unheated storage room. This period starts from the end of October and ends in the month of February. As for the rest of the year, it only benefits her, including the high summer temperatures. At this time, she feels good outdoors, where there is a lot of warmth and light.
Pitted persimmon. There is an opinion that persimmon seeds do not germinate well and need special processing before planting. For this purpose, many instructions and wishes have been written. But if it is decided to plant a bone of a freshly eaten fruit, then nothing of this is required. Their germination rate drops sharply during long-term storage, and only then it will be necessary to carry out "resuscitation" measures in order for the seeds to germinate. And so a bone is taken, sprinkled with earth, watered regularly, and after two weeks at most, you can see powerful shoots.
Top dressing and watering. In order for a young tree that has just appeared to grow successfully further at home, it needs to be watered and fed. It should be remembered that this is a tropical plant and needs tropical conditions. Only in this case, you can count on the harvest. Despite this, an ordinary persimmon can withstand frosts of 20 degrees, and its virgin form is even more than -40 degrees. It is best to water with soft (rain) water, but if you strained with this, then you can soften the usual one by taking a handful of peat, wrap it in a rag and put it in a bowl of water overnight.
Persimmon prefers light and hard to tolerate heavy soils - this should be remembered when growing it at home. As for top dressing, persimmon feels fine on poor soils. Therefore, it is better not to feed her than to overfeed her. This applies to both mineral and organic fertilizers.
Transfer. In the process of growth, this tree needs to be replanted several times, so the volume of the root system increases. In the first year, when the seedling grows rapidly, it will have to be transplanted 2-3 times, the next year and up to 3 years of age - every six months; after 3 years - every year, and after 5 years of life - after a year. During the transplant, it is not recommended to immediately greatly increase the volume of the container. With each transplant, the diameter of the pot increases by no more than 3-4 cm.
Crown formation. Persimmon is a tree and can grow at home to large sizes. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to control its growth, while forming a compact crown. Usually, a spherical crown is formed. To do this, when reaching 35-40 cm of growth, pinch its top with lateral shoots. This is also done in order to limit the growth of this tree, resulting in a small compact tree with a spherical crown.
Fruiting and grafting. There are myths that it is impossible to get fruits from persimmon, growing it at home, and, therefore, why do this. But if you know some of the nuances of her agricultural technology, then this task becomes such a no longer difficult. The main conditions for obtaining a crop:
- Correct organization of wintering. It is at the time of wintering that persimmon lays the harvest of the next year. It requires cold wintering, despite the fact that it is a very thermophilic plant. The optimum temperature is 0 .. + 5 degrees. As you know, she calmly tolerates winter with frosts of -20 degrees.
- Constant inhibition of growth by shortening fast-growing shoots.
- Keep her on a "diet". In no case should you overfeed, as this will only cause its rapid growth.
- Graft the cuttings from the already fruiting persimmon. This will speed up the onset of fruiting.
- Growing a tree in a small amount of soil limits the development of a large root system. A disproportionate root system will contribute to an overdose of nutrients, and therefore the tree will grow sickly and frail.
- to accelerate the appearance of fruit buds, ringing of individual branches can be carried out, but, in no case, ringing of the trunk.
If you adhere to such recommendations, over time, you can enjoy the appearance of the first flowers, and with the onset of winter, pick the first fruits. This miracle can happen already in the third year of life.
Useful Uses of Persimmons
Persimmon contains many vitamins (C, PP, E, A), as well as a large amount of trace elements (potassium, phosphorus, iodine, copper, manganese, iron, calcium). Which, in turn, help with vitamin deficiency, scurvy, increase the number of red blood cells.
In addition, it has antibacterial properties and is able to neutralize various E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus. With poor heart function, cardiologists prescribe it to remove excess fluid from the body. To reduce the burden on the kidneys, it is recommended to drink it with milk. It cannot be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis - a daily dose of about 100 g. It helps to calm down the nervous system, increases efficiency, helps to restore brain function in case of lesions and hemorrhages. In case of dysfunction of the thyroid gland, it helps the body by replenishing the lack of iodine.
Its fruits can be successfully used as a source of valuable sucrose and is recommended for the "Kremlin" and vegetarian diet. Persimmon is an integral part of salads, meat dishes and in the preparation of various desserts and drinks.
There are three types of persimmons:
- Persimmon verginsky. It can be found mainly in the western United States and in the Mediterranean. The fruits of this variety have a high (about 45%) sugar content and they are distinguished by high nutritional value, despite their average size (from 2 to 6 cm in diameter). The tree is up to 25 meters high, very frost-resistant (up to -35 degrees) and can be easily grown without shelter in our conditions.
- Persimmon Caucasian. She took a fancy to the subtropical zone from Japan to Spain. The fruits are not large in size (about 2.5 cm in diameter) and are sold in the markets as common persimmon. Frost resistance is not lower than -25 degrees.
- Japanese persimmon. Compared to previous species, it has a small, compact tree no more than 10 meters high. In addition to Japan, it is widely distributed in the USA, Spain, Korea, China, Israel. The fruits of the Japanese persimmon are the largest and can weigh up to 0.5 kg, and at the same time, from one tree, you can collect up to 500 kg of fruits.
You can use a complex mineral fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium or mix them yourself in a 2: 2: 1 ratio. If the soil is fertile enough, then feeding begins after the tree reaches eight years of age. Before the beginning of the warm period, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, during the flowering period, phosphorus fertilizers. Wood ash can also be used as a top dressing. For a tree aged from two to five years, 10-15 kg of organic fertilizers are needed per season. For mature ones, you will need about 20-25 kg of organic matter. Fertilizers are distributed on the soil surface according to the crown projection.
Young seedlings are watered about twice a month, adults - once a month, taking into account the amount of precipitation. Excessive watering can cause the fruit to fall off.
Growing and care (+ photo and video)
Persimmons belong to the Ebony family. The birthplace of this tree is China. There are about 200 types of persimmons, which vary in weight and size. The largest fruit reaches a mass of more than half a kilogram. Pitted persimmons can be grown even at home. To do this, you just need to know how to choose the right planting material and how to care for the plant.
Photos of popular types of persimmon and their description
There are several hundred types of persimmon, but in our area there are only a few varieties.
"Kinglet" or Chocolate
This variety is considered the most delicious. "Kinglet" has a round shape, orange skin and chocolate flesh. The fruit has 4 to 14 elongated seeds. This persimmon is very juicy and sweet, but not sugary. Even in an immature state, she does not knit her mouth.
Photo. Persimmon "Kinglet" or Chocolate
This variety is slightly different from the above. The fruits are larger and the flesh is not so brown. If the berry is not ripe, then she will knit her mouth.
Photo of the persimmon variety "Large King"
Mandarin or Honey
The shape of the fruit resembles a tangerine, and the taste is honey. It is for this reason that this persimmon has two names. This variety is the sweetest of all, sometimes even sugary. There are no seeds in this persimmon, the pulp is liquid, bright orange.
Photo. Persimmon Mandarin or Honey
"Bull heart" or Tomato
This variety also lacks seeds. In its shape, persimmon resembles the tomato variety of the same name. The pulp is orange in color, very soft and tender.
In the photo, the persimmon variety "Bull's Heart" or Tomato
An astringent persimmon, considered the worst of all varieties. The flesh and skin of the fruit is always orange.
"Chamomile" or Fig
It is an early persimmon variety with brown flesh. The fruit contains several elongated seeds, but their number is much lower than that of the "King".
Photo. Persimmon "Chamomile" or Fig
There are several types of Chinese persimmon, which differ in a specific shape - the presence of a strip. This variety is never too sweet and has a hard and unpleasant skin.
Egyptian stretched persimmon
This persimmon is more beautiful, but it tastes much different from the Chinese persimmon, and not for the better.
Photo. Egyptian stretched persimmon
How can you get planting material
For growing at home, the method of sprouting a tree from a bone is most suitable. The main thing is to choose planting material from a self-pollinated variety. The fruit must be ripe and free from visible damage. You cannot take a frozen berry, since the seeds in it will no longer be viable. You should not choose a fruit that has moldy leaves.
You can buy a ready-made persimmon sprout, or you can just eat the fruit and take out the suitable seeds.
How to germinate a persimmon seed
To grow persimmons, you need to prepare several seeds. You can take them from different varieties, thereby increasing the chances of growing at least some of them.
After the seed is removed from the berry, you need to rinse and dry it. Before planting, the seed should be disinfected by dipping it into a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 2-3 days.
Important. If the bone has not drowned during this time, then it is considered unviable. Only sunken seeds are suitable for planting.
The technology of growing persimmon causes difficulties for many.
However, everything is much simpler than it seems at first glance:
Persimmon seeds are removed from the fruit, dried and disinfected.
First you need to go through the stage of stratification of the planting material. For this, you can use any growth stimulants that can be purchased at a specialized store. The point of this stage is the preparation of the seeds for planting and their hardening. Instead of special products, you can use aloe juice. The persimmon seed is wrapped in a napkin soaked in juice and put in the refrigerator for 1.5 months. During this period, the napkin must be constantly moistened with water to maintain moisture.
Important. It is best to carry out the above manipulations in spring, since persimmon is a winter berry.
To grow a persimmon from a seed in a pot, you need to create favorable conditions. The pot should be kept in a dark place, warming it up. Condensation drops should be regularly removed from the film or glass, while preventing the soil from drying out. You should also be careful about airing the seedling, it is important to prevent the formation of mold in the pot.
The first shoots appear from the seed only a month after it was planted in the ground.
It takes about a month from the moment of planting to the appearance of the sprout. Closer to the appointed time, you should carefully monitor this process, since after pecking the seed, the sprout should not rest against the film or glass. The emerging embryo must be immediately freed from the shell of the bone located on the sprout.
Important. If the seed has not swollen within 15 days, then the seedlings can be considered unviable. It is better to replace them with new planting material.
Sometimes a bone remains at the end of the sprout, which cannot be removed. To eliminate it, you need to use a needle or tweezers. To facilitate the task, you can steam the bone by moistening it with warm water and wrapping it in a bag overnight. You cannot leave the bone, as the plant will disappear.
Proper care of the seedling consists in regular watering and feeding with nitrogen-containing fertilizer. Without feeding, the plant may die. It is not worth pouring over the tree, but the soil should always be moderately moist. Since this plant is thermophilic, it needs appropriate conditions. The main enemy of persimmon is a draft, from which you need to protect the tree.
The persimmon seedling should be kept warm, the soil in the pot should be moist.
How to transplant a plant correctly
Persimmon rises quickly. After a few sprouts have hatched, they need to be transplanted into larger, separate pots. The seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place after the leaves and root system have developed.
In this case, you need to choose the right container. The pot should not be too large, otherwise the roots will start to rot due to the oxidation of the soil. The best option is a pot 10 cm high.
How to grow a persimmon from a stone is understandable. But then what to do with the growing tree?
After the appearance of the fourth or fifth leaf, you need to pinch the shoots, thereby activating the growth of lateral shoots. After five leaves appear on the side shoots, they also need to be pinched. The main thing is not to let the tree grow, forming a compact spherical plant from it.
In order for the persimmon to start laying fruit buds, you can use the method of ringing individual branches.
This should be done only if you have experience of similar work:
- We select one strong branch.
- At its base, remove the bark ring with a sharp knife. Work should be carried out perpendicular to the direction of growth.
- We turn over the ring.
- With the outside, we graft this ring onto the cut site.
- We wrap the ring with foil.
Grown persimmon sprouts must be pinched periodically.
In a few days, a new ring should form in this place, the appearance of which will speak of the success of the event. The branch ceases to actively grow, buds and flowering begin.
In addition, grafting can be carried out with cuttings taken from room persimmons, which have already borne fruit.
Top dressing and rest period
Persimmon needs a cold wintering. To prepare the plant for dormancy, you need to reduce watering in the middle of autumn and completely abandon fertilizing. The leaves on the tree will turn yellow and fall off. The fruit can hang on the tree for a long time, even if all the leaves fall off. Therefore, they need to be removed, and the plant should be sent to a cool room.
Storage space can be a cellar, an unheated balcony. Despite the fact that many varieties of persimmon can safely winter at -15 degrees, it is best not to risk it and provide them with a comfortable temperature regime within 0 degrees.
Problems, diseases and care of persimmon during this period
The room with the wintering tree must be ventilated to avoid mold. It needs to be watered only twice a winter, so as not to overmoisten and not overdry the soil.
In the video, a specialist talks about how to properly grow a persimmon and take care of it.
Plant storage problems usually do not arise. And all possible diseases manifest themselves only in the active phase of growth. Although the house plant is practically not affected by them.
Flowering and fruiting persimmons
If you plant a persimmon at home according to all the rules, then it will delight its owner with ripe fruits. Just do not wait for them in the first years of life. The persimmon grown from the seed begins to bear fruit at least five years later. If it is grafted at the age of one, then the fruits can set a couple of years earlier.
Blossoming of a tree usually begins in May. Fruits appear in September-December.
LAWN HERBS CARE
Formation of lawn grass in the year of sowing. In the year of sowing, the main task is to form the required herbage, to achieve its formation, consolidation and dominance of the sown plants over the entire area of the lawn. In this regard, it is necessary to work in two directions: 1) stimulate the growth and intensive tillering of lawn plants 2) restrain the spread of unwanted weeds.
After the emergence of seedlings, the main operation is mowing the grass stand on the lawn. Mowing is one of the main factors in the early formation of a quality lawn. By cutting off the first mother shoots of young lawn plants growing upwards, they promote earlier tillering of lawn grasses, i.e. the formation of side shoots by them. Without mowing, upward growth will continue, the first shoots will become more and more powerful, and the herbage with them will restrain and suppress the appearance of lateral shoots. As a result, a high, but rather rare grass stand will form, similar to the grass stand of a meadow, but not a lawn. In addition, mowing, as already mentioned, destroys weeds.
On parterre and sports lawns, created by sowing lower lawn grasses, the first time it is necessary to mow when these plants reach a height of 5-8 cm. Usually at this time the uppermost tier is made up of shoots and leaves of weeds. It should be mowed to a height of 3-5 cm, while only the tips of the leaves will be mowed in lawn plants.
On ordinary, meadow lawns and on grass coverings, which are created by sowing upland and semi-upper grasses, they begin to mow at a height of lawn plants of 10-15 cm, leaving a stubble 4-6 cm high. Usually, the first mowing is carried out after 3-4, sometimes after 5 weeks after sowing seeds. The mowing regime in the first year should not be gentle and no less intensive than in subsequent years.
Mowing not only suppresses too strong development of the first shoots, but also helps to lighten the surface layer above the soil. Sufficient heating of the soil stimulates the emergence of new lateral shoots and new seedlings. At the same time, each time the mower destroys weeds, which in the first year overtake lawn grasses. Already from the second year of the life of the lawn, weeds on it are a rare phenomenon.
The lawn grass stands are mowed again when they reach a height of 10-12 cm (up to 15 cm for riding plants). Shoots grow back to this height in about 7-14 days. Consequently, new mowing on parterre and meadow lawns should be carried out on average every 10 days, on meadow lawns and grass coverings - less often, after 2-3 weeks.
The total number of mows in the first year will vary depending on the seeding time. In addition, it should be noted that at any time of sowing, the last mowing of the grass stand is carried out on the 20th of September. Therefore, with the late summer sowing period, the mowing of the lawn herbage begins the next year.
On ordinary, meadow lawns and grass coverings, usually 3-4 mowing is carried out per season, on Mauritanian ones - one, on flower ones - also one, very light and neat, along the tops of plants.
Lawn mowing rules:
- • haircut should be regular
- • do not mow after heavy rains or in severe drought (in the absence of irrigation), when the soil is too waterlogged or dried out (accordingly, there will be damage to the soil surface or grass stand)
- • The mowed mass of leaves and shoots of plants should always be removed from the lawn, as it impedes the normal growth and development of lawn plants and can serve as a source of the spread of weeds
- • mow in different directions - the more directions the better
- • always accompany the mowing of the lawn with fertilizing
- • do not leave high grass stand on the lawn for the winter.
After the start of mowing, fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers begins. Fertilizers are applied superficially, without embedding in the soil, but always evenly throughout the entire plot, with top dressing - immediately after the next mowing and harvesting of the grass and no later than 2-3 days later.
In the first year of the life of lawn grasses, the first feeding should be carried out after the first or second mowing. The criterion can be the appearance of the plants: if they are intensely green, there is still enough nitrogen in the plants, and the first feeding can be done 10-15 days later, ie. after the second mowing, especially in late autumn and subwinter sowing periods.
In the first year, it is sufficient to apply moderate doses of 30-50 kg of nitrogen per hectare each time. After the first application, subsequent fertilizing is carried out after one mowing. The last time nitrogen fertilization can be applied no later than August 20-25, since otherwise lawn plants overwinter poorly and may die in a frosty winter.
In September, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied: 30-40 kg P203 and 40-60 kg K20 per 1 ha. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers do not accelerate plant growth in autumn, but promote the activation of photosynthesis by young green leaves. Due to this, carbohydrates accumulate in the plants, their underground organs and the bases of the shoots, as a result of which the plants winter well.
Correct sowing, systematic care of the grass stand and its sufficiently intensive mowing ensure the formation of good lawn carpets already in the first year of plant life. After spring sowing, grass stands of grassland plants have a good density (up to 10-15 thousand shoots and even more per 1 m 2) and form a strong, coherent sod. You can walk on such a lawn without damaging it, but competitions cannot be held on sports grounds in the first year. The use of the lawn at summer and later sowing dates can be started from the second year of life.
Ordinary and meadow lawns are also formed in the first year and can be used normally the next year.
Formation and use of herbage in the second and subsequent years after creation. By the end of the first year of life, a good lawn with fairly strong turf can be formed. The grass stand is formed for 2-3 years (for sports lawns, this period increases to 3-4 years) until it is ready for use without restrictions and with a full normal load.
During the second year of life, with regular mowing, the density of the grass stand increases, due to the simultaneous increase in the mass of roots and rhizomes, the turf of the lawn becomes stronger and stronger.
From the early spring of the second year of life, systematic mowing (mowing) is required, while for each type of lawn there is a certain mode.
Ordinary, meadow and Mauritanian lawns, grass coverings should be continuous, sufficiently dense (with a density of 2-5 thousand or more shoots per 1 m 2), without weeds. There is no place for weeds in the finally formed, well-spreading herbage, but in the spring of the second year they can still be found on the lawn. Early spring mowing effectively destroys them, it also stimulates active tillering.
The first mowing in the second year of life of these lawns and grass coverings is carried out at a height of grasses growing in spring 12-15 cm. Usually this period occurs in early May. The mowing height is 4-5 cm. Repeated mowing on these types of lawns and grass coverings is carried out not very often: on ordinary lawns and grass coverings - on average once a month, on meadow lawns - for the first time at the end of June and then at the end of September, those. twice a season. Mauritanian lawns are mowed only once a season - in September.
In subsequent years, a similar mowing rhythm is maintained. However, it should be remembered that the first mowing should be carried out no later than mid-May, and the last no later than September 15-20.
On parterre and sports lawns, the requirements are different: it is necessary to form a carpet from thick, solid shoots located at the very surface of the earth with the smallest leaves.
There is a minimum cutting height for lawn plants below which mowing is unacceptable. The bent grass can withstand cutting to a height of 1 cm. The cutting height of 2 cm is suitable for perennial ryegrass, bluegrass and annual, as well as for mixed grass stands of these grasses with creeping clover. Lawn varieties of meadow bluegrass and red fescue should not be mowed below 2-3 cm from the ground. Horse and semi-upper grasses are well preserved when they are mown at a height of 4-5 cm.
The first mowing is carried out when the height of the grass stand reaches 8-10 cm, the height of the first spring and last autumn mowing is 4 cm. Each subsequent mowing is carried out at a height of the grass stand no more than 8-10 cm to a height of 2-3 cm. In a favorable, moderately warm and in wet weather, the lawn is mowed every other day.
In all subsequent years, the cutting regimes are similar.
Fertilizing lawn grass stands. Fertilization of lawn grass stands provides an optimal nutritional regimen for plants. On the lawn, fertilizers are always applied superficially, without any incorporation into the soil. It is necessary to distribute fertilizers evenly over the entire area. Without fertilization, the growth of grass stops by the middle of summer, while the life expectancy of the lawn is significantly reduced. Fertilizers should not be applied over the growing grass stand, but immediately after the start of regrowth in the spring, as soon as the lawn begins to turn green, or after the next mowing. In dry weather, watering must be carried out after feeding.
For the first time a year, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in early spring, by the beginning of plant regrowth after overwintering - April 15-25 at a dose of 20-30 kg / ha (ai). This is a stimulating dose, it provides an increase in the growth rate of plants. The specified initial dose is valid for 10-15 days.
The next application of nitrogen fertilizers - after the first mowing - in the first half of May. All subsequent top dressing is recommended to be carried out every 7-10 days at a dose of 10-15 kg / ha (by ae).
The last application of nitrogen fertilizers on grass stands is practiced on August 20-25.
Top dressing with phosphorus and potash mineral fertilizers is mandatory on all types of lawns and grass coverings annually. They are introduced during the growing season in 1-2 doses, sometimes three times. The best diet for lawn plants will add up if about 2 /3 the annual rate should be applied in early spring (on grass stands - together with nitrogen fertilizers), and the last third - in autumn, at the end of September, which will provide a better overwintering of both cereals and legumes.
With an intensive nitrogen fertilization regime, it is advisable to apply phosphorus and potash fertilizers not only in spring and autumn, but also in the middle of summer, dividing the annual rate into three equal parts. Average annual norms for forest-meadow: 40-60 kg R, 05 and 80-120 kg K20 per 1 ha.
It is useful to apply microfertilizers annually in spring before the beginning of regrowth of lawn plants by foliar dressing in aqueous solutions, up to 300-400 l / ha, regardless of soil parameters.
The following dosages can be used: molybdenum in the form of ammonium molybdate - 0.2 kg / ha, cobalt in the form of cobalt sulfate - 0.2 kg / ha, boron in the form of boric acid - 0.1 kg / ha, copper in the form of copper sulfate - 0.2 gq / ha.
Adding soil and other materials to the surface of the lawn. Backfilling should be done in early spring, in sagging places and in places with scattered grass as needed, and on the entire surface of the lawn - once every 3-5 years ( Fig. 302).
If the filling is carried out with organic fertilizers and mixtures, this operation is called re-grinder surfaces, if soil is used for backfilling, this is grounding.
Sometimes sand is spread over the surface. This improves the water regime in the surface layer of the soil (especially on heavy soils). This operation is called sanding. The sand should be coarse, the application rate is 2 t / ha. Sanding is carried out in the fall, when the plants are still vegetating, remaining green. As a result of using this technique, water better penetrates from the surface deep into the soil, its top layer does not become waterlogged and dries out faster. As a result, the conditions for plant growth are improved. Typical application rates: 10-20 to 30 t / ha.
Irrigation of the lawn. Watering the lawn should be daily, skipping, of course, rainy days. Irrigation is carried out in the morning or in the evening, and on hot days (at a temperature of 25 ° C and above) - in the morning and in the evening. Watering should be abundant enough, but not create puddles on the lawn, which indicates overmoistening. It is necessary that watering ensures that the soil is soaked to a depth of 10 cm.
At air temperatures below 10 ° C, watering is ineffective, as well as watering with cold water (about 10 ° C). On lawns with heavy clay soils, it is advisable to pierce the soil to a depth of 10 cm before watering.
Providing bright green color to the leaves of lawn grasses. There are special techniques to make your lawn look even more decorative. So, English experts recommend using inkstone. Treating them with it will not only improve the color of the lawn, but will reduce the infection of plants with pathogenic fungi and curb the spread of mosses.
Iron sulfate must be pre-dried or calcined to reduce the water content. After grinding, it looks like a gritty flour. The introduction of ferrous sulfate in this form gives the lawn a bright green color. Do not use this product in too large quantities - 60 kg / ha is enough. Introduce as needed up to 3-5 times during the growing season.
Rolling the surface of the lawn carpet. The use of rollers is necessary when the surface of the lawns swells, which is sometimes observed after winter. Do not use the roller on too wet soil. The mass of the roller should be 100-150 kg.It is not recommended to carry out this operation often, since as a result of rolling, the soil under the lawn is unnecessarily compacted, which violates its air regime.
Sod piercing. Sod piercing is also called soil aeration, or sod aeration. This measure helps to improve the air supply of the soil, increase its air and water permeability. After such an operation, the excess moisture of precipitation quickly penetrates deep into the soil, and with irrigation it becomes available to the roots of plants "?> Fig. 303, 304).
Sod piercing is only necessary on heavy, cohesive, clayey soils, as well as on sports turf. It is useful to carry it out in early spring, after overwintering the lawn, when the wettest places on it are clearly visible, then this work should be repeated before watering and in autumn with heavy rainfall. The piercing depth is 10 cm.
Lawn boundary marking, or fertigation. Fertigation - registration or designation of the boundaries of the lawn. It is imperative to mark the boundaries of the lawn. This work has to be repeated almost every spring, and sometimes several times during the summer. Currently, there are special devices for this.
In the spring, it is necessary to comb the lawn at the earliest possible date, and in the fall to regularly rake the fallen leaves of trees and shrubs.
Lawn repair. In practice, two main types of damaged lawn can be encountered: 1) grass stand in an unsatisfactory condition throughout the entire area of the site; 2) grass stand in an unsatisfactory condition in some places.
In the first case, it is necessary to sow the lawn grasses, while correcting all the errors of improper soil preparation. The surface of the soil on the lawn is slightly loosened, fertilizers are applied, the soil is leveled and rolled. Lawn grasses of the type that prevails in the lawn herbage are sown (if the choice of grasses was correct when creating the lawn, otherwise the best varieties for this type of lawn are sown). The sown seeds are sprinkled with a thin layer of sand. Immediately after sowing the seeds, the existing herbage is mowed to provide the best conditions for the germination of the sown seeds. Watering should be provided if necessary. In the future, the same activities are carried out as in the first year of the formation of the lawn grass stand.
In the second case, it is necessary to cultivate the soil on the damaged area and overseed the seeds of the species that prevails in the given grass stand, otherwise the color of the repaired area will differ from the main color of the lawn.
Always when repairing a lawn, even in small areas, mineral fertilizers are applied before sowing at the rate of 30 kg P-, 05 and 50 kg K20 per 1 ha. You cannot walk on the restored areas for 2-3 months. It is also possible to repair the lawn using the closure method.
Protection of the lawn from weeds. Weeds spoil the appearance of the lawn. The presence of weeds on the lawn indicates insufficient or complete lack of lawn care. When the soil is compacted and depleted, the sown herbs are irrevocably displaced by various types of plantain, dandelion. On dry and poor soils, knotweed, sorrel, and cinquefoil appear. Young lawns located in damp places are inhabited by woodlice (C ^> Fig. 305).
The main source of weeds contamination of the lawn is the soil, which contains large reserves of seeds. The seeds of many weeds can persist in the soil for years, even decades, without losing germination. They germinate when favorable conditions are created for this. The seeds of many weeds are characterized by prolonged germination times; their seedlings can appear during the entire growing season. Another source of weed seeds is organic fertilizers such as manure (composting partially solves this problem). The soil is also clogged due to birds, animals, wind, water. We list the most common types of weeds.
Bindweed highlander (Poligonum convolvulus). Annual. Grows well in moist soils, is found everywhere. In spring, with warm and humid weather, mass shoots appear. Taproot, stem branching from the base, curly or recumbent, up to 100 cm long. The plant is prolific: gives up to 65 thous.
fruit nuts. Seeds remain viable for up to 6-7 years; they germinate from a depth of no more than 8-10 cm. Up to 1500 shoots can appear on 1 m 2.
Highlander pochechuyny (Poligonum persicaha). Annual. Distributed everywhere, especially in humid areas. Seedlings appear in early spring, seed germination temperature is 4-6 ° C. Taproot, straight stem, branched, height 80-100 cm. The plant can form up to 2000 nuts. Seeds germinate from a depth of no more than 6-7 cm and remain viable for more than three years.
Highlander bird, or knotweed (Poligonum aviculare). Annual. Most often found on compacted soils. Seedlings appear in early spring, the minimum temperature for seed germination is 1-2 ° C, the optimum temperature is 10-12 ° C. Taproot, branched stem, glabrous, up to 40 cm high. One plant produces more than 5 thousand nuts. Seeds germinate in the soil from a depth of 8-10 cm, retaining their viability for 5 years.
Field mustard (Sinapis arvensis). Annual. Distributed everywhere on loose and fertile lands. The increased acidity of the soil does not tolerate. It grows rapidly, especially in the initial period of development. Taproot, penetrates deeply into the soil (up to 100-150 cm), strongly branches. The stem is straight, branched, height 30-100 cm. The plant forms up to 32 thousand seeds, which germinate well in the light and in the soil from a depth of 6-8 cm at temperatures from 2-4 to 42-44 ° C and retain their viability up to 11 years.
Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis). Annual. It is found everywhere, prefers loose, fertile soils. Taproot. Stem erect, glabrous, branched, height 20-60 cm. Leaves are alternate, on long petioles, waxy bloom gives the plant a bluish-green color. The minimum temperature for seed germination is 6-8 ° C, the optimal temperature is 18-20 ° C. The maximum fertility of one plant is 15 thousand seeds, which can germinate from a depth of no more than 10-11 cm.
Mary white (Chenopodium album). Annual. A vicious weed, it adapts well to unfavorable environmental conditions, it is found everywhere. Seedlings appear from early spring to autumn, frost-resistant. Seeds germinate from a depth of 8-10 cm. The stem is straight, strongly branched, reaches a height of 150 cm. The leaves are ovate, diamond-shaped, unevenly toothed, petiolate, pale green. The stems and leaves are covered with a mealy bloom. The plant is very fertile, gives 200-700 thousand seeds, which remain viable for 8 years.
Field thug (Cirsium arvense). Perennial. Difficult-to-speed weed. Distributed everywhere, prefers fertile, aerated soils. A vicious and burdensome weed in the Non-Black Earth Zone. The root system is branched, on vertical and horizontal roots there are vegetative renewal buds, which are capable of germinating from a depth of 60-170 cm. It easily propagates by root suckers. Seedlings appear in early spring. The minimum temperature for seed germination is 4–6 ° C. Freshly ripened seeds have a high germination capacity, their viability lasts 3-4 years.
Stinging nettle, or stinging (Utrica dionica). Perennial. A common weed plant, herbaceous, with long creeping rhizomes, giving numerous shoots. Stems are straight, 70-100 cm high. The whole plant is covered with stinging hairs. The leaves are petiolate, opposite, ovate-oblong, pointed, large-serrate at the edges. The maximum fertility is up to 22 thousand nuts. The optimum temperature for germination is 20-22 ° C. Seedlings appear in April-May, germination depth does not exceed 1-2 cm.
Goose cinquefoil (Potentilla anserina). Perennial. It is found everywhere. Low-growing (height 10-20 cm) herbaceous, perennial plant, the main stem is shortened, forms a rosette of basal leaves, from the axils of which numerous, thin, long, creeping shoots develop, easily rooting at the nodes. Leaves are compound, intermittent-pinnate, on petioles, leaflets are oblong, serrate at the edges, covered with soft hairs. Flowers are solitary, on long pedicels, light yellow. The fruit is a multi-nut. Blooms in June-August. The root is spindle-visible-thickened, branched. The maximum fertility is up to 300 thousand nuts, which almost do not sprout immediately after ripening, but germinate the next year after overwintering from a depth of no more than 2-3 cm.
Sod meadow, or pike (Deshampsia cespitosa). Perennial. A weedy plant, widespread in poor, dense and acidic soils. Mainly distributed by seed. The seeds have high vitality, germinate quickly, therefore they do not accumulate in the soil. Causes great harm to the lawn, forming bumps 5-7 cm high. Intensive mowing promotes the growth of bushes.
Buttercup caustic, or night blindness (Ranunculus acris). Perennial. It is found everywhere, prefers damp places. The plant is poisonous. Stem erect or ascending, glabrous or covered with appressed hairs, height 20-70 cm. Leaves are palmate, narrow lobules. The flowers are about 2 cm in diameter. Seedlings from nuts and shoots from root buds appear in early spring. The maximum fertility of one plant is up to 76 nuts, fresh seeds have a low germination capacity and are able to germinate from a depth of no more than 1.5-2.0 cm.
Common mother-and-stepmother (Tussilagofarfara). Perennial 10-30 cm high. Grows everywhere, settles on damp, clayey, sometimes on barren bare rocky soils. The root system is in the form of brittle, scaly rhizomes that penetrate the soil to a depth of 1 m. The stem is straight, pubescent, covered with leafy scales. Leaves on shortened vegetative shoots, basal - angular-toothed. One of the earliest flowering plants. Seedlings and shoots appear in early spring. The maximum fertility is up to 19 thousand seeds, which have a high germination capacity and germinate from a depth of up to 2 cm.
Big plantain (Plantago major). Perennial. The plant is 10-30 cm high. It tolerates strong soil compaction, prefers waterlogging. The root system is fibrous. The stem is shortened. The leaves are alternate, ovoid, forming a basal rosette. The flowers are light brown, in dense, spike-shaped inflorescences. On fertile soils, one plant can form up to 30 peduncles. Seedlings appear in early spring from a depth of 2-3 cm. The maximum fecundity is 320 thousand seeds, which remain viable for 5-7 years.
Common runny (Aegopodium podagraria). Perennial. The plant is 40-100 cm tall. Distributed everywhere, prefers loose fertile soils with sufficient moisture, tolerates shading. The rhizomes are long, thin, allowing the plant to grow rapidly and reproduce vegetatively. The weed is very vigorous, when it is weeded out, it renews itself many times. On the rhizome of one plant there can be up to 6 thousand buds that can give a new plant. Leaves are basal, on long petioles, trifoliate, toothed. The growing season begins early.
Control measures. Most weeds cannot tolerate shearing. After mowing, the grass shrubs better, suppressing the development of weeds. Regular watering and mowing are the simplest weed control measures. The most viable plants should be removed with special tools (shovels, blade knives, etc.). It should be remembered that insufficiently deep pruning does not destroy, but only weakens the weed. As a rule, this event has to be repeated more than once, pruning newly regrown plants.
Currently, there are selective herbicides that suppress only dicotyledonous plants.
Protection of the lawn from disease. Brown spot. It is found everywhere. First, elongated brown-brown spots appear; in wet weather, a faint dark olive bloom of fungal sporulation forms on them. Subsequently, drying of the affected leaves is observed. The disease can also manifest itself on seedlings in the form of yellowing and deformation of leaves against the background of general oppression of plants. It often leads to the death of seedlings, the emergence of root rot in adult plants. Plant debris and seeds are the main sources of infection, with infested seeds having a low germination rate.
Powdery mildew appears on all aboveground parts of plants in years when dry hot weather alternates with rainy. A whitish, powdery bloom appears on the leaves of plants, which thickens over time. Later, as a result of the formation of a large number of fruiting bodies, in which there are spores, the plaque acquires a dirty white or brownish color. The pathogen remains on the affected plants. Bluegrass suffers most from this disease.
Rust diseases. They appear mainly on leaves and stems in the form of pustules (pads) of a rusty-brown or almost black color. With severe damage, the leaves turn yellow and wither prematurely. The causative agents of the disease can persist on affected plants, weeds, plant debris, or on intermediate hosts.
Fusarium, or snow mold. The causative agent is a mushroom of the genus Fusarium. The disease most often manifests itself in the fall or spring after a snowy winter. Spots of yellowing grass appear on the lawn, which over time increase in diameter up to 30 cm and often close together, forming large bald patches. In humid weather, fluffy white or pinkish mildew may develop around the edges of the affected area.
Ophiobolus. A very dangerous, but, fortunately, a rare fungal disease. It affects various types of fescue, especially in the absence of feeding, poor soil drainage and excessive lime application. It manifests itself in the form of a small depression on the surface of the lawn, which increases in size over the years and can reach several tens of centimeters. The grass loses color along the edges of the depression, weeds begin to grow in the middle of the affected area, which is a characteristic sign of the disease.
Summer honey fungus, or witch's rings. This is a fungus that forms rings on the surface of the lawn, the diameter of which increases over time. If the grass does not lose its color as a result of the activity of the fungus, no special measures are required. You can pierce the soil in a circle from the outside of the mycelium - this will delay the development of the mycelium. In case of severe damage, two rings of darker grass are formed, between which a strip of dead plants forms. Mosses settle on the bare soil. Fighting the disease is very difficult. You can treat the affected area with a solution of iron sulfate (10 g / l per 1 m 2), but the most effective method is to remove the affected soil to a depth of 30 cm and replace it with a new one.
Protection of the lawn from freezing. Freezing is a fairly common cause of lawn damage and death. It is observed under the action of low temperatures in years with a sharp transition from autumn to winter. In such years, lawn plants do not have time to harden and die under the influence of frost. It can also occur during severe winters with little snow on elevated bare places, on clay soils that have been waterlogged since autumn, and during the formation of an ice crust.
At the beginning of winter, grasses are more frost-hardy and can withstand frosts up to 25-30 ° C in spring, frost resistance drops and even a temperature of -8-10 ° C can damage and sometimes destroy them. A lawn covered with a thick layer of snow does not suffer from freezing even in very severe frosts. It is recommended to carry out snow retention, snow compaction at the beginning of spring thawing, which delays its rapid melting.
Protection of the lawn from drying out.Damping out is the thinning or complete death of perennial grasses during wintering from a whole range of factors. One of the reasons for this phenomenon is the depletion of plants, which, being under the snow, continue their vital activity. This phenomenon is observed when snow falls on non-frozen soil. Having exhausted the reserves of sugars due to more intense respiration at elevated temperatures, without receiving water and food from the soil, while experiencing a lack of light under the snow, the plant begins to starve.
Resistance to unfavorable factors decreases, as a result of which individual parts die off or the whole plant dies. The weakened lawn overgrown in the fall, covered with a thick layer of snow, is especially affected. The formation of ice on the surface of the lawn can also lead to damping.
In most cases, the death of grasses from damping is observed: in low places, where a lot of moisture accumulates since autumn, and in winter - snow on moist clay soils, which freeze shallowly in thickened crops with excessive nitrogen fertilization, often accompanies the disease fusarium (snow mold). Preventive measures: timely sowing, accelerating snow melting in low places, sowing varieties that are resistant to damping.
Protection of the lawn from the lack of micronutrients. Symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies are rare. This phenomenon is usually associated with the presence of one or more conditions: alkaline soil with natural or introduced excess lime content of organic soil abundant irrigation of compacted soil.
Lack of iron. The leaves become pale green or yellowish in color. The reasons leading to a lack of iron in the soil are as follows: high acidity, excess content of phosphorus, aluminum, manganese and zinc, high content of organic matter, the use of lime sands to change the properties of the soil (when preparing the soil for a lawn). Preventive measures: for correction, you can make iron preparations, the effect of which is manifested within 2-8 weeks. Agrotechnical measures are more effective: acidification of the soil against the background of a slight decrease in root nutrition.
Lack of manganese observed on alkaline soils and with excessive leaching of acidic soils. Symptoms are similar to those of iron deficiency: chlorosis, more often on the intervascular tissue than on the veins that remain green, small dead spots appear on the leaves.
Zinc deficiency also caused by the alkaline properties of the soil. Symptoms: stunted growth, dark leaves and drying out.
Lack of copper observed on alkaline soils and leached sands. Symptoms: bluish discoloration of the tips of young leaves and their subsequent death.
Lack of molybdenum causes chlorosis of older leaves.
Boron deficiency manifests itself in a weak color and slow growth of grasses.
If there is any doubt about the sufficient amount of trace elements, then an analysis of the plant material is carried out.
Protection of the lawn from pests. Mass distribution of insect pests on the lawn is very rare. Below are the most common lawn pests.
Wireworms - larvae of click beetles. Adult beetles are dark or brown in color, larvae are yellow or brown, have a solid body with three pairs of legs. The larvae gnaw seeds in the soil, gnaw at the roots of cereals, which can lead to the death of young plants and seedlings. Control measures: winter or early spring sowing, when the larvae are deep in the soil, timely harvesting of cut grass from the lawn, fertilization during sowing, dressing of seeds before sowing, deep plowing of the soil before sowing.
May beetle larvae. The flat curved larvae of May beetle eat grass roots in spring and summer. Damaged grass turns brown and is easily pulled out of the ground. Control measures: Special control measures may only be required on sandy soils. Usually, during the spring rolling of the lawn, a significant part of the larvae die.
Larvae of long-legged mosquitoes can seriously damage the lawn in an area with poorly drained soil, especially after a wet fall. Centipedes lay their eggs in the turf in late summer. In the fall, larvae hatch, which do the most harm, feeding on the roots and stems of plants in the spring. As a result, spots of yellowed and brown grass appear on the lawn. Control measures: airing the lawn.
Earthworms. Earthworms do not damage turf. Many types of earthworms are beneficial by making holes in the soil. But those of them who spoil the lawn with heaps of their waste products do more harm than good. Piles are dangerous because they serve as a refuge for weed seeds. In addition, a large number of earthworms attract moles to the lawn. Control measures: always remove mowed grass, heaps from the lawn, after they dry, sweep them from the lawn. And also every year to mulch the soil on the lawn with peat (to increase acidity).
Moles. At night, tunnels are dug, from which traces appear on the surface of the lawn in the form of grooves and depressions, as well as heaps of earth. Control measures: set traps (in the main hole without disturbing the inhabitant), as well as deterrent devices. The heaps left by the moles should be leveled with a rake in a timely manner, and the moves should be rolled up and, if necessary, sowed the grass.
Ants. Ants usually live on sandy soils and are not as dangerous to the lawn as earthworms, but spoil the view and interfere with mowing. The lawn is usually home to yellow turf ants, which can damage the roots of grasses, making them turn yellow. Control measures: before mowing the lawn, level the nests with a broom. If there are a lot of ants, use an ant repellent.
Mineral bees. They live in the soil on the lawn or under the paths. When arranging a nest, they lay the excavated soil in a conical heap with a characteristic depression in the middle. Control measures: Sweep the piles with a broom before mowing.
Birds. Birds on a mature lawn are harmless. They pose a danger to a newly sown lawn. Control measures: scare off.
- 1. List the main methods for caring for lawn grass.
- 2. The main weeds and methods of controlling them.
- 3. List the most harmful diseases and methods of dealing with them.
- 4. What does the cutting frequency depend on?
Timely abundant watering is one of the main conditions for the successful cultivation of persimmons. Watering the plant begins from late May - early June. Irrigation continues until fruit ripening, which usually occurs in September - October.
In the fall, watering is reduced so that the shoots have time to ripen by winter.
You should also not get carried away with watering and "drown" persimmons. Excess moisture leads to waterlogging of the soil, which is harmful to the plant. It has an increased growth of shoots and roots, and the fruits receive less moisture and nutrients, as a result of which they fall off.
The trunks of persimmon are regularly cleared of weeds and loosened. Loosening is especially important if the persimmon grows on heavy clay soils.
I cut annual persimmon seedlings to a height of 80-90 cm from the root collar. The lateral shoots that appear after this are left as skeletal branches. There should be 4-5 in total. The lower skeletal branch should grow at a height of 50-60 cm from the root collar.
The next year, the skeletal branches are cut to a length of 35-40 cm. At this age, persimmons can already enter the fruiting period. After its start, the persimmon should not be greatly shortened. The goal of pruning fruit-bearing trees should be to produce a sufficient number of new annual shoots where fruit will be produced.
In addition, sanitary pruning is carried out every year. If there is a noticeable slowdown in shoot growth, rejuvenating pruning is performed. Note that the trees do not bear fruit in the year of this pruning variety.
Preparing for winter
The wood of young annual seedlings does not always have time to ripen by winter. Therefore, in early August, they pinch the growth point. To support the tree, it is fed with potash fertilizers.
After the leaves have fallen off and with the onset of light frosts, the weak and least cold-resistant plants are covered with "breathing" materials. Do not use plastic wrap. Spunbond (agrofibre, lutrasil), cardboard, paper, natural plain light fabric, corn stalks, reeds are well suited.
When planting a seedling, fertilizer is not applied under it. Otherwise, the trees will grow too intensively, and the shoots will not ripen by winter. You can feed the trees only at the end of summer with potash fertilizers, which contribute to the early ripening of wood.
Dry dressings should not be left on the surface of the earth: in the air they quickly decompose and become ineffective. Fertilizers are embedded in the soil to a depth of 5-10 cm.
The full rate of fertilizer begins to be applied after the persimmon begins to bear fruit. On rich nutrient soils, fertilizers begin to be planted under 8-year-old trees, on poor soils - under 5-6-year-old trees. Every year the plant needs mineral and organic fertilizers. From organic matter, humus and bird droppings are introduced for autumn digging. Of the mineral fertilizers, only acidic, ballless fertilizers are used, which do not accumulate salt in the soil. These include ammophos, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate.
For example, in the spring, complete fertilization is applied: 2-2.2 parts of nitrogen, 2 parts of phosphorus, 1 part of potassium.
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