Onions are among the most unpretentious garden crops. Nevertheless, to obtain good yields, onion beds must be fed with mineral and organic fertilizers.
The responsiveness of onions to fertilizers
When fertilized, onions immediately respond with increased growth. Most of all, he likes minerals, which have different effects on the development of onions. Nitrogen promotes the growth of greenery and bulbs. Potassium compounds intensify metabolic processes, provide resistance to temperature changes and improve the appearance of the bulbs and their keeping quality. Phosphorus increases the disease resistance of the onion and stimulates its growth.
Onion feeding calendar
Top dressing of the onion must correspond to the stages of its development. It is not easy to name the exact days and months of top dressing, since onions can be sown at a variety of times: in early spring (March), when the soil warms up to 10-12 aboutC (for the temperate zone - the second half of April) and when the soil warms up to 15 aboutC (early May).
- The first feeding is carried out 14–16 days after planting, when the bulbs germinate and the feathers reach a height of 4–5 cm. Nitrogen fertilizers are used, which are scattered dry over the soil surface.
- The second feeding is carried out 20-22 days after the first - phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied.
- The third feeding is carried out in the summer, when the bulb reaches a size of 5 cm.Use ash, superphosphate or Effekton.
Fertilizing onions with minerals
Mineral dressing helps to quickly saturate the onion with the necessary trace elements
Table: the use of mineral dressings
Trace elements are added in the form of ready-made compositions, for example, Nano-Mineralis (contains about 10 elements). It is used for foliar top dressing when 2-3 leaves appear at the rate of 30-50 ml / ha (pre-dissolve 100 g per bucket of water).
Feeding onions with organic
Organic fertilizers are also a necessary component of onion nutrition.
Wood ash contains, in addition to organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium. They bring it in before planting the onion (0.5 kg per 1 m2). For feeding and protection from pests, the beds are pollinated in the spring at the rate of 100 g / m2 or poured with infusion (0.25 kg of ash is poured with a bucket of hot water and insisted for 3 days).
Top dressing from ash - video
From my experience of growing onions, I can note that ash helps to increase the resistance of the onion to changes in weather and stimulates the growth of strong feathers and large bulbs. It is very useful to enrich the ash with nettle-calendula infusion (I fill the bucket three-quarters with chopped herbs and fill it with water, I insist for 3-5 days). In the finished infusion I dissolve 100 g of ash and 10-15 g of laundry soap. I spray the plants with a mixture in cloudy weather or after sunset. In addition to saturating the beds with microelements and improving the structure of the soil, cultivation helps to scare off onion flies and nematodes, as well as prevent powdery mildew disease.
Cooking nettle infusion - video
Bird droppings are very useful for onions (dissolve with water 1:20), add it when the onion feathers reach a length of 10 cm, and then repeat after 2 weeks. You can use rotted manure (1 kg is poured with 10 liters of water and insisted for a week, then diluted with water 1:10 and consumed 10 l / m2).
To feed onions from manure, you must prepare a solution
Using folk remedies for feeding onions
Folk feeding remedies often work no worse than conventional fertilizers.
One of the most effective folk remedies is baker's yeast. Yeast can be used both fresh and dry. Put 1 kg of fresh or 10 g of dry yeast and 40 g of sugar on a bucket of water, and after the start of active fermentation, dilute with warm water in a ratio of 1: 5.
Before use, the yeast starter culture is diluted with water
It is recommended to add ash to the yeast infusion or introduce yeast after pollination of the soil with ash (200 g per 1 m2). They are introduced into the rows one month after planting, and then twice more after 2 weeks.
Yeast as fertilizer - video
For spring feeding onions, you can use ammonia, which contributes to:
- feather extension (dissolve 1 teaspoon in 1 liter of water);
- anti-yellowing of feathers (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water);
- an increase in heads (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Top dressing is carried out no more than 1 time in 14-15 days.
The use of ammonia for feeding - video
Hydrogen peroxide is considered very effective, which is a growth stimulant: 3% peroxide (2 tablespoons) is dissolved in 1 liter of water and the beds are watered once a week.
Hydrogen peroxide destroys pathogenic bacteria in the soil
To increase the yield of onions, you can use eggshells, which are 95% calcium. Ground shells are added to the soil when planting onions (30 g / m2). During the formation of the head, a liquid top dressing is prepared (5 ground shells are poured into 3 liters of hot water and infused for a week), before addition, they are diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3.
To feed the onions, the eggshells must be chopped
Features of spring feeding of winter onions
Winter onions are fed according to a slightly different scheme. The first feeding (with nitrogen) is carried out immediately when the spring feather appears. Ready-made preparations (Vegeta) or a mixture of superphosphate with urea and potassium chloride (proportion 3: 2: 1), dose 5 mg / m are suitable2.
After 2-3 weeks, fertilizing is repeated, this time with nitrophos (40 g per bucket of water) or Agricola-2. Solution consumption is 5 l / m2.
The third feeding is carried out when the bulbs reach a diameter of 3–3.5 cm. Superphosphate dissolved in a bucket of water (40–45 g) is watered on the beds (10 l / m2).
The variety of onion feeding options allows you to choose the best option. With the correct selection and use of various mineral and organic fertilizers, you can get a decent harvest.
Hello! My name is Maria, 40 years old. My main job is teaching technical subjects.
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How to feed onions in spring
Onions have been grown in Russia for a long time. The culture is not too demanding on the composition of the soil, but it will not grow without systematic fertilization. To get a rich harvest, you need to know how to feed onions in spring for active development.
Natural soil reserves are insufficient to provide plants with a balanced diet, so gardeners should fertilize the soil regularly. Onions absorb many nutrients, quickly depleting the earth. For full development during the growing season, at least 2-3 dressings are carried out.
- nitrogen - required at the beginning of the season, responsible for growth
- phosphorus - is needed throughout the entire life cycle, stimulates the development of the root system. They should feed the onion cultivated per head
- potassium - the need for the element increases in the second half of summer during the formation of bulbs.
Scientists have found that when growing 30 tons of onions per hectare, 81, 39 and 75 kg of NPK substances plus 38 kg of lime are consumed.
In case of power shortage:
- growth inhibited
- increased susceptibility to diseases and pests
- leaves lose their rich color, become covered with brown spots
- feathers become thinner, curl, spread on the ground.
Fertilizers are applied in a timely manner, without waiting for the appearance of these signs.
On newly reclaimed soils, it is difficult to identify the deficiency of elements. In this case, the reaction of the plants is monitored and the onions are fertilized taking into account the symptoms that have manifested.
A culture planted on a fertile and properly prepared land, it is enough to feed only in spring - there will be enough food for the whole year.
How, when and how to feed onions for a good harvest: timing, schemes, fertilizers
In order to properly feed winter and spring onions in the open field, it is necessary to observe the timing and scheme of fertilization. This way you get the most out of it. Spring-summer feeding can be divided into 2 stages, more on this below.
note ! Top dressing of onions in the open field is done at the root. That is, the liquid solution is poured into the ground.
The best way to fertilize plants is to make shallow grooves next to the planting rows, and pour the solution into the grooves.
If the onions are not planted in rows, then just feed them in the form of standard watering.
The first feeding of onions with nitrogen fertilizers
At the beginning of the growing season, the bulb uses the nutrients in it to distill greens (feathers). But after forcing and the emergence of shoots, when the height of the greenery is about 15-20 cm, the bulb will begin to draw nutrients from the soil.
Timing of the first feeding of onions: when the height of the green feather reaches 15-20 centimeters... This period occurs in late spring (May) or early summer (June), depending on planting time and growing region. At this stage, the plant needs nitrogen, it is necessary for building the aboveground part, namely greenery. The procedure is especially important if the feathers are thin, light, yellow.
What nitrogen fertilizers can you feed onions:
- Mineral nitrogen fertilizers:
- Urea (or Urea)- to prepare the solution, you need to dilute 10 grams of the substance in 10 liters of water (one standard bucket). Urea is best used in warm weatherwhen the air temperature is above 15-20 degrees Celsius, in such conditions it is better absorbed.
- Ammonium nitrate- 15 grams of the substance is diluted in ten liters of water. Ammonium nitrate is best used in cooler weather (below 15 degrees), since in such conditions, unlike urea, it is better absorbed.
- Organic nitrogen fertilizers:
- Mullein - 1 cup (200 milliliters) is diluted in 10 liters of water.
- Chicken droppings - to prepare the solution, you need to dilute 2 glasses (400 ml) in ten liters of water.
- Herbal infusion.To prepare the solution, you need to mix organic components in certain proportions. Fill a volumetric barrel or bath (volume 200 liters) 1/3 with nettles (or other weeds), 1 bucket of humus, half a bucket of sifted wood ash, 1 kilogram of yeast, 3 liters of whey. Then the container is filled with water up to the top, cover the mass with a bag on top (it is desirable that a bulk bag be spread inside the container). In this case, the barrel or tub should stand in the sun. Then you need to leave the mass for 14 days to infuse, while you need to stir periodically (once every few days). Before use, you need to dilute 2 liters of herbal infusion in 8 liters of water.
- Folk remedies:
- Ammonia (10% ammonia solution)... Such nitrogen fertilization is not effective, because the nitrogen concentration is very low, it is better to use urea or ammonium nitrate. But nevertheless, if you are interested in this folk remedy, you can apply it. remember, that ammonia is toxic when evaporated, therefore, the solution can only be prepared on the street, using means of protection (gloves, glasses), it can also be used only outdoors, not in a greenhouse! Ammonia evaporates very quickly, so you must first extinguish the ammonia solution (for this you need to use 5 tablespoons of 9% vinegar for 1 tablespoon of 10% ammonia solution). And then dilute in ten liters of water.
Note! If the soil on the bed is poor enough and was not refueled before planting, then it is better to use complex fertilizers for the first feeding, for example, Nitroammofosk (contains nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus in equal parts), Fertika Lux (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, as well as useful trace elements ).
The second feeding of onions with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers
Timing of the second onion feeding: at the beginning of the formation of the bulb, 3-4 weeks after the first fertilization (that is, about a month after the greens reach a height of 15-20 cm). At this moment, the formation of the bulb occurs, and it needs potassium and phosphorus, these macronutrients play a major role in the formation of bulb size. As a rule, the procedure takes place in early or mid June. During this growing season, nitrogen fertilizers cannot be used, otherwise they will negatively affect the ripening of the bulbs and keeping quality (that is, they will reduce the shelf life).
With the 2nd feeding, you can fertilize the onion with the following phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizers:
- Superphosphate (phosphorus) and Potassium sulphate (potassium), respectively, 20 and 10 grams are diluted in 10 liters of water. After complete dissolution of the granules, the plants are watered.
- But superphosphate dissolves in water for a long time, then you can use Potassium monophosphate (contains both phosphorus and potassium), 10 grams of the substance (2/3 tablespoons) is diluted in ten liters of water.
- You can also cook extract from Superphosphate: 100 grams of the substance must be dissolved in 1 liter of boiling water, left to infuse for a day, stirring regularly, after insisting, you need to mix the extract with 10 liters of water. Also, in order for the plant to receive potash feed, add 10 grams to the hood Potassium sulfate.
As an organic fertilizer, you can use wood ash (a source of potassium, but also contains a small amount of phosphorus). To prepare the solution, dilute 200 grams of ash (one glass) in ten liters of water, leave for 48 hours, stir regularly. In addition to liquid top dressing, dry ash can be scattered over the garden bed before watering. During the growing season, you can feed the onion with this substance several times.
In addition to all of the above options, you can use special fertilizers intended for a given crop, for example, organic fertilizer for onions and garlic from Fasco or Fertik, Agricola for onions and garlic. These drugs can be used both in the spring and in the summer.
How to feed strawberries in spring for a good harvest: suitable fertilizers
Choosing the right fertilizer is critical to your efficiency and your goal of getting a big, tasty crop. Let's look at what you can "feed" berry bushes in the spring and summer.
First feeding in early spring... The first time (immediately when the soil warms up to 8-10 degrees), you need to make nitrogen fertilizers... For example, you can add the following substances:
- Mineral fertilizers:
- Urea (urea).To prepare the solution, dissolve 10-15 grams of urea in 10 liters of water (standard bucket). Consumption rate: the resulting solution per 1 square meter.
- Ammonium nitrate... 15-20 g is diluted in 10 liters of water, the consumption is the same as in the first case.
- Nitroammofosk.Or you can just immediately apply a complex fertilizer, it contains equal parts of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. 20-30 grams per 10 liters of water.
- Organic fertilizers:
- Mullein infusion (cow dung is diluted in water in a ratio of 1:40).
- Chicken infusiondroppings (it is necessary to dilute 1 part of the substance with 20 parts of pure water).
- You can also apply green infusion(nettle infusion), but in early spring, as a rule, such greens are not yet in the garden, so this option is difficult to implement.
Advice! In addition to all the preparations described with macronutrients (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus), it is very useful to apply fertilizers containing trace elements. For example, you can feed with the preparation Potassium Humate or Humate +7 Iodine. Such a preparation also promotes better absorption of mineral fertilizers, therefore it is advisable to use it simultaneously with other mineral preparations.
It is useful to do this not only in this case, but also during the second and third feeding.
The second (during the budding period)
For the second feeding, which is performed during the formation of flower buds, you need to apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (preferably with a low nitrogen content), for example:
- You can combine two drugs: Superphosphate(10-20 grams) andPotassium sulphate (10-20 g) per 10 liters of water. Top dressing rate: half or one liter of solution for one bush.
- Instead of regular superphosphate, you can take Double Superphosphate, only in a lower dosage of 10-15 grams.
- Instead of potassium sulfate, you can use Potassium salt, or Kalimagnesia (the composition contains a trace element magnesium).
- Or you can apply one phosphate-potassium fertilizer: Potassium monophosphate (10-15 grams per ten liters of water) or Diammofoska(20-30 grams per ten liters of water). The same irrigation rate.
- As mentioned above, for the second feeding during the formation of buds, it is useful to add a little nitrogen in addition to potassium and phosphorus, therefore it is useful to feed strawberries with a complex preparationNitroammophos (20-30 g per 10 l of water).
If you prefer organic fertilizers, then a good a source of potassiumwill serve Wood ash. To prepare the nutrient solution, dilute 200 grams of ash in 10 liters of water (dosage: one liter for one bush). As organic phosphorus feedingcan be applied bone or fish meal.
Third procedure (during flowering)
As for the second feeding, for the third time (during the flowering of strawberry bushes) you need potassium and phosphorus. You can apply the same fertilizers as for the second time. Only now it is better not to use nitroammophoska, because it contains nitrogen!
Advice! For the third time, in addition to root feeding, foliar spraying is very useful. For a better setting of berries, it is effective to spray with boron (i.e. boric acid), for this you need to dilute 5 grams of boric acid powder in ten liters of water.
Fourth dressing (late summer)
At the last fourth feeding (late summer in August or early September). You also need to make potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. You can add Superphosphate and Potassium Sulfate, or Potassium Monophosphate or Diammofosku. Or you can feed it with ready-made autumn fertilizer, the packaging should be marked “For Autumn”, “Autumn”, “Autumn”.
Fertilizers for strawberries
Instead of all the proposed fertilizers, you can take an easier and simpler way: buy a special ready-made fertilizer specifically for strawberries, such preparations already contain a ready-made complex of macro- and microelements. For example, Gumi-Omi "Berry", "Fertika" Kristalon ", Fertika" Garden and Vegetable Garden "for strawberries and strawberries," Strawberry "from Fasco. Use such preparations according to the instructions on the package!
Folk remedies for feeding strawberries
Folk remedies are very popular for feeding strawberries. Popular folk yeast feeding (it is optimal to complete it before flowering). Many gardeners argue about its effectiveness, as they have repeatedly used this method.
You can prepare the solution according to the following recipe: mix fresh yeast (one hundred grams) + granulated sugar (one hundred grams) + warm water (5 l), mix well. Instead of fresh yeast, you can take dry yeast (in this case, you should take 35 g). The solution must be left to infuse for three days, while stirring it periodically. After insisting, you should dilute the yeast infusion with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. Watering rate: half a liter per one bush.
Note! Yeast dissolves potassium in the soil, therefore, after yeast feeding strawberries, it is very important after 7 days to add potash fertilizers to the open ground, for example, ash, potassium sulfate.
Note! It is not enough just to fertilize plants in the open field, you need comprehensive and high-quality care, which consists of the following stages:
- removal of winter shelter (if you covered plants for the winter)
- treatment against diseases and pests
- loosening the soil surface
By the way, this article tells about the principles of spring care.
Don't try to compensate for lack of care (or poor quality care) with fertilizers! Care should be comprehensive.