Fruit and berry plants
Currant (Latin Ribes) - a genus of plants of the Gooseberry family, which includes up to two hundred plant species, of which about fifty are common in the Northern Hemisphere. In the XI century, the currant appeared in the monastery gardens of Russia, and only after that it migrated to European countries. Currant is a very popular horticultural crop in our country. In addition to black and red currants, white and golden currants are also cultivated today, but black currants prevail over other species both as the most delicious berry and as the most useful.
In addition to the fact that it can be usefully consumed fresh, jam, jelly, compotes are made from it, wines, syrups, liqueurs and liqueurs are prepared. Currants are also in demand in medicine, as a raw material for the pharmaceutical industry.
Planting and caring for currants
- Landing: possible in early spring, but better in early autumn.
- Lighting: bright light.
- The soil: non-acidic, well-drained and fertilized soil.
- Watering: regular, about once every five days, spending 20-30 liters of water for every 1 m² of land: the soil should get wet to a depth of 30-40 cm. White and red currants are less moisture-loving.
- Cropping: in the spring they do a sanitary cleaning, and in the fall, during the leaf fall, they carry out the main pruning of black currants. Spring pruning is enough for white and red currants.
- Top dressing: if the soil was filled with fertilizers before planting the currants, fertilizing begins only from the third year: in early spring, nitrogen is applied to the site, in June-July three foliar fertilizing of the bushes is carried out, in the fall the soil in the root area is dug up with manure, compost or chicken droppings and with phosphorus potash fertilizer.
- Reproduction: arcuate cuttings, green and lignified cuttings and rooting of biennial branches.
- Pests: pale-footed, fruit and yellow sawflies, biennial leafworms, moths, shoot, gall and red-gall aphids, moths, spider and kidney mites, glass moths, gall midges.
- Diseases: anthracnose, septoria, white spot, terry, gray rot, goblet and columnar rust, necrosis of shoots and branches, powdery mildew, striped mosaic, necrotic necrosis.
Read more about growing currants below.
Currant is a perennial shrub plant, compact or spreading, from one to two meters in height with fluffy pale green shoots that turn brown with age. New shoots grow from dormant buds every year. The currant rhizome is a powerful system extending 60 cm deep. Three- or five-lobed currant leaves have a diameter of three to twelve centimeters, a jagged edge, on the upper side of the plate they are dark green, and on the lower side they are pubescent along the veins. Bell-shaped light purple or pinkish flowers are collected in drooping racemose inflorescences.
The fruit is a fragrant berry. The color and size of the berry depends on the type and variety of currants. The currant blooms in May-June, and bears fruit in July-August. Fruiting begins already in the second year after planting. Along with such popular crops as strawberries and strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries, currants are grown not only in private gardens, but also on an industrial scale. The currant is a relative of the ubiquitous gooseberry berry.
When to plant
The currant is a long-liver among gardening and berry crops, it begins to bear fruit the next year after planting, and if the care of currants is carried out at the proper level, then one bush can bear fruit for more than fifteen years. And therefore, our task is to clarify for you such important issues for the longevity of culture as planting and caring for currants. The best time for planting currants is the beginning of autumn, although in special cases you can plant currants in spring.
Two-year-old currant seedlings with three skeletal roots are chosen for planting. A store seedling must be carefully examined so as not to buy a sick or weak specimen.
Currants prefer to grow in a sunny, wind-protected place in a well-drained non-acidic soil. If you need to lower the acidity of the soil on the site, then before planting the currants, 300-800 g of lime per m² are introduced into the soil for digging. In addition to lime, you need to add 2-4 kg of organic fertilizer, as well as 100-150 g of granulated superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium sulphide for each m² of the plot. Digging depth - 20-22 cm.
The pits for planting currants should be approximately 55x55 and about 45 cm deep. The distance between them is one and a half to two meters. A bucket of humus, 100 g of superphosphate and 45 g of potassium chloride are introduced into each pit. To avoid scalding the root system of the seedling, sprinkle the fertilizer on top with a layer of soil 7-9 cm thick. You need to dig holes and apply fertilizer to them a couple of weeks before planting the seedlings so that the soil has time to settle.
The seedlings are immersed in holes at an angle of 45 ° so that the root collar is at a depth of 5 cm. The roots are carefully straightened: this is necessary in order for additional roots and shoots to begin to form from the buds buried in the soil - this is how powerful currant bushes with a large number of strong branches. Lightly sprinkle the roots with earth, compact it, water the seedlings at the rate of half a bucket of water for each bush and fill the hole with soil to the top. Then make a furrow around the bush and pour water into it.
Mulch the soil under the bush with humus so that a crust does not form after watering. Cut off the shoots of the seedling at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground so that there are only 4-5 buds on the short remnants of the shoots, and you can stick the pieces into wet soil, where they will almost certainly take root.
Planting currants in spring
If you need to plant currants by all means in the spring, do it before the sap flow begins, until the buds on the seedlings begin to open. All the inconvenience of spring planting of currants is that at the beginning of the growing season, the time period when you can plant currants is too short - it begins to grow too early, and the earth may not yet warm up to the temperature required for rooting the seedling. It's good if you guessed to dig a hole in the fall, and the soil in it managed to settle - this will make your task easier.
How to care for currants during the growing season? For convenience, we have divided the period into three sections according to the seasons. Growing currants and caring for them in spring is not difficult and consists in the following:
- remove the buds affected by the mite, and if most of the buds are affected, then cut off the shoots on the bush almost to the base;
- dig a bush shallowly and mulch the soil around it with manure or humus;
- carry out sufficient watering of currants during the growth and flowering period;
- remove weeds from the site and loosen the soil under the bushes to a depth of 6-8 cm at least 2-3 times a week. Mulch helps to avoid frequent loosening;
- carry out sanitary pruning of currants after winter;
- in early spring, carry out preventive treatment of currants from pests and diseases;
- in May, when the flowering of currants begins, inspect the flowers and, if double inflorescences are found, cut them out, and if this phenomenon is massive on some bush, uproot the bush so that the terry does not spread to other plants;
- to feed the currants with nitrogen fertilizers.
Summer currant care
Of particular importance in the hot season is watering, which the currants really need. Read about how and when to water it in a special section. It is also necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the soil between the bushes and remove weeds in time. In the summer, you need to feed the currants with organic fertilizers, combining them with watering.
Carefully monitor the health of the plants and immediately respond to the slightest changes in their appearance, but do not treat the currants with chemicals from diseases or pests later than three weeks before the berries ripen, try to do with folk remedies. When the berries begin to ripen, pick them selectively, as they ripen: black currants - by berry, red and white - with tassels.
How to care for the fall
After harvesting, currants need watering, followed by loosening of the soil. At the end of September, the currants are fed with organic and mineral fertilizers, and they carry out sanitary and formative pruning of the bushes. At the same time, they are engaged in planting currants and their reproduction. If the autumn turns out to be dry, carry out a plentiful winter watering of currants and preventive treatment against pests and pathogens that have settled down for the winter in the bark of the shoots or in the soil under the bushes.
As you know, healthy plants rarely infect diseases or pests, but preventive treatment of plants is necessary. How to spray currants so that it painlessly survives the season and gives a bountiful high-quality harvest, especially since in early spring, along with the awakening of the buds, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, as well as the larvae of harmful insects that hibernate in the cracks of the currant bark or in the upper layer of the soil wake up.
Before the buds on the bushes swell, process the currants with a 1% solution of karbofos, Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. You can spray the currants with nitrafen, not forgetting to process the soil on the site. When the growing season comes to an end, rake up all the fallen leaves and remove them from the site so that pests do not settle in them for the winter, and carry out autumn prevention by spraying the currant bushes and the soil around them with the already listed preparations.
If the winter was snowy, then the currant bushes in spring will not need frequent watering, since the soil will be saturated with melt water. If there was no snow, and there is little moisture in the ground, then the currants will have to be watered regularly. During the period of ovary formation and berry filling, especially if it is dry heat, currants require moistening the soil with warm water about once every five days. In order for the soil to get wet to a depth of 30-40 cm, the approximate consumption should be 20-30 liters per square meter of land.
It is necessary to pour water under the bush so that drops of moisture do not fall on the fruits and currant leaves. It is best to make circular grooves 10-15 cm deep at a distance of 30-40 cm from the crown projection or arrange irrigation areas around the bushes, limiting their circumference to an earthen roller 15 cm high.At the end of the growing season, in case of dry autumn, water the currants in winter, which will provide its roots with moisture until the end of winter.
Red and white currants are not so demanding on soil moisture.
The newly planted bushes received enough fertilizer to survive for two years, but then the time comes when you will need to regularly feed them. In early spring, currants need nitrogen fertilizers. Young two-year-old bushes will need 40-50 g of urea, and four-year-old and more mature ones will need two dressings of 15-20 g each. In the fall, it is necessary to apply to the soil under each bush from four to six kilograms of organic fertilizer - chicken manure, manure or compost, 50 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate. This is the required minimum.
What else to feed the currants, to strengthen her immunity to disease and pests and lay the foundation for a good harvest? Experts recommend in June-July to carry out three foliar feeding of currants: 3 g of boric acid, 5 g of potassium permanganate and 35 g of copper sulfate are bred separately and mixed with 10 liters of water. This composition is sprayed on bushes after sunset or on a cloudy, windless day.
Currant pruning is needed so that the plant can bear fruit with full dedication, without spending energy and nutrition on unnecessary and weak shoots. More berries are tied on last year's growths of four to five-year branches. Therefore, a currant branch that is more than six years old is a burden for the plant, which must be removed. It is also necessary to rid the bush of dried and affected by pests or diseases of the branches. If you remove unnecessary shoots in time, your currant, if it is black, can bear fruit for up to twenty years, and if it is red, then fifteen years.
When and how to cut currants? The main pruning is carried out in the fall, after the leaves fall, and in the spring, before bud break, the shoots that have frozen over the winter are shortened to healthy tissue, broken and dead branches are cut out. In summer, you can pinch the ends of young shoots to stimulate their tillering and give the bush the correct shape.
Pruning in the fall
In currants of the first year of growth, if you remember, during planting, all shoots are cut off at a height of 10-15 cm from ground level. Bushes of the second year of life are freed from zero shoots, leaving only 3-5 of the strongest of them, which will become skeletal branches in the future. On the currant bushes of the third and fourth years, zero shoots are cut, leaving 3-6 of the most developed ones. Do not let the bushes thicken, cut out underdeveloped and weak shoots from the middle of the bush. On last year's shoots, the tops are pruned.
The branches of the second and third years are pruned, leaving two to four buds on each branch. By this age, with correct and timely pruning, the bush is finally formed. At the next stage, branches appear older than six years, which should be cut at the root. All other branches are cut according to the described scheme.
Pruning red and white currants
Red and white currants are pruned in the spring. The principle and scheme of pruning are the same as for black currant, but the tops of the growths are not pinched, and the shoots of the second and third years are not shortened. Just remove branches older than seven years (these types of currants are considered old ones), cut out excess new shoots, broken or diseased branches. If the old branch is still bearing fruit, cut it back to the nearest strong fork. This will prolong its life and fruiting.
Reproduction of currants
Most often, currants are propagated vegetatively - by arcuate layering, lignified or green cuttings, by rooting two-year-old branches from a bush. Red currant propagates well by layering, worse - by cuttings. Seed propagation of currants is possible only for specialists, and for an amateur gardener this is a long and unreliable way, therefore, we will not describe how to propagate currants with seeds.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings of currants are carried out by two types of cuttings - green and lignified. Propagation by lignified cuttings - the most affordable way, since you can get planting material at any time of the year. You can plant currant cuttings for rooting both in autumn and spring. It is better to harvest cuttings at the beginning of winter, before severe frosts, which can destroy the currant buds.
It is better to cut cuttings 18-20 cm long and 8-10 mm thick from the middle of annual shoots growing from the root or from three-year branches. To preserve them before planting, you need to seal the lower and upper sections with molten garden varnish or paraffin so that they will not lose moisture during storage. The cuttings are wrapped in slightly damp paper, then in polyethylene and buried in the snow or placed in the refrigerator. In early spring, cuttings are planted on training beds at an angle of 45º at a distance of 15 cm from each other with 20 cm wide row spacing.The lower end of the cutting, covered with paraffin, is cut obliquely; when planting, the cutting is deepened so that only two buds remain above the surface.
The beds are watered abundantly, mulched with sawdust, humus or fine peat. Arched supports up to half a meter high are installed above the bed and polyethylene is thrown on them, which is removed only when the first leaves appear on the cuttings. Watering is necessary in moderation, but even short-term drying of the soil should not be allowed. In the summer, the garden should be weeded, watered and fed with a mullein. By autumn, cuttings form seedlings from 30 to 50 cm in height with one or two shoots. The most developed of them can be transplanted to a permanent place in the same autumn, and the weaker ones grow for another year.
Propagation by green cuttings
Green cuttings can only be rooted in a greenhouse. True, there is one more way worthy of attention. Cuttings are taken from well-developed shoots, but the root tip is not used. The length of the cutting with two green leaves should be 5-10 cm. The cuttings are placed in water, after two weeks they form roots 10-12 mm long, and the cuttings are transplanted into bags with soil, in which holes are previously made for the outflow of excess water. Water the cuttings every 2-3 days so that the earth in the bag has the consistency of sour cream. After 7-10 days, watering is reduced so that the soil acquires its usual density.
They keep the cuttings at home until May, by this time they should have grown to 50-60 cm in height. Before planting, the packages are cut, and the cuttings are dipped obliquely into the soil 15 cm deeper than they grew in the package.
Reproduction by layering
The simplest and most reliable is the propagation of currants by layering. This method allows you to get strong seedlings with a powerful root system in just one year. A healthy two-year-old currant branch is used as a layering, growing obliquely at the periphery of the bush so that it can be easily bent to the ground.
Dig a furrow 10-12 cm deep under it, bend the branch and lay it along the furrow so that the top of the branch 20-30 cm long protrudes from the furrow. Secure the middle part of the layer in the groove with a metal clip or wire hook. Cover the furrow with soil and water regularly throughout the summer. By autumn, it will turn out to be a full-fledged seedling with a well-developed root system and several branches, which can be dug up and transplanted to a permanent place.
Currant diseases and their treatment
Diseases and pests of currants also harm other plants, for example, gooseberry bushes. Here is an approximate list of diseases that can affect currants in case of poor care or bad heredity:
- anthracnose - small brown spots with small tubercles on the leaves, subsequently merging, from which the leaves dry and fall off, starting from the lower branches;
- white spot (septoria) - round or angular spots on the leaves, first brown, then lightening, with a dark border. Sometimes berries are also affected;
- goblet rust - large yellowish pads with fungal spores on the leaves;
- terry - ugly "double" flowers of a lilac shade appear on the bush, on young shoots the leaves become darker, elongate, blades are formed on them, the veins become coarse, the aroma inherent in the currant disappears, the currant does not bear fruit;
- gray rot - this disease causes brown spots on the leaves of currants, in white currants even wood can suffer from mold;
- columnar rust - small yellow specks appear on the upper side of the leaf plate, and growths with yellow-orange spores in the form of hairs appear on the lower side;
- necrosis of branches and shoots - the bark loses its elasticity and elasticity, cracks, branches dry out and die;
- striped mosaic - at the beginning of summer, a yellow pattern appears on the leaves around the main veins;
- powdery mildew - a white loose bloom appears on the leaves and berries, which eventually turns into a brown film;
- necrotic necrosis - shoots and branches of red and white currants dry out.
Not in every case, the treatment of currants gives a positive result: viral diseases are not cured, and an advanced fungal disease can destroy half of the planting in one season. The best way to avoid these problems is to maintain a high level of agricultural technology, monitor the health of plants and quickly respond to the slightest changes in the appearance of currants. Good results are obtained by prophylactic spraying of plants and soil around the bushes with a solution of nitrafen, Bordeaux liquid, karbofos or copper sulfate in early spring, before the currant buds swell, and in autumn.
Currant pests and control
The currant also has many enemies among insects, and, by the way, they also infect another popular fruit and berry crop - the gooseberry. Most often found on currants:
- pale-footed sawfly - its caterpillars eat currant and gooseberry leaves, leaving only veins;
- biennial leaf roll - its caterpillars damage the buds and berries of currants, gooseberries, grapes, viburnum and other berries;
- yellow sawfly - its caterpillars eat gooseberry, white and red currant leaves;
- moth - berries damaged by it ripen faster than usual and dry up immediately;
- shoot aphid - damages the leaves, feeding on their juice, the shoots bend, stop growing, the leaves curl, dry and die off;
- moth - butterfly caterpillars eat leaves of red and white currants, as well as gooseberries;
- gall and red-gall aphids - more often damages the leaves of white and red currants, as a result of the vital activity of aphids, which gives seven generations per season, the currants turn yellow, the leaves are deformed, become covered with yellow or red swells and fall off;
- spider mite - damages red and black currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapes, elderberries and other crops, as a result of which the leaves become marbled, dry and fall off;
- kidney mite - damages the kidneys, climbing into them for the winter and eating them from the inside;
- glass case - caterpillars gnaw through the core of the branches, after which the shoots and branches die;
- gall midges - there are several types of them: the shoots eat out the currant shoots from the inside, which makes them wither and die; flowers damage buds that turn yellow or red and then fall off; leafy gnaw at unblown young leaves, making holes in them;
- fruit sawfly - damages black currant fruits, they acquire a faceted shape.
The fight against each insect is carried out at the time when it appears on the currant, and the choice of means of destruction is quite wide. You can use time-tested folk remedies, or you can resort to modern potent chemicals - it's up to you. However, if in early spring and autumn, on the eve of winter, you carry out preventive treatment of currant bushes with drugs such as Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate, it is quite possible that insect pests will not bother your currant. In the same way, you can get rid of pests on gooseberries.
Currant varieties differ not only in the color of the berries, but also in the time of their ripening. On this basis, they are divided into early, mid-early, medium, mid-late and late.
Early varieties include:
- Pearl - black variety with very large (up to 6 g) sweet berries;
- Venus - black currant with berries weighing up to 5.5 g, sweet and sour, tall bush;
- Black BMW - black sweet berries weighing up to 7 g, vigorous, compact bush;
- Jonker Van Tets - very large red berries of sweet and sour taste;
- Ural white - white currant, large, sweet, spreading bush.
- Bashkir giant - black, very large berries of sweet and sour taste, high resistance to diseases and pests;
- Belarusian sweet - very large sweet black currant berries;
- Umka - white currant with large sweet berries, vigorous, erect bush.
- Sanuta - black berries weighing up to 5.5 g, sweet and sour, vigorous, compact bush;
- Osipovskaya sweet - a variety of red currants with large sweet berries, slightly spreading bush, vigorous;
- Imperial yellow - yellow currant, which is actually a high-yielding variety of white currant with small berries of sweet and sour taste on medium-sized, medium-spreading bushes;
- Versailles white - a variety of white currant with large and medium fruits of sweet and sour taste.
- Jubilee Digging - black currant with sweet and sour berries, vigorous, compact bush;
- Roland - red currant sweet and sour taste, winter-hardy variety, resistant to fungi.
- Lazy person - black currant with very large sweet berries, vigorous, compact bush;
- Valentinovka - berries, very large for red currants, with a sour taste, ideal for making jelly.
Currently, among gardeners, such an exotic species as golden currant is gaining more and more popularity. It is interesting for its decorative qualities - its flowers of different shades of yellow have a strong pleasant aroma, and the leaves acquire a bright, variegated color in the fall. The color of the berries is also varied: brown, orange, pink, red, blue-black, yellow - it depends on the variety. However, the taste of golden currant is much inferior to the taste of black, red and white.
Today, only two currant hybrids are widely known. Yoshta - a hybrid of bulging gooseberries, common gooseberries and black currants, bred in 1970. Breeders have been working on it for about forty years. Yoshta grows on powerful spreading bushes about one and a half meters high and of the same diameter. The bush is thornless, berries weighing up to 5 g with a dense skin, black with a purple tint, collected in a cluster of 3-5 pieces, have a pleasant nutmeg flavor. The hybrid is resistant to frost and some diseases and pests, lives for 20-30 years, is common in Western Europe.
Chrome - Swedish hybrid of currants and gooseberries with large, very smooth black berries up to 2 cm in diameter, as well as yoshta berries, collected in bunches of 3-5 pieces. Chromium does not have a currant aroma, the taste of berries resembles gooseberries and currants at the same time. In Sweden, the berries ripen by mid-July.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Gooseberry family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Berry bushes Honey plants Plants on C Gooseberries
Black currant: growing and care
Black currant - a popular garden culture, extremely healthy and tasty. Currants are widely used in households: they are eaten fresh, jam, jams, jellies are made, and canned.
Berries are used to prepare compotes and juices, various tinctures, liqueurs and wines. From the article you will learn when and how to plant currants, avoiding planting to picking berries, proper pruning of bushes, propagation by cuttings, pest control, popular varieties of currants.
Forms and varieties of blood red currants
In this type of currant, it is no longer the base plant that is known, but numerous decorative forms with improved characteristics. At the same time, the main attention in the difference between the individual subspecies of blood-red currants is always paid to flowering.
The best forms of blood-red currants are:
- blood red currant dark red (atrorubens) with very dark and catchy, red, with a rich ruby tone flowers and lower, only about 1-1.5 m bush, bearing fruit not annually
- blood red currant Brondebank (Brocklebankii) - yellow-colored form with very beautiful "golden" leaves
- shape bright (Splendens) - a large-colored bright red, rather dark beauty
- pink-colored shape (carneum) - a pale and delicate currant with a larger flower size, meter height and slower development
- shape whitish (albescens), flaunting with whitish, atypically light flowers
- blood red currant flore-plena - a favorite of terry currants with thick red flowers
- shape variegata with spotted leaves decorated with cream spots.
The most popular varieties of beauty include:
- ‘King Edward VII’ - one of the best garden shrubs with rich wine-colored, dark color of flowers in very dense and long racemes (airy crown, loose)
- a hardy and persistent beauty of the ‘Pulborough Scarlet’ with pink-red flowers, a sparkling white center and bluish-emerald leaves
- ‘White Icicle’ - a snow-white variety, as if wrapped in a snow cloud, with very massive clusters of inflorescences
- large, more than 2 meters creamy white ‘Tydeman’s White’ with very bright greens
- ‘Strybing Pink’ - one of the most beautiful pink-colored shrubs, as if embarrassedly turning pink, with watercolor color transitions along the cluster of inflorescences and a delicate romantic appearance.
In addition to the actual forms of blood-red currants, it is worth paying attention to hybrids:
- grafted on golden currants standard specimens
- variegated bushes grafted onto fragrant currants, producing both golden and red brushes
- Gordon's currant (Ribes gordonianum) is a completely winter-hardy, charming decorative currant with long clusters of yellow-red flowers that does not need shelter.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Some grow hyssop in a seedless way, sending the seeds directly into the open ground. This is done in late April or early May by mixing the seeds with sand. The seed is distributed over shallow grooves (0.5-0.8 cm), the distance between which should be at least 50 cm.
The seeds are first sprinkled with a small layer of earth (1 cm), then a layer of peat. It will prevent the soil from washing out during watering and from the formation of a crust on the soil. Sometimes hyssop is sown before winter, then mulching should not be used. In any case, the seeds will begin to germinate when the air temperature reaches + 5 ° C.
The first shoots can already be expected in 1.5 weeks. When there are at least 8 true leaves on the plant, the rows should be thinned out, leaving 20 cm of free space between the bushes.
Hyssop is an unpretentious plant, therefore it does not require special personal care. The bush feels comfortable on any soil, except swampy ones.
- The culture does not require abundant watering - it is enough to periodically irrigate the flower bed in a hot season. But high humidity for a flower is destructive.
- Top dressing should also be moderate, otherwise all the power will go to the growth of the bush to the detriment of flowering. A complex of mineral fertilizers in a concentration of 2 tbsp. water is first added to a bucket a month after germination. Subsequent dressings are repeated at intervals of 1 every 30 days throughout the entire flowering period. You should not bring manure to the flower bed - it will interrupt the aroma of spicy grass.
- Sanitary pruning of the plant is important, which is carried out before winter. This stimulates the bush to flourish next year.
- You won't have to fight pests, since the specific smell of the plant drives them away.
When cultivating hyssop, one should take into account the fact that in one place it can actively develop for no more than 7 years, and then begins to degenerate. Experienced summer residents recommend replanting the plant every 5 years, while dismembering the bushes for reproduction.
Hyssop - planting and care: video
Planting currants in the garden
Planting currants in the garden.Everyone loves currant berries, both fresh and in blanks. In addition, currants are an unpretentious plant. Therefore, this shrub is grown by all gardeners. How to plant the bushes correctly to get a good harvest?
Planting currants in the garden
What to consider when planting black currant
It should be borne in mind that black currant is a self-pollinated plant, however, cross-pollination from other varieties allows you to get a richer harvest. In this regard, it is better to plant the crop in groups of several plants.
Planting is best done in spring or autumn. During the winter time, the soil next to the bush will be compacted, and with the arrival of spring, the plant will begin to actively grow. When planting bushes, you need to maintain a distance of about a meter. In crowded conditions, it is difficult for plants to develop normally, they bear less fruit and die faster.
Planting currants in the garden
Black currant grows well in open and shaded areas. This culture loves moisture, so a low area, if it is closed from the winds, is suitable for it. It grows well on nutritious loamy soil.
A hole for planting currants is dug deep into the bayonet of a shovel. It is half covered with soil mixed with top dressing. Also, when planting, the seedling must be buried above the root collar.
However, before filling the hole, it must be well watered. Then you should make a small depression next to the bush and shed it again well. Then sprinkle the surface with peat. Also, after some time around the seedling, you can loosen the soil.
Features of planting red currants
Red currants prefer well-lit places, sheltered from the winds. As a result, the soil for cultivation should be fertile and light. The bushes are best planted in early autumn. If you are late with planting, the seedlings will not have enough time to prepare for the winter period and take root.
Planting currants in the garden
For example, when planting red currants, you should take into account the specifics of the variety. Small shrubs growing up will not take up much space, and spreading plants will need more distance. If the shrub can be planted one at a time, as it is considered highly self-fertile.
However, for planting currants, you need to prepare a planting pit in a week. The excavated soil should be combined with organic and mineral fertilizers, if leaving a little to cover the roots. It is advisable to plant the bushes at a slight slope, this is necessary for the formation of lateral roots. Also, after planting, the currants must be watered abundantly, and then sprinkle the hole with peat or humus. If frost occurs early, it is recommended to cover the plants with non-woven material.
Planting currants in the garden
Surfinia: differences from petunias, photos and secrets of growing
One of the varieties of ampelous petunias is surfiniya. The plant is so bright and extraordinary that it has become a household name for numerous hybrid forms of an annual weaving.
This is often used by cunning sellers of flower seedlings, who sell everything that is more or less woven under a popular brand.
What real surfiniia looks like, and why all the fuss - let's figure it out together.
The daughter who surpassed her parents
Surfinia (in another reading - sulfinium) is the brainchild of Japanese breeders. In the 70s of the last century, Suntory was trying to adapt large-flowered petunias to unfavorable weather conditions by means of cell hybridization.
The result of the work was an ampelous variety of a flower, which could only be propagated by cuttings to preserve uterine characteristics. He did not give seeds.
The plant was registered under the Surfinia trademark and gained worldwide fame in a short period of time. What is the secret of such popularity?
Bright, but not simple
Beauty is not uncommon for members of this flower family. In some varieties, it is refined, aristocratic, in others it is catchy, one might say, gypsy.
Surfinia is by no means a simpleton. Large gramophones of flowers with a diameter of up to 9 cm are distinguished by a clean, rich color, against which a darker pharynx stands out. Sometimes the petals beautifully trace contrasting veins or are framed by a white border. These are the first, classic varieties.
The variety series of Surfinia ampelous Double (double) amazes with thick double flowers of incredible shades. Hybrids with the Mini prefix are a cascade of miniature (ø 5–5.5 cm), but very expressive phonographs.
Behind the exquisite appearance of our heroine lies a remarkable strength of growth and resilience. In warm, humid weather and sufficient nutrition for 1.5-2 months, it forms powerful branched whip-garlands up to 2 m long. Moreover, lateral shoots develop literally from each internode, increasing the vegetative mass in the form of a ball, pillow, cascade - it depends on the method planting a plant.
Note! A large vegetative mass and continuous abundant flowering of surfinia are supported by a powerful root system. To provide the plant with nutrition, one seedling requires at least 5–7 liters of soil. If the flowerpots are small, it is better to plant compact hybrids of ampel petunias.
Neither rain nor wind is terrible
The most serious minus of petunias, including some ampelous varieties, is instability to bad weather. The petals of the plant are so delicate that the wind literally tears them, and the rain turns them into a shapeless mass. In the literature, advice is often found - during the rain, hide flowerpots, pots with flowering annuals under a canopy. But this is extremely inconvenient!
Surfinia ampelous is devoid of this drawback. It does not need to be hidden, the maximum that should be done is to remove the flowers spoiled by moisture. Very quickly, the plant will replace them with others without compromising the appearance.
So, we can see the features of an ideal ampelous plant. The main thing now is not to confuse her with close relatives.
How to distinguish from ampelous petunia?
Let's compare surfinia and petunia, and determine what is the difference between them.
- At the seedling stage, plants are distinguished by their vigor of growth and the ability to branch. Surfinia seedlings are larger in comparison with petunias of the same age. Lateral shoots of petunia are not so numerous, grow upwards. Surfinia develops as a "spider" - it gives a large number of lateral shoots, which first spread horizontally and then fall down.
- Adult annuals form the bush in different ways. To get a lush cap of an ampel petunia, experienced florists recommend pinching the side lashes, stimulating branching. You must first grow the green mass, and then "allow" it to bloom. Surfinia does not need such intervention. It is possible to direct some branches, but even without assistance, the plant will braid the space allotted to it.
- Close relatives differ in the way of reproduction. Petunia produces complete seeds. True, if it is a hybrid, it is unlikely that they will make an exact copy of the mother plant. The second way of reproduction is by cuttings. The only way to obtain planting material from surfinia is vegetative. Most varieties do not tie seeds at all.
But in color, size, flower shape, it is unlikely that it will be possible to find the difference between surfinia and ampelous petunia. For example, the Supertunia series of ampelous petunias is almost no different from surfinia, except perhaps for another originator.
Varieties of surfinia and its close relatives
To plunge deeper into the topic, we offer a selection of varieties of classic surfinia with photos and descriptions. And also some interesting hybrids very close to her.
- Velvet Blue is a bright classic representative of the variety series. The gramophone is not very large, but of an interesting shape - with wavy, like velvet petals. The bush is literally dotted with them. The pharynx is small, light, because of this, the entire flower looks completely purple.
- Burgundy - the name reflects the rich wine (burgundy) color of the flower. The variety is distinguished by a massive, actively branching, but at the same time compact bush, evenly developing in all directions. The flower is large, up to 8 cm in diameter. In addition to hanging pots, it feels great in a carpet flower bed.
- Deep Red is an award-winning variety, laureate of many flower exhibitions. This pure, deep red is a rarity among petunias. Propagated only by cuttings. If he sets seeds, the plants from them turn out to be little similar to the mother.
- Hot Pink is a compact medium-sized surfiniya with large flowers. The variety has a very pleasant juicy pink color with a burgundy throat. From the depths of the phonograph, crimson veins spread along the petals, adding volume and texture to the flower.
- White is a strongly and actively developing plant that grows lashes up to one and a half meters, with a dense head of flowers, which makes it in demand for cascading flower beds. A medium-sized flower, snow-white with a pale yellow core.
- Tumbelina Suzanne is a close relative of ampelous surfinia, but belongs to a different variety group - Tumbelina. The plant is so unusual and graceful that you won't immediately tell that it is a petunia. The indisputable dignity of Suzanne is the large double flowers of a delicate cream shade. The hybrid is rare, propagates only by cuttings.
- Green Edge Pink is a new original variety with an unusual color - pink, like ruffled petals along the edge are framed with a light green border. The bush itself is compact, evenly developed, dense. There are so many flowers that the leaves are almost invisible. The formation, pinching of the lashes does not need.
- Giant Purpl is a vigorous, vigorous plant with large flowers up to 10 cm in diameter. The eye is attracted by the rich dark crimson color of the flower cup with an almost black pharynx. The composition looks very stylish and sophisticated.
Planting and grooming secrets
Surfinia, being a type of ampelous petunia, has in many ways similar cultivation and care techniques. And what is the disappointment of flower growers when, after a couple of weeks of intense flowering, the plant suddenly stops growing and loses its decorative effect. To prevent this from happening, we will share some of the features of the cultivation of a weaving annual.
In the hybrids of this variety series, there is initially a great growth potential, so they need intensive nutrition and large volumes of soil. The more soil, the more powerful the root system, therefore, the seedling is actively increasing its vegetative mass.
If you plant surfinia in a container, one plant should have at least 5 liters of volume. Do not plant more than 3-4 plants in a flowerpot with a capacity of 30 liters.
The soil should be light, loose, fertile. When planting, it is advisable to use professional long-acting fertilizers. These are capsules or granules that will dissolve under the influence of moisture throughout the season, enriching the soil with the necessary elements. But for continuous abundant flowering, these fertilizers are not enough.
In hot climates, hydrogel, balls that retain moisture, can be added to the planting substrate.
Surfinia (sulfinia) loves to eat, so one of the secrets of care is associated with regular feeding.
Liquid dressings are most effective. They are prepared from organic or mineral fertilizers by dissolving in water. The frequency is once a week.
Immediately after planting, fertilizers are used in which there is a lot of nitrogen, including organic matter. Nitrogen is necessary for the rapid growth of shoots, branching. Phosphorus is also important - it will help form a strong root system.
With the appearance of the first buds and until the end of flowering, surfinias are added with complex fertilizers based on phosphorus and potassium. Examples of suitable formulations are Kemira Lux, Agricola, Plantofol, Crystalon, etc.
Sometimes, to increase the intensity of flowering, enlargement of the flower, growth stimulants are used, such as Epin, Zircon.
Surfinia, planted in a flower bed, especially if the soil is fertile, does not need such frequent feeding. It is enough to do this 3-4 times a season. Better yet, look at the state of the plant.
Watering ampelous flowers is necessary often, preventing the soil coma from drying out. In the heat, besides watering, spraying is important. Use a fine spray to prevent the water jet from damaging the delicate petals.
Most surfinia varieties do not require bush formation. But if you see that the branching is not going well enough, shoots 20-30 cm long can be pinched to make the bush more fluffy.
During flowering, it is advisable to remove wilted flowers. This is aesthetically important and distracts the plant's energy from setting seeds.
The specimens of flowers you like can be saved for winter-spring cuttings. The plant takes root easily and by next season you will have as many beautiful surfinias as you want.