Rose is a recognized queen of flowers, it is capricious and whimsical, because it comes from warm regions. This flower culture requires increased attention and care during the entire growing season, however, special importance is attached to autumn care and preparation for wintering, since the survival of plants and subsequent flowering depend on this.
Features of wintering garden roses
Breeders from different countries have bred a huge number of varieties of roses with varying degrees of cold resistance. Frost-resistant varieties, which include ancient species, park and some hybrids, winter well even in the northern regions. In the presence of a good snow cover, it is enough to insulate the root system by hilling with leaf or coniferous litter, garden soil, humus and other materials.
Heat-loving varieties in our conditions endure wintering extremely hard, even a slight drop in temperature to -10 ...- 5 ° C can be disastrous for them. Such plants are covered very thoroughly for the winter, sometimes they are even buried in the ground. There are especially delicate roses that can be grown in the north only in a closed ground (in a greenhouse or greenhouse). In the southern regions, however, they safely survive the cold under cover.
In order for a rose to survive the winter safely, it must be well prepared for wintering.
Modern varieties and hybrids have a very long flowering period, the plants themselves are unable to go into a state of dormancy, therefore, even in late autumn they are strewn with buds and blossoming flowers. The first frosts serve as a signal for them to go to sleep, but with a sudden warming (which happens very often), sap flow resumes again. The frost that struck afterwards leads to the formation of cracks (frost cracks), since the freezing juices, expanding in volume, break the shoots from the inside. Various diseases develop rapidly on the damaged bark, as soon as such an opportunity presents itself (it warms up to at least 0 ° C).
Caring for roses after flowering in autumn
Preparatory pre-winter activities begin long before the onset of cold weather, otherwise the rose garden will not have time to properly tune in to winter.
Correction of dressings
From about mid-August, it is necessary to adjust the regime and composition of dressings... Nitrogen-containing fertilizers at the end of the season are contraindicated, since their introduction can cause the growth of young branches, which will not really have time to ripen and will still freeze in winter. In order for the shoots to become lignified with high quality, phosphorus-potassium preparations are used, which help to strengthen the root system. For the first feeding, they are suitable (for m2):
- superphosphate (35-40 g) and potassium sulfate (15-20 g);
- potassium monophosphate (40–45 g).
If during this period there is heavy rainfall and the ground is wet, then the granules are simply scattered evenly under the bushes, slightly embedded in the soil. You can combine top dressing with watering by dissolving fertilizers in a bucket of water.
After a week and a half, the rose garden is re-fed using potash formulations (per 1 m2):
- potassium sulfate (30–35 g);
- wood ash (100-120 g).
For feeding roses, you can use specialized autumn fertilizers with a minimum nitrogen content.
For the third, final time, fertilization, now with microelements (15 g of potassium magnesium for each m2), bring in another two weeks.
Foliar dressing on the leaf shows the greatest efficiency. For this, the concentration of the working solution is reduced by three times.
With the arrival of autumn, the watering of the rose garden is reduced. If the weather is dry, then the plantings are moistened, spending about 8-10 liters per bush (the ground should be slightly damp). In case of prolonged rains, the plants should be covered with plastic wrap or a canopy should be built over them to avoid waterlogging.
It is not necessary to loosen, and even more so to dig up the ground under the rose bushes, since these manipulations can provoke the development of fresh shoots from dormant buds.
One of the most important autumn grooming procedures is pruning, the main goal of which is to obtain a more compact bush. Correctly cut shrubs are much easier to cover for the winter with high quality.... However, not all roses need this, for example, blooming once in the summer and having time to independently prepare for the dormant period, the varieties do not need to be cut at the end of the season. These include park (bush), some hybrid (wrinkled), ground cover, etc.
From the very beginning of autumn, it is necessary to pluck out the small buds that appear.
The work on pruning the rose garden begins a few days before the covering activities... At night, the temperature should already be below zero, and during the day it should stay above 0 ° C. It is not necessary to do this too early, as pruning the shoots stimulates their growth. First, they carry out sanitary cleaning:
- dead buds and still flowering stems are cut off;
- not fully ripe shoots are cut out (they have a reddish bark);
- remove thick old branches (over 4–5 years old);
- remove diseased or damaged by pests, dry and broken stems;
- get rid of growing inward, thickening, thin and weak shoots.
The cut is made at an angle of 45-50 °, making it 5-10 mm higher than the bud located on the outside of the branch. Places of cuts are sprinkled with crushed coal or coated with garden pitch.
Before hibernation, flowering stems are removed from all roses
Large-sized climbing roses with large flowers, whose lashes sometimes reach two meters, are shortened by a third. Small-flowered miniature varieties can not be cut off at all, but only pinch the top of the head, removing the growth point. The species related to hybrid tea and polyanthus reduce the height by half, adjusting the bush to the height of the winter shelter (0.4–0.5 m). In this case, usually no more than 2–4 buds remain on each stem. Similar manipulations are carried out with floribunda.
All cut off plant material is necessarily burned, since spores of fungal infections persist there, and insect pests settle down for the winter.
I always cut my rose very shortly in the fall, there are hemp with literally a couple of buds. Under the root, I immediately pour humus (5–7 cm), already when the frosts are established, I completely cover the bush with earth, and then I also throw in a snowdrift.
Treatment against diseases and pests
In order to prevent infection of the rose garden with various diseases and to protect against attacks of harmful insects, prophylactic spraying is carried out. To do this, use:
- iron vitriol (3%);
- Bordeaux mixture (3%);
- copper oxychloride (40 g per bucket of water);
- fungicides (Topaz, Skor, Fundazol, etc.), use according to the instructions.
Not only the plants themselves are subject to processing, but also the soil in the near-stem circle.
Video: preparing roses for wintering
Preparing bushes for winter
Climbing roses, characterized by long stems, are most often bent to the ground for the winter, removing from supports. This is done gradually so that the clothed shoot does not break. First, the branch is untied, bent a little (a few centimeters) and fixed in this position. It is impossible to lay on bare ground; under the bottom, a flooring of boards, foam or other insulating materials must be built. With a frequency of 5-7 days, they press harder, so the lashes get used and do not break. Then, the bent plants are thrown from above with spruce branches and covered with any breathing agromaterial (spunbond, agril, etc.).
Spiny roses are removed from the supports and bent to the ground
To insulate the root system, the shrub is huddled, shoveling loose and dry garden soil onto the root collar. You should get an earthen mound with a height of 30–35 cm. It is better to do this in two passes:
- at the onset of the first frost;
- with the arrival of real cold weather.
Hilling is especially important for shrub and hybrid tea species. Do not add sawdust, sand or other moisture-absorbing materials under the plants, since with a sharp cold snap they turn into an ice ball, from the neighborhood with which the bark becomes covered with cracks.
Experienced gardeners recommend removing all leaves from the stems immediately before the shelter, because in winter they can begin to rot during an unexpected thaw. Rotting plant debris is a source of infection, they then infect the entire plant.
Hilling roses with earth insulates the root system well
For the winter shelter of the rose garden, you can use a variety of materials and improvised means:
- nonwoven agromaterials (lutrasil, spunbond, etc.);
- burlap or canvas;
- spruce and pine spruce branches;
- kraft paper;
- rags (old blankets, blankets, coats, etc.);
- boards, chipboard, plywood;
- plastic film.
There are several ways to cover rose bushes for the winter:
- Cover the shrub with sawdust, leaf or coniferous litter, shavings, etc. To prevent all this from being blown away by the wind, spruce branches are laid on top, which, moreover, will hold back the snow.
Where winters are not too harsh, roses can be covered with spruce branches
- Build a frame of metal arches, wooden bars, plywood sheets, etc. Cover the structure with agrotechnical cloth, burlap, press the edges securely to the ground.
Roses winter well under a frame covered with covering material or film
- Roll a piece of mesh (plastic or cylinder-shaped chain-link) around the bush, fasten the edges with wire. Pour dry foliage inside, cover it with a waterproof cover (a piece of film, roofing material, plastic, etc.).
For hiding roses, it is better to use oak or chestnut leaves.
- Wrap the plant in several layers of agrotextile, fixing it with a rope, stapler or clothespins. With this method, climbing roses can not be removed from the support.
Climbing roses can not be removed from the supports, wrapping them in several layers of agrotextile
Features of training in different latitudes of Russia
It is better not to rush with the final shelter of the rose garden for the winter, since this flower culture is very susceptible to damping out in case of warming. The construction of shelters is started only when the cold snap is stable with constant subzero temperatures (-7 ...- 4 ° C). In extreme cases, you can make a temporary structure, which is opened slightly for ventilation, if it suddenly gets warmer.
In the middle lane, including Moscow and the Moscow region, preparatory work in the flower garden begins in the last week of August (feeding), and ends in late October or early November (covers). If possible, the roses are tilted to the ground, laid on a pillow of spruce branches, fixed with brackets, and sprinkled with dry foliage on top. For bushes with little bending stems, supports are built from arcs, which are covered with film material.
In regions with more severe climatic conditions (Siberia, the Urals), preparations begin already in the second August decade, and the final covering stage begins at the end of October. Well-hilled plants are covered with boxes or boxes, inside which dry foliage is poured. Then they cover it with spruce branches. A protective frame with stretched agromaterial or film is installed on top of the entire structure.
In Siberia and the Urals, roses are covered especially carefully
In the south, where the autumn is mild and long, they begin to prepare roses for wintering in September, in November they slightly warm them by spilling the bushes. If the thermometer does not drop below -8 ° C during the winter months, no additional shelter is needed.
To scare off rodents, which, despite the presence of thorns, can damage the stems, special preparations are placed under the shelter (Rat Death, Freitenmaus, etc.).
Video: pruning and covering roses for the winter
Competently and timely conducted agrotechnical measures to prepare roses for winter, as well as their subsequent thorough warming, will allow plants to safely survive the cold without any damage to subsequent flowering in the next season.
How to prepare astilba for winter: how to cover, is it possible to fertilize, whether it is necessary to cut
Preparing Astilba for winter includes several mandatory steps. The plant is well watered, fed with organic matter or a mixture of superphosphate with potassium salt. Before freezing, total pruning is done, hilling, and then mulching with peat, foliage and other materials at hand. It is recommended to cover astilbe only in regions with the coldest winters. In other cases, only mulch is sufficient. The timing of the preparatory work is different depending on the region.
- How to prepare astilba for winter
- Do I need to cut astilba for the winter
- Timing and rules for pruning
- How to feed Astilba in the fall
- Terms of introduction
- What fertilizers can not be applied
- What top dressing is given to Astilbe in the fall
- Is it possible to fertilize astilba ash in autumn
- How to shelter astilba for the winter
- Features of preparation for winter in the regions
- Preparing Astilba for winter in Siberia
- Preparing astilba for winter in the suburbs
- Preparing Astilba for winter in the Urals
1. Autumn dressing
Do not neglect this rule, many substances contribute precisely to a successful wintering and ensure high-quality flowering in the next season. In the case of fruits, this means that they provide a crop.
First of all, these are phosphorus and potassium. Let me remind you that we have excluded nitrogen from fertilizing since the middle of summer (except for annuals, they do not winter). Nitrogen promotes growth, and anything that has grown too late will freeze in winter and may cause other problems. Therefore, in the fall, there is no nitrogen or its minimum amount, but - phosphorus and potassium. What exactly?
You can use superphosphate, double superphosphate, potassium sulfate and add the dose recommended on the package to the trunk circle. You can go with a more modern method and use complex mineral fertilizers designed specifically for the fall. They are based on phosphorus, potassium, maybe a little nitrogen (this is not scary) and trace elements, which are also very necessary for our plants wintering in the open field.
About the timing of these dressings. You can start them already at the end of summer and carry them out before the onset of the first real frosts. Many people are mistaken, believing that the first frost stops the development of the plant. No, this is just a signal to the vershoks to fully prepare for winter. And the roots, on the contrary, grow better in the soil with a temperature of + 8 ... + 10 degrees (the soil cools down for a long time) and continue to feed the plant.
Chrysanthemum care in autumn
At the end of the season, the queen of autumn is still in the stage of intense flowering, therefore she needs nutrients and protection from external adverse influences.
It is strictly forbidden to allow the soil to dry out and damage the roots of the plant during loosening, otherwise it may die. Some varieties of chrysanthemums can winter in the ground (Oak, Chamomile, Lilac fog, Red Moscow), and they need to be prepared for this, others (Golden Orpheus, Helen, Golden Bol) to be dug up and stored until spring.
Chrysanthemum during autumn flowering needs regular weekly watering. During this period, it is very important for the plant, because due to dehydration, immunity can weaken, and the perennial will not be able to withstand adverse weather conditions.
It is best to water the flowers with rainwater, but it is important that it is not too cold. Adjust the amount and frequency of watering depending on the amount of precipitation and the ambient temperature.
When watering chrysanthemums, you should avoid getting water on its leaves and inflorescences, because this can lead to the appearance of fungus on them.For this procedure, it is better to use a watering can without a strainer.
After watering, gently loosen the soil around the plant to avoid damaging the root system. So you saturate the soil with oxygen and destroy the grown weeds.
The last watering before the onset of cold weather should be more abundant: half a bucket of water for each perennial bush. Mulch will help keep moisture in the soil until spring, which should be used to cover the roots of the plant for wintering.
Like all perennials, chrysanthemum needs autumn feeding with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. But nitrogen is categorically impossible to introduce: it will lead to the growth of shoots that will die during a cold snap.
Fertilizers need to be applied a few hours after watering the plant. So the perennial will receive the necessary nutrients, and they will not go deeper into the soil along with the water.
Autumn feeding must be carried out in early September, and even better at the end of August, so that the chrysanthemum has time to assimilate nutrients before the onset of frost and has grown stronger into winter. Add for each 1 square meter 40-60 g of superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium sulfate or potassium salt.
Mineral fertilizers should not fall on the leaves of the chrysanthemum, because may cause them to burn.
Autumn pruning of chrysanthemums
photo from casadelunacreations.blogspot.com
You need to prune chrysanthemums for the winter when it has completely faded, or persistent frosts come. This will not only facilitate her shelter for the winter, but will also protect her from diseases, the causative agents of which are "waiting in the wings" on dry leaves and stems. In the spring, the pruned perennial will quickly renew itself and grow.
Pruning should be carried out with a sharply sharpened garden pruner disinfected in alcohol or a solution of potassium permanganate. If there are several plants, treat the tool after cutting each of them. This will prevent the spread of possible infections.
Prune the shoots so that they rise no more than 15 cm above the ground. Then spud the plant and cover it with a thick layer of humus, straw or pine needles mulch (10 to 30-40 cm, respectively). Burn the cut branches, because they can be infected with pests or infection.
Preparation for winter storage of chrysanthemums
Suddenly falling snow, of course, can take you by surprise, covering all the caps of chrysanthemums. But leaving them to winter in this form is still not worth it. After all, this guest from the east has a lot of thermophilic varieties.
Chrysanthemums with large flowers and European hybrids, as well as representatives of spherical and dwarf varieties, are not able to winter in the open field.
With the arrival of a cold snap, cut off the shoots of the "sissies" according to the same principle as those of the wintering ones. And then dig them up along with the earthy clod. These chrysanthemums can spend the winter in a basement or other dark and cool room.
They are planted in pots or common wide containers, placed in wooden boxes, sprinkled with earth or sawdust. The earthen ball must be kept slightly damp and will need to be watered periodically.
For the winter, chrysanthemums can also be buried in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Some growers store them in a deep trench, covered with soil and covered with slate on top. The same flowers that you took out in the garden in pots in the summer are returned to the house for the winter, where they will safely wait for spring.
Caring for potted chrysanthemums is the same as for other indoor plants.
The queen of the autumn garden, chrysanthemum, deserves attention and careful care, especially on the eve of winter. Create the right conditions for her, and next year she will thank you with even more lush flowering.
How to prepare roses for winter
The works are carried out on fine days, without precipitation. After the first temperature minus, heat-loving roses are pruned, removing non-lignified, watery and diseased shoots along with foliage. The rest are shortened to 40-45 cm. In the case of a clear sign of infection, suspicious spots or blotches on the shoots and green mass, the bushes are treated with fungicides containing sulfur or copper.
The best protection of a rose is considered to be hilling bushes with loose soil on half the height of the shovel bayonet. Novice rose growers should take note that it is advisable to place seedlings on the site in a row method, and not in nesting or randomly in groups. This will save you from the manual application of soil, since hilling is carried out with soil adjacent to the bushes, and allows you to fill the grooves formed in the row spacing with compost. Organic matter, mixed with fallen leaves, serves as an additional insulation for the roots of rose bushes, prevents the soil from freezing, and in the spring turns into nutritious humus.
It is not recommended to cover dense plantings with peat, being saturated with moisture and freezing, its sharp edges cause mechanical damage to the bark of plants. Sawdust, hay and straw, often used as mulch, are best mixed with sand or soil to avoid attracting rodents.
The main shelter of roses is done by the end of October - early November, when the air will steadily acquire sub-zero temperatures. Previously hilled plants are poured another 10-centimeter layer of leafy humus, sand or loose soil. It is ideal to add coniferous spruce branches or similar bunches of evergreen branches to the rose cover.
How to prune hybrid tea roses in the garden in the fall
The main goals of this procedure are:
- impact on the fact that the growth of branches, from the roots, is faster
- crown formation, in the form of a ball, with symmetrically located shoots.
Pruning of this variety, in the fall, has its own characteristics. The owners of the plots of the Moscow region carry out this process at the end of October - in the first days of November. Residents of Ukraine are engaged in pruning in November. If autumn is very warm, early pruning is undesirable, because new shoots may appear.
Note! During the fall, it is necessary to prune faded shoots and non-lignified branches that have not bloomed. This process is carried out annually, with the onset of autumn.
How to propagate a garden rose in the fall
When pruning in autumn, the stems suitable for reproduction are selected, which are stored until spring at a temperature of 2-3 ºC in wet sand, peat or moss. In the spring, the shoots are cut into cuttings, which are planted in ridges so that the upper bud protrudes above the ground.
Own-rooted roses are propagated by dividing the bush, which is dug up and divided for care in the fall, taking into account that each part retains the root system. They are planted in the ground and carefully covered.
Budding is carried out from the end of July to the first half of August. Huddle 2-3 weeks before and watered well. A ripe strong shoot is separated from the scion, the middle part is cut out with a length of 30 cm with mature dormant buds. Thorns and leaves are removed.
The aboveground part of the dog rose is shortened, the root collar is opened, raking the ground. On a smooth area, a T-shaped incision is made with an budding knife, the edges are pushed apart and a shield is inserted - a peephole with a part of the bark, cut from the scion cutting. It is tightly fixed with plastic tape so that it is left open.
Then the stock is spud with damp earth. After 2 weeks, the green bud will increase in size - this indicates that the eye has engrafted. In the process of leaving in the fall, the stock is again spud, covered with spruce branches and a shelter is installed on top.
Previously, in the spring, annual shoots of roses are laid in dug furrows 8 cm deep and 10 cm wide and sprinkled with nutritious soil mixture. For care in the fall, the rooted parts of climbing and ground cover varieties are planted for growing.