Meristem - an unconventional way of plant propagation and firm

Meristem - an unconventional way of plant propagation and firm

On the 74th kilometer of the Tallinn highway, on the site of the former manor house, gentians grow in huge numbers, magnolias that have wintered in the open field are blooming.

There they clone plants and breed a Russianized miracle fish - the beautiful koi carp. Fabulous place! Probably, the British say about such a garden: this is the closest place to paradise on Earth.

We learned about the existence of the cattery "Meristem" by its advertisement, which first appeared in our magazine. Intrigued by the words "biotechnological laboratory", "meristem", "pond ornamental fish". We haven’t had anything like this before. Asked for a visit.


The owner of the nursery, Inna Aleksandrovna Nemtsina, meets at the entrance to the estate, leads through a picturesque courtyard with flower beds, slides, ponds, through greenhouses with exciting smells of damp earth and primroses in pots.

- Oh, what unusual primroses, and this is a lumbago ...

Inna Aleksandrovna does not allow us to stop - we have a big program ahead of us: tasting homemade liqueur from the master's cellar, visiting the laboratory, getting to know the fish, walking into the fields. In the living room of an old house, at a massive table, we drink a sweet-tart wine made from local berries. The friendly hostess answers questions.

Nursery "Meristema" is an individual farm with a huge plot of land. At this place, Inna Alexandrovna had a dacha. Gradually, the "estate" grew to several hectares, which it acquired from a former state farm. She sold her successful long-term business in the city, and invested the proceeds in a business that her soul was striving for - she seriously and for a long time began to create a beautiful garden. At present, the collection, primarily of ornamental plants of the nursery, numbers thousands of items, and it is continuously replenished with new products from European flower trendsetters.

Why do we need to rediscover America?

Many of us hobby gardeners go through trial and error to grow new plants in our plots. We often fail, lose time, energy, money. We are terribly disappointed to find a valuable bush killed by the frost. We are perplexed why the overwintered plant does not bloom, and, blaming ourselves, we continue to groom and cherish it in the hope that it will reward us with its lush flowering, and again we are deceived.

Inna Aleksandrovna follows the same path, but consciously. She solves her problem, as a result of which we get the desired plants that are guaranteed to delight in a harsh land without problems and additional efforts of the gardener. She imported thousands of plant names from Europe and tested them on her plantations, selecting guaranteed flowering and frost-resistant species and varieties, in order to then start them up for propagation.

The selection is carried out in the most thorough and exacting manner. Imagine, from a complete collection of irises ordered in the USA, and these are 700 varieties, after seven years of testing in the nursery, less than a third were left - only those that endure our harsh winter. A select bouquet of 200 varieties is amazing. It contains the entire color gamut, and the size of individual specimens is comparable to the size of a human head.


At one time, Inna Aleksandrovna imported Dutch rhododendrons and built winter "houses" over them. As a result, I stopped at wintering without shelter. Many today strive to acquire forsythia. The shrub that has become fashionable attracts with abundant flowering in early spring. However, only ovoid forsythia winters well and blooms in our climate. The rest of the varieties, no matter how coddled with them, will at best respond to care with three or five flowers.

- Vain labor, - Inna Aleksandrovna notes, - to grow magnolias in the open field.The exception is Siebold's magnolia - only this variety overwinters and blooms with us. Experiments with hydrangeas allow us to conclude that excellent garden varieties, although they winter, do not have time to bloom, because the growing season and the number of positive temperatures do not allow them to lay flower buds.

You can, of course, dig it up in the fall and transfer it home for the winter, and return it to the flowerbed in the spring, but is it worth messing around when there are magnificent paniculate and tree-like hydrangeas that winter and bloom without problems in the open field. The most winter-hardy of them - the gorgeous Bretschneider hydrangea - blooms until frost, reaches a height of three meters, and its flower baskets are 20 cm in diameter. Mahonia holly has its own oddities: it winters better if it grows in the shade, and blooms in a sunny place. Therefore, - advises Inna Aleksandrovna, - it is better to choose a place where the soft morning or evening sun will shine on her.

For fifteen years, thousands of plants have been selected and introduced through the "Meristem" nursery.

How to find an approach to gentian?

I was especially interested in flowers, which I cannot grow on my own. These include fragrant violet, dream-herb, gentian and similar exquisite little things. Many times I tried unsuccessfully to achieve the shoots of these lovely flowers, sometimes I succeeded, but the success was not fixed: the shoots died in childhood. A gentian the size of a thimble, bought on the market, did not survive either, and it was not the first freshness. A sad fate befell the lumbago, but I could not find a ready-made royal violet. And, imagine, in response to a question about the cherished, they showed me a sea of ​​spring gentians: of different ages - from tiny little ones to three-year-olds covered with the first buds. It turned out that the gentian is a favorite flower of the owner of the nursery herself, to overcome the difficulties of reproduction of which she set herself the goal.

- I like to overcome difficulties, - says Inna Aleksandrovna, - and it is incredibly difficult to grow a gentian. Especially spring stemless. Three years pass before the first flowering. Also difficult to reproduce lumbago. These flowers are not even cloned. And it was possible to grow stemless thistle only in a laboratory way.

- What a handsome freak, how unusual! - Inna Alexandrovna admires, bending over a plant unfamiliar to me. - He does not share, does not tolerate transplants.

And violets grow here in abundance - there is a white one, and a freckle, and that one - a royal fragrant one. The variegated hellebore blooms in full force. I don't even know what to ask about. In "Meristem" there is everything and more than what I have heard and dreamed of. Incredible.

Unconventional breeding method

The botanical term "meristem" refers to the point of growth of a plant - a group of cells located in the axillary buds, in the apical bud, at the end of the root, under the bark. They are 90% free from all kinds of viruses and bacteria. The meristem size is only 0.001 - 0.005 mm. These cells are isolated under a microscope, placed in a nutrient medium, and microplants begin to develop from them. When they develop, they are checked again for infection with viruses and bacteria, they are given chemotherapy, thermotherapy, and then propagated by microclonal cuttings in nutrient media.

In France, up to 95% of plants are now propagated in this way. This is an expensive technology that requires equipment, specialists, and a large amount of initial, already tested material. The plant of each variety is specific and requires a corresponding microenvironment. It takes a lot of time to introduce culture into production. In Russia, this method was applied only to cereals and potatoes.

The biotechnological laboratory is headed by Natalya Mikhailova (pictured). A physician with experience in the laboratory, she is currently studying at the Faculty of Biology of the university. She introduced me to the laboratory.

Well what can I say? Science fiction, and nothing more. In sterile clean rooms, lab technicians in gloves sit at tables.Tweezers scrupulously separate the plants from each other - cuttings. Every now and then the tool is fired on burners. There are autoclaves, distillers, microscopes, laboratory scales ... In another room, plants with translucent roots turn green on shelves in hundreds of jars on transparent, jelly-like media.

- This is surfiniya, - Natalya shows. - She is already ready for transplanting into soil. But this is an indicator of a violation of sterility - you see: mold.

Decorative, fruit and berry crops multiply in jars. For pink terry gypsophila, reproduction through a test tube is almost the only way to get offspring. They say that cloned raspberries give a 30-40% increase in yield, and strawberries (there are 26 varieties in the nursery) bear fruit in the year of planting.

Plants that have reached the necessary development are transferred from the jars to a sterile soil, where they adapt to normal conditions, grow, overwinter and are offered to customers.

My kingdom for koi carp

Colored carp, popular in many countries of the world, is bred only by "Meristem" in the North-West. Several years ago, in a foreign garden center, Inna Aleksandrovna saw koi carp for the first time, was carried away by them and, by all means, decided to have it at her place. Since then, the years have passed, during which foreign fry grew and spawned, and their children gave the offspring of koi carp of Russian selection. Koyushki, as the hostess affectionately calls them, are adapted to local conditions, hibernate in open reservoirs.

In the nursery, some carp live in ponds. Individuals of interest for breeding are kept at the fish farm. I caught the moment of their spawning. The main fish breeder Nikolai Vladimirovich Kochegura asks me not to make noise, brings me to huge vats with clear water, and I become a witness of the great mystery of the birth of life. It is incomprehensible: from the tiny eggs that appear before my eyes, beautiful fish, like the Firebird, will grow. It looks like a flower grows from a tiny seed. And these creatures of God, born with the help of man, will live on Earth! Thanks to "Meristem".

In the next room, in huge aquariums, there are buffalo, oranda, a goldfish - a comet, black-backed and chintz shubunkins, and a very rare telescope fish. Sterlet and sturgeon swim in the pools. It's too strong an experience for one day. And still ahead of us are nymphs - a separate song of the owner of the nursery. The collection of these plants, like everything else here, is exhaustively diverse. Showing ponds with nymphs, Inna Aleksandrovna connects to the ongoing excavation of rhizomes. There are things that require her personal inspection and participation. She breaks off pieces from the roots - this is for laboratory reproduction.

But soon the tale tells itself, but it takes a long time before the deed is done. Many years passed before "Meristem" presented to the society the fruits of its labor, which we are not yet able to appreciate. For me personally, the day spent in the place closest to paradise near St. Petersburg was a happy revelation.

Natalia Rubleva,
photo of the author


Meristem - an unconventional way of plant propagation and firm - garden and vegetable garden

Please show a photo.
Why only until January gets on the table?


I am reporting. My early non-flowering potato today is 40212, planted on March 20, the tops have begun to lay down, next to the cardinal is still raging. 3 bushes dug in a row 40213, 40214 well, and general view 40215. It appeared about 20 years ago, the school teacher gave my son when he found out that my mother was "sick" with potatoes. Until January I store only for planting, but we start germinating early. This year I want to try to plant young potatoes in August, but I still haven't found the necessary special preparation.

Or maybe Picasso was derived from King Edward or Ataulpa?

Picasso: bred in the Netherlands in 1994 by crossing CARA x AUSONIA.
1 photo of Cara from the official European base, 2 - Cara from a commercial site, 3 - Ausonia - all that I found.
King Edward has nothing to do with it.

Mdaaa.according to this logic, everything that is red on top and in the middle is white "Crimean Rose", but where to put the shape of the tuber, the structure of the bush, leaf, taste, in the end the growing season?

I do not argue, just in the photo, which we began to discuss, besides "Sante" and "Lighters"), there was also a third, unknown variety. And I did not notice the foliage, color, and structure of the bush there. Before that, I said that it is not special in potatoes. just expressed my opinion. IMHO

... Will in the field is low-yielding.
"Will" is my first year, so I can say only from last year's observations in the garden of a fellow countryman, the load is enormous, when planting on April 15 with three leaves each, in the middle of November he mowed green tops, respectively, the harvest is 900 kg from a hundred square meters, the countryman "is sick with potatoes "for the present, and claims that" Volia "is capable of more, I do not load that way, I try to give conditions close to the field, I will report back in the fall.
If you can inform in more detail about your experience with this variety, I will be grateful.

... The nodules were sent by a daughter from France.
What else interesting did you receive?

About Burbank. It turns out that there is an original variety, and there is a GMO variety. And it is this variety that has such a beautiful mesh skin of a rich color.
The one that I have is paler and is eaten by a beetle - it means normal.
I would like to read the original source, because there are many varieties with mesh skin, the Russian "Violetik" for example, mesh depends largely on agricultural technology, it is a pity that I planted it, it was an excellent illustrative example, I will show you a fresh photo in the fall.

Likewise, the photo of Atahualpa itself is the same everywhere on the Internet.

I guessed. And at first I wondered why you need this variety, if you even posted his photo in your album. And then I looked around the sites and saw that this photo is the same everywhere. So - not yours.
Read carefully, I have three albums with potatoes, the title of two begins "Mine."
, then a photo from my garden, and the third "Everything."
it is in it that infa from the Internet is collected, for the convenience of work.


He eats, you bastard.
So we can taste it too.

There is more.
Oh, yes, I was wrong: not one, but two photos :)

Read carefully, I have three albums with potatoes, the title of two begins "Mine."
, then a photo from my garden, and the third "Everything."
it is in it that infa from the Internet is collected, for the convenience of work.
I’m saying that I already understood it. :)

Hello Lyuba. I ask you always just as you think, it is then that we will find what we are looking for.
I will definitely use your advice of the experiment, I will report the result.
The potatoes were stored in nets on pallets, in the cellar until yesterday, barely nipping 10-15 potatoes for 20kg.
And those in the photo were wintering on a hill of sand at the entrance.
I have been growing "Skarb" for 3 years, such a sprouting is constant, then (after sprouting) it evens out.
As I promised, I report on the germination rate of "Skarb": there was not enough time for the experiment with "ringing", it is sinful, but I think that in this case, "ringing" does not need to be convinced for yourself:

What is your land - "white". : shok:
What is this type of land called 7
We have, for example, loamy black soil. Not a gift either.

Members of the forum who have a photo of the Polish "Typhoon" with a flower? Please show me. My first year is not blooming yet, but doubts torment me, or they brought me what I asked for.

Typhoon in studio, landing April 18th.

The peel is similar, but the shape of the tuber is more elongated. For now I will dilute for seeds, and then I will compare by early maturity, large-fruited, taste and stability. We will take a picture.
Yuri.

I fulfill the promises made earlier, I post a photo of the "Black Prince", I want to compare with other dark-skinned varieties. I'm waiting for "Gypsies", "Kubanok", "Cubans", "American", "Negretyanka", "Chuguevskaya", "Yuzhanka" and "Darkie", and maybe there is still.

But in our country, not all varieties have waited for the rain, bent over. Since the end of May, the temperature has been set at +30 "C and higher, and watering has not helped either.

You cannot demand the impossible from a mountain plant.
"The works of A.S. Volovik (1975), V.V. Burlak (1978), B.A.Pisareva (1990) found that the optimal temperature for the growth and tuberization of potatoes is + 15 - 18 ° C, and at a temperature of + 26 - 28 ° C, tuberization and growth of tubers stop, tubers grow, and stolons are formed and branched. High temperatures cause "climatic" degeneration of the potato.
According to A.I. Rudenko (1958) at an average daily temperature of 19 to 21 ° C, the number of very thin and threadlike shoots on potato tubers increases and reaches almost 20%. At a temperature of 24 ° C, the degeneration of tubers reaches 50% or more. At temperatures above 25 ° C, degeneration of 70% of plants and more is observed.
It should be noted that the reaction of various potato varieties to the daily variation of air temperature should be noted. Researcher A.N. Polevoy (1969) found that during the period of tuberization, the temperature optimum for mid-ripening varieties is higher (17-19 ° C) than for early-ripening varieties (15 -17 ° C). For the maturation of early and mid-season varieties, the sum of temperatures above + 10 ° C is 1000 - 1300 ° C, for late 1500 - 1700 ° C (Rudenko, 1958). 1.2.
The ratio of potatoes to moisture.
Water, along with temperature, is one of the most significant limiting factors in potato cultivation. Potatoes are picky about soil moisture, although this need is not the same in different periods of its growth and development.
BA Pisarev (1972, 1977) notes that at the beginning of bud germination and the formation of sprouts, the need for moisture is almost entirely covered by the maternal tuber. With the onset of budding and flowering at the maximum evaporating leaf surface, the need for moisture in potato plants increases sharply. During the period of budding and the beginning of flowering, potatoes are most sensitive to a lack of moisture in the soil. As G.T. Kazmin, E.N. Sushchinskaya (1973) in the Far East in May, potatoes consume 2.0-3.6 mm of water per day, in June - 3-4 mm, in July - 4-5 mm.
It is possible to distinguish the so-called critical period in relation to soil moisture, when a lack of moisture causes irreversible shifts in the development of plants and leads to a significant decrease in yield. Research carried out by S.B. Hukkeri, N.G. Pastane, D.S. Chauhan (1970) show that water stress turned out to be the most dangerous for potatoes in the period 20 - 40 days after planting (formation and lengthening of stolons), the yield in this variant decreased by 29 - 32% compared to the control. During this period, active division and lengthening of myrestematic cells occurs, as well as the initial differentiation of the apical myrestema and the formation of tubers. In this case, water is necessary to maintain cells in a turgid state.
Researchers F.A. Novikov (1937), A.G. Lorkh (1955), F. Ya. Buzover (1957), V.P. Kiryukhin (1970) believe that the highest need for water in potatoes is noted during the period of budding - mass flowering.
During the period of tuberization, the upper limit of the optimum soil moisture is the lowest field moisture capacity, and the lower limit is 65 -70% of this value (Popovskaya, 1957 Zuberbiller, 1968 Singh, 1969 Lapwood, 1971 Hag, 1972 Krug, Wiese, 1972).
Potatoes are better than many other plants at absorbing moisture from the air through their leaves, indicating their origin in humid climates (Opitz, 1949). The absorption of water by leaves from the air reaches more than 2.76 g per 1 dm2 per hour (Klapp, 1950).
Speaking about the demand for moisture of a potato plant, it is necessary to take into account the very close relationship of this factor with temperature. In the works of researchers G. Singh (1969), T.N. Bondareva (1970), V.P. Kiryukhina (1970), K.A. Serova (1971), it is noted that the most favorable ratio between the amount of precipitation and the sum of temperatures during the growing season is determined by the value of the hydrothermal coefficient, expressed in numbers 1.0 - 2.0.
With the onset of drought transpiration and photosynthesis are weakened, the growth and tuberization of potatoes stops. Atmospheric drought can cause the fall of flowers and berries, but the death of plants does not occur (Balashev, 1968). "
"The effectiveness of non-traditional organo-mineral fertilizers in the cultivation of potatoes on leached chernozem in the forest-steppe of the Altai Territory" Dissertation

Today I processed the area with the Roko variety with the fungicide Kurzat, I had to add Confidor Maxi - Prestige could not stand it. Although the landing was on April 28, it was enough for a month and a half.
Your post pushed me to add. garden raid,

after all, I also planted on April 27-29 and the potatoes were processed by "Prestige", because there is no beetle, the agent works, in the pictures of "Avar", there are no inflorescences yet, "Black Prince" will bloom in a week, "Skarb" may in two:

What does this Russet Burbank potato taste like?
Or is it only good for chips?

No, not for chips, for french fries, it turns out dark chips.

Today I processed the area with the Roko variety with the fungicide Kurzat, I had to add Confidor Maxi - Prestige could not stand it. Although the landing was on April 28, it was enough for a month and a half.
In this case, it would be necessary Aktara or Decis. Confidor Maxi - Prestige is one and the same active ingredient.

I also decided to try young potatoes. I dug out one bush of the Ovation planting on April 5 (still blooming).

Boiled with dill, garlic and butter - it was very tasty!: Up:

I wonder what varieties got out of the race?

Oscar and Typhoon left the race, Belarossa so and so, the Impala (Kubanka) feels best of all. It started raining since June 11 and the heat has been for a couple of weeks, before rains, like 30 in the shade. Due to the lack of centralized irrigation, you have to water very little, hence the disastrous result. And Kubanka did not disappoint last year either.

Hello, Vitaly Konstantinovich, I would like to learn more about your Kubanka, there are many varieties, please describe yours in more detail, tuber shape, color, taste. if possible a photo of a flower.

My kubanka is oblong in shape with a yellow skin and creamy flesh. I can describe the taste of potatoes in such a way as potatoes with butter (butter), starchy and the taste of my family - you can't pull it off. Well, I'll take a photo of flowers and a bush tomorrow if there is an opportunity to get into the garden (it rains for four days in a row, not for long, but out of a bucket). Nicholas and please, without Konstantinovich.

Hello, Vitaly Konstantinovich, I would like to learn more about your Kubanka, there are many varieties, please describe yours in more detail, tuber shape, color, taste. if possible a photo of a flower.
I remembered that the album contains a photo of the landing Kubanka (Impala).
http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2438&pictureid=40533&thumb=1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2438&pictureid=40533)

The leader in the "gathering" Impala, Riviera is a little livelier (under the bush there is already a result), Tiras is green, Vedruska blooms (almost nothing under the bush), Zvizdal and Vedruska (while the most fruitful) are still growing. Maybe the last rains will revive which one)
Please describe your Impala, because I have it quite the opposite - it is the leader in everything.

if it doesn't make it difficult, take a photo of the flowering bush "Zhuravinka" and if there is "Zdabytka" I have an eternal problem with Belarusian varieties: Instead of "Zdabytka" ("Tycoon") that year they slipped something like "Zhuravinka"

Nikolai Anatolyevich! Of course I will take Zhuravinka's photo. I have no surplus this year. When I came to our Institute of Potato Growing for planting material in the spring, the Zdabytka was not put up for sale. It was cultivated for several years and was stored normally) .Instead, Atlant took it, it is also from the late group, consistently productive and resistant to a complex of diseases, including phytophthora. By the way, according to the description of the Institute, Zhuravinka has a red peel, light yellow pulp. The rind is partly red, the flesh is white.

Nikolai Anatolyevich! Of course I will take a photo of Zhuravinka. I have no surplus this year. At Zdabytka, the rind is partially red, the flesh is white.
Vadim Borisovich descriptions of the institute are available to us,
http://www.nestorexpo.com/belagro/index.pl?act=PRODUCTS&actid=semena+i+rasteniya

but the photo of the flower, it's a pity only "Zabytchka" and then one thing, I'm not sure it corresponds to reality, is it a flower "Zdabytka" without Photoshop?

I plant it manually, make furrows, apply locally complex mineral fertilizers, lay out the potatoes and spray with Aktara solution (according to Syngenta's regulations). After that I close the furrow. For June and almost July there is enough protection. At the end of summer, single individuals appear, but not so scary . The wire is also not on the harvest. I do not use Aktar on early varieties.

I plant it manually, make furrows, apply locally complex mineral fertilizers, lay out the potatoes and spray with Aktara solution (according to Syngenta's regulations). After that I close the furrow. For June and almost July there is enough protection. At the end of summer, single individuals appear, but not so scary . The wire is also not on the harvest. I do not use Aktar on early varieties.

It is clear, like I'm Prestige, only this way the consumption is greater, and the potatoes are processed only on one side - better on film, although it may be more convenient for you.

potatoes are processed only on one side

It is not necessary to process the entire tuber with a sistemist;

Good day! And tell me, when is it more effective to process potatoes on a leaf with potassium monophosphate? Thank you.

tell me when is it more effective to process potatoes on a leaf with potassium monophosphate?

Welcome to our forum, Julia! Foliar top dressing is best done in the evening, when the heat subsides and the foliage pores open.

Welcome to our forum, Julia! Foliar top dressing is best done in the evening, when the heat subsides and the foliage pores open.

So what to spray flowering or post-flowering? Well I've read that after treatment with monophosphate, the useful from the tops rushes down to the formed tubers. but I got smart, tall bushes, but I want the tubers to be smart too.

So what to spray flowering or post-flowering?

I think you are not interested in airy fruits) Once every two weeks, process boldly and flowering and non-flowering. The amount of "food" received through the foliage can only raise the tone of the plants, and
after treatment with monophosphate, the useful from the tops rushes down to the formed tubers.
this effect can only be achieved by root feeding.

those. dilute 30-50 gr. monophosphate in a bucket of water and add 0.5 liters under the bush?
Sorry, for the stickiness, but for the first time I planted my own potatoes, prepared them for planting, watered them, in fact, I decided to take the issue of growing seriously.


and here I found information

"Is it possible to do foliar feeding of potatoes for filling tubers and at what time?"
To speed up the outflow of nutrients from the leaves and thereby increase the yield, foliar feeding is best done immediately after flowering. To do this, 30-50 g of potassium monophosphate is diluted in 10 liters of water, everything is thoroughly mixed and the tops are sprayed, at the rate of 1 liter per 2 m2. Spraying is best done in the morning in cloudy weather. "

Sorry, for the stickiness, but for the first time I planted my own potatoes, prepared them for planting, watered them, in fact, I decided to take the issue of growing seriously.

That's right! Julia, I'm planting potatoes a little bit (no more than a bucket just to have a meal at the dacha). I don’t pay as much attention to her as you do. I plant the eyes etched with Prestige line by line every 10-15 cm. I fall asleep with mulch and forget about it until it blooms. After a month and a half (when it blooms), I begin to slowly dig. For feeding root crops - I have experience in carrots and beets. Until you give potassium to the root, you won't get sweet fruits on my sand. Foliar dressing (I use the remaining Plantafol after feeding the grapes) only improves the general condition of the plants (they cheer up something). The same applies to morning dressings - from my experience, if I didn't sprinkle it until 6 in the morning, the effect drops to almost zero. Do you need it? Feed in the evening. checked, works.

Thank you, I will process it, I will google, in what growing season is it best to do it)

When treating potatoes for diseases on the sheet, you should pay attention to the composition of the preparation, it should contain an adhesive to fix it on the sheet. It is enough for the sheet to dry once after processing and no rain will wash it off. Personally, I treat diseases together with complex fertilizers, I realize that potatoes can absorb only 5% of the seasonal norm from one foliar feeding, and I do this in order to stimulate growth. The most common time of day for this procedure is sunset, nozzles and pressure should be such that the visibility of fog over the treated area is created. The next day I do weeding or hilling. It is worth taking into account the moon, when it grows, the potato feeds more from the root, when it decreases from the leaf. Therefore, the best processing time on the sheet is the first days of the decrease in the moon.
Regarding the growing seasons: after germination, potatoes most need phosphorus for the development of the root system, before weeding I use yellow crystal (phosphorus + micro) + carbamide (nitrogen) + ecolist (micro + glue). When sprouting 10-15cm I make the first hillock, the day before you can give a brown crystal (potassium + micro) + urea + ecolist. I do the second hillock before flowering itself, on the eve of the same top dressing: brown crystal + carbamide + ecolist. After flowering, you can give a brown crystal + ecolist , but you can no longer give nitrogen.

When treating potatoes for diseases on the sheet, you should pay attention to the composition of the preparation, it should contain an adhesive to fix it on the sheet. It is enough for the sheet to dry once after processing and no rain will wash it off. Personally, I treat diseases together with complex fertilizers, I realize that potatoes can absorb only 5% of the seasonal norm from one foliar feeding, and I do this in order to stimulate growth. The most common time of day for this procedure is sunset, nozzles and pressure should be such that the visibility of fog over the treated area is created. The next day I do weeding or hilling. It is worth taking into account the moon, when it grows, the potato feeds more from the root, when it decreases from the leaf. Therefore, the best processing time on the sheet is the first days of the decrease in the moon.
Regarding the growing seasons: after germination, potatoes most need phosphorus for the development of the root system, before weeding I use yellow crystal (phosphorus + micro) + carbamide (nitrogen) + ecolist (micro + glue). When sprouting 10-15cm I make the first hillock, the day before you can give a brown crystal (potassium + micro) + carbamide + ecolist. I do the second hillock before flowering itself, on the eve of the same top dressing: brown crystal + carbamide + ecolist. After flowering, you can give a brown crystal + ecolist , but you can no longer give nitrogen.

Thank you, I also thought in this direction, I thought on the waning moon with Plantafol 10.54.10 (there are adhesives too), and then I found information about potassium monophosphate. It's just that my bushes grew tall, I added humus with birch ash to each hole, maybe the plants are fattening? Well, the pre-landing processing was done "atomic", but I don't know what to do next. shok:

That's it: D. At the beginning of the article, he writes that he introduced a large amount of potassium into the garden. Synecation - yes, but only when these nutrients are available from where to get them. And for this you need just root dressing or a good dressing of the beds before planting. However, experience is the son of difficult mistakes: D. Need to try.

I will definitely try this year.

what will you be? superphosphate?

superphosphate is poorly soluble in water and needs to be infused in a bucket of water for 24 hours, stirring occasionally.

I read that superphosphate is also very poorly absorbed by the sheet apparatus. Assimilation takes up to 7 days. This is a very old fertilizer and far from the best. I would try Plantafol 10.54.10. This fertilizer is specially formulated for chellate-based foliar applications. Contains adhesive. It is absorbed by the plant in 2 hours.

but you don't know anything about potassium monophosphate in the form of foliar feeding

It is a good "easily digestible": D fertilizer. Certainly better than superphosphate. In addition, in addition to phosphorus, it contains potassium, which is so necessary for the accumulation of starch.

It is a good "easily digestible": D fertilizer. Certainly better than superphosphate. In addition, in addition to phosphorus, it contains potassium, which is so necessary for the accumulation of starch.

I completely agree, an excellent preparation, it helps well for the development of the root system, I recommend it after germination, before weeding.
Charging the soil goes without saying.

and you know nothing about potassium monophosphate in the form of foliar feeding? SPb :-)

That would be your problem for me.
The potatoes are blooming, and there has been no rain for 2 weeks.

About foliar feeding
I am doing this:
2 weeks after the first shoots
Ecolist Potatoes + carbomide - 40 ml per hundred square meters. eco-leaf / 2.5l. water + 50g. carbomide + novalon

during budding
Ecolist Potato + carbomide + novalon
formation of green berries
Ecolist Potato + novalon.
On farmer.ru they write that all the preparations for foliar dressing are just to put it mildly money out. They write that it is better to add azophoska! I didn't do that myself.
I will also add that after these dressings, my potatoes noticeably tighten, in stressful situations they are very useful.

Dissertation "Viral and nematode infections and improvement of control measures on potatoes".

Of the various phytopathogens of potatoes, viruses and nematodes are of particular importance, often constituting an interconnected phytopathocomplex. On potatoes in the countries of the former USSR, 21 species of ultramicroscopic pathogens were identified, including 16 viruses, 4 phytoplasmic pathogens and 1 viroid (Shmyglya, 1985, 1995). Currently, more than 30 viruses are known in the world that infect potatoes and cause a decrease in its yield from 10 to 80% (Ambrosov, 1975, Shpaar, Schumann, 2001). In recent years, soil viruses have become widespread, primarily those transmitted by nematodes, which are highly harmful on various crops. Against the background of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, significant damage to potatoes is caused by parasitic nematodes, among which cyst-forming nematodes (Heteroderidae) are especially dangerous, including two quarantine species, stem and tuber nematodes (Ditylenchus) and numerous representatives of root ectoparasitic perforators, including nematodes that carry viruses of the Long family and Trichodoridae. In recent years, there has been a progressive nature of phytoparasitic pollution of phytocenoses in Russia, often acquiring the character of epiphytotics, with 5 associative relationships of various groups of phytoparasites acquiring particular importance, as was shown by the study of nematodes of the Longidoridae and Trichidoridae families and non-and tobraviruses carried by them (Romanenko, 1993, 1994, 1996 Romanenko, 1996).

1. It was established by the method of serological testing (ELISA) the infection of seed potato tubers with the following viruses: X, Y, M, S, L, TRV, the degree of their dominance was revealed mixed infection in all examined varieties is represented by 2 or more components, the most common of which were: M + L, X + M + L, TRV + M + S + L, X + L, X + M + S + L, TRV + L.

2. The ELISA method revealed vegetative potato plants infected with 13 viruses besides X, Y, M, S, L and TRV, 7 more viruses, nonspecific for tuberous infection, were detected, including AMV, TBRV, TomRSV, TRSV, TNV, CMV, TMV. The most common virus complexes on growing potato plants were the following: X + S, X + S + M, X + S + M + L, X + TRV, X + AMV, AMV + TRV + L. Monoinfection is rare, only for certain viruses.

3. The degree of infection of the examined potato plants with viruses is different. The most affected were potato varieties - Orbita, Nevsky Burbank. The Romano cultivar was weakly affected and the Istrinsky and Maidas cultivars were moderately susceptible.

4. In potato plantations in Moscow and the Moscow Region, 4 species of nematodes known as vectors of viruses were identified: Longidorus elongatus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum (family Longidoridae, order Dorylaimida) and Trichodorus similes and Paratrichodorus teres (family Trichodoridae, order Triplonchida). The number of vectors in the studied ecosystems varied from 1 to 40%. The level of contingency in the spread of viruses and nematodes vectors for the studied ecosystems is 68-80%.

5. In the surveyed plantings, in the root soil of potato plants, representatives of 42 genera of nematodes were found, including parasitic -11 (Globodera rostochiensis, Pratylenchus, Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, etc.), free-living - 13 (mainly genera of the order Dorylaimida), carnivorous - 4 (Mononchus and others), mycohelminths - 4 (Tylenchus, Aphelenchus, etc.) and saprobionts - 10 (mainly representatives of the order Rhabditida).

6. Potato plants of the Romano variety infected with the TRV virus and its complex with other viruses were significantly inferior in height (up to 70%), shoot formation and yield (2-4 times) to healthy plants.

7. Under the conditions of vegetation experiments, a significant nematicidal activity of the studied strains of antagonist bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, AR-33, Bacillus thuringiensis 86, 132, Bacillus polymixa, A-l, Enterobacter sp., 49) and the antagonist fungus Trichoderma R. virida, strain was established.on the complex of the most dangerous parasitic nematode species (Globodera rostochiensis, Longidoridae, Trichodoridae, etc.)

8. A high nematicidal effect of oligofurostanoside and immunocytophyte on nematodes-carriers of non- (AMV) and To6pa- (TRV) viruses: Xiphinema diversicaudatum and Paratrichodorus teres (a decrease in their number in the rhizosphere and the number of plants infected with them) was established when processing tubers and aboveground organs of potatoes ...

9. The tested drugs (immunocytophyte, oligofurostanoside, zircon, F760, F1153, narcissus, planriz, trichodermin, nikfan) did not completely eliminate viruses in the tissues of potato plants, but significantly reduced their content. The drug narcissus was found to have a high antiviral activity. The drugs differed in their effect on specific viruses, with the lowest reduction in tobacco rattle virus (TRY) and the highest in the case of potato X virus. A high antiviral effect of oligofurostanoside and immunocytophyte on nepo- (AMY) tobra viruses (TRV) was established.

10. Most of the studied preparations (except for zircon and nikfan) had a positive effect on the growth, shoot formation and yield of potato varieties Romano and Orbita affected by the complex of viruses. When processing potato tubers and vegetative plants, the growth and shoot formation of plants increased by 1.5-2 times, and the yield increased by 2-3 times.

1. To recommend to carry out extensive production trials of the drug narcissus from the complex of viruses infecting potatoes and the drug - oligofurostanoside (0.0001% d.v.) to suppress the activity of neo- and tobroviruses and nematodes of their carriers - longidorid and trichodorid by treating tubers and spraying plants.
2. The potato variety Romano is recommended as virus-resistant.

Today I dug out the first potatoes for vernalization. Potatoes have been blooming for more than 3 weeks, the sign of Capricorn in the waning moon, in short, decided that it was time to start experiments with vernalization.
The tops are still green, but the tubers are already quite good.

http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49307&thumb=1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49307) http: //forum.vinograd. info / picture.php? albumid = 2453 & pictureid = 49308 & thumb = 1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49308) http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid= 2453 & pictureid = 49313 & thumb = 1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49313)

I dug up several early and mid-early varieties. We were especially pleased with the varieties Riviera (super early), Gala and Ovation (mid-early). Under a bush, up to 40 pieces of different sizes (planted with uncut large tubers)

http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49314&thumb=1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49314) http: //forum.vinograd. info / picture.php? albumid = 2453 & pictureid = 49309 & thumb = 1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49309) http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid= 2453 & pictureid = 49316 & thumb = 1 (http://forum.vinograd.info/picture.php?albumid=2453&pictureid=49316)

Upset "Egyptian" - from 3 to 6 large tubers under the bush (well, beautiful, infections). I will not vernalize yet, the most beautiful bushes are still vegetating and blooming with might and main, I will wait for the harvest from them.

Tomorrow I buy them, weigh them, treat them with a solution and lay them out under a tree, covering them with something. I will plant in mid-late July.

Today I dug up the first potatoes for vernalization. ///

Upset "Egyptian" - from 3 to 6 large tubers under the bush (well, beautiful, infections). I will not vernalize yet, the most beautiful bushes are still vegetating and blooming with might and main, I will wait for the harvest from them.

Tomorrow I buy them, weigh them, treat them with a solution and lay them out under a tree, covering them with something. I will plant in mid-late July.
Marina, your "Egyptian" in appearance may well be "Nicolas", at least the tuber looks very similar in appearance, take a photo of the bush, mine will grow up comparable.
And again, at the most interesting place, the point is put.
P.S. The beetle eats it just like that.

Dissertation "Viral and nematode infections and improvement of control measures on potatoes".

1. To recommend to carry out extensive production trials of the drug narcissus from the complex of viruses infecting potatoes and the drug - oligofurostanoside (0.0001% d.v.) to suppress the activity of neo- and tobroviruses and nematodes of their carriers - longidorid and trichodorid by treating tubers and spraying plants.
2. The potato variety Romano is recommended as virus-resistant.
The dissertation is an explicit advertising order, look at the topic, and the final recommendations, they promised little to the author.
Yes, and time has put its mark on the "i", "Romano" could not stand it, dropped out of the race, in most regions.

And you did not pay attention - did the beetle eat it or not?
I ate. At the level of other varieties. I do not process tubers with Prestige (and nothing else), so the data is 100%.

take a photo of the bush, mine will grow up comparable.
Nikolay, the bush sfotan, but, unfortunately, it has already "fallen apart"

The photo is like this. Flowers were on only one bush (the rest were torn off). In my opinion, this variety is not one of the early ones. Planted on March 26, it is still buzzing with might and main, although the tubers are the largest dug out (and the most beautiful).

My Egyptian of the autumn harvest, left for a summer planting, has long sprouted, and I will have to plant it now (otherwise it has already begun to fade). I planted a part today after digging up the potatoes.

And again, at the most interesting place, the point is put. I will chemise tomorrow, in the evening I will provide a report with photos.

I will chemise tomorrow, in the evening I will provide a report with photos.
... and weighing results, it is interesting to calculate the potential yield of these varieties.

Today I dug out the first potatoes for vernalization.
Tomorrow I buy them, weigh them, process them with a solution and lay them out under a tree, covering them with something. I will plant in mid-late July.

If it's easy, your vernalization procedure is in the studio.

If it's not difficult, your vernalization procedure is in the studio.

Learn to search the topic http://forum.vinograd.info/showpost.php?p=239099&postcount=825:smiling:

I agree. But if I grew up this Egyptian potato and it turned out tasteless, then yes. And this I bought was imported from Egypt and also tasteless. What is the point of taking it from such a distant place if it does not differ in some good properties? Is that only because of the fact that last year we have badly disfigured.
This Egyptian potato had tubers of an elongated, flattened shape. According to your link, it is similar to the variety "Nikola".
By the way, I noticed that all the varieties there are mostly not for frying. Don't they eat fried?
I think it makes sense to continue the conversation after the harvest, I'll taste my "Nicolas" "Laura" "Sheri" then I'll tell you.
You did not read the information very carefully: "shops do not guarantee that the purchased potatoes will be suitable for the chosen cooking method"
"Nicolas" for salads and casseroles, "Laura" is recommended for frying

is it not cognitive? damaging the root system.
The hillock is needed to close the moisture, and improve air access to the root system, if there is a need (the soil will be clogged with rains), then after flowering I will do chiseling. With a row spacing of 65 cm. wheels and bottom of the hiller max. 25 cm. the total remainder for the roots in a row is 40cm. quite enough with a reasonable adjustment of the hilling depth.

Once again I want to complain about Prestige. Today I called the supplier, I say my wireworm is eating potatoes at full speed - he says it was necessary to give 3 l / t of tubers and the Germans do that. I say okay, we passed the wireworm, but what about the beetle? (out of 5 sections on 2, I already had to do the processing from the beetle, 3 are still holding on) they hung up on this question, or the connection was lost))

I dug a bush of Bela Rose planting on April 5 - 7 cartoplin with a chicken egg, something is not thick, it should still knit.
The good news is that after the rains in the area where the shoots were about 70% of the potatoes came to life and shoots began to appear, will the question be in time for the potatoes to grow? and will you get marketable tubers?

Once again I want to complain about Prestige. the wireworm eats potatoes at full speed. out of 5 plots, 2 have already had to do processing from the beetle, 3 are still holding
"Prestige", like any other drug, is designed for a certain temperature, excessive heat, the decay process is accelerated, the action stops earlier, this is force majeure, due to weather conditions.

I dug a bush of Bela Rose planting on April 5 - 7 cartoplin with a chicken egg, something is not thick, it should still knit.
The good news is that after the rains in the area where the shoots were about 70% of the potatoes came to life and shoots began to appear, will the question be in time for the potatoes to grow? and will you get marketable tubers?
The bulk of the crop is formed after flowering. If the potatoes have bloomed, and everything is fine, the growing season continues, then this is only 25% of the harvest, then the main thing is to keep the bushes green. The optimal growing time for each variety is different, but it is considered the same: from planting to the first signs of withering of the tops + 10 days.
Read the characteristics of your varieties:
http://forum.vinograd.info/showpost.php?p=272496&postcount=1645
P.S. From planting to the first shoots, 21 days are considered to be.

It was in spring, time has passed, and life does not stand still, which version of vernalization Marina will choose now is very interesting.
Everything was done according to the instructions: the powders were diluted in hot water, brought to volume, gibberellin was added (I bought it separately and spread it fresh). Each type of potato was washed from the ground, scratched with a plastic fork and folded for weighing. Then I poured it into a bucket with a solution for 1 min. (counted up to 60: D). She took it out with her hands and put it in drawers. Truncated! :)
The name of the varieties was printed in advance and pasted over with adhesive tape on both sides (like laminated: D). Conveniently it turned out: up:
I took everything under the apricot, covered one variety with a rag, the other with straw, moistened it all.
Does anyone have an opinion whether it is better to keep them in the dark or cover them with something light?
As a result, she rewarded 15 kg of potatoes.

Riviera and Ovation are leading in terms of yield:
Riviera - from 2 bushes - 56 tubers - 4.25kg. (planting tubers were 200g each)
Ovation - from 3 bushes - 46 tubers - 3.5 kg (planting tubers were 100g each)
Gala and Typhoon - much more modest
Gala - from 4 bushes - 88 tubers (+ a bunch of small ones) - 4.5 kg (4 kg selected for planting)
Typhoon - from 4 bushes - 37 tubers - 1.7 kg
I wonder how much a ripe crop is higher than an early dug one?


While writing, Nikolay has already answered my second question. Thank you. True, I doubt that six more would have joined my 2nd kg: D

Riviera and Ovation are leading in terms of yield:
Riviera - from 2 bushes - 56 tubers - 4.25kg. (planting tubers were 200g each)
Ovation - from 3 bushes - 46 tubers - 3.5 kg (planting tubers were 100g each)
Gala and Typhoon - much more modest
Gala - from 4 bushes - 88 tubers (+ a bunch of small ones) - 4.5 kg (4 kg selected for planting)
Typhoon - from 4 bushes - 37 tubers - 1.7 kg
I wonder how much a ripe crop is higher than an early dug one?


While writing, Nikolay has already answered my second question. Thank you. True, I doubt that six more would have joined my 2nd kg: D
I wrote about varieties and predictions specifically in the "dickblom" situation
for example: "Belaroza". 7 pcs. with a chicken egg "is 0.7 kg * 4 = 2.8 kg. This weight from a bush of this variety can still be" squeezed ", but you have to sweat.
In your Marina case, taking into account the varieties and terms of the growing season, mature bushes should add about 20%, maybe some (Typhoon?) And more.

[QUOTE = yurko-s293567] Dissertation "Viral and nematode infections and improving measures to combat them on potatoes."

Dissertation "Ecological aspects of development of agrobiological means of control of populations of melodyogin on the example of protected grounds".
... "It is very important to use natural nematicides in the regulation of the population of parasitic nematodes, the source of which can be plant extracts, the nematoxicity of which was recognized as early as the 17th century, when in 1657 Coles pointed out that the juice of marigold flowers, buried in the ears, kills" worms " However, a detailed study of this issue was not carried out until the eighties of the last century, when environmental problems began to acquire paramount importance.

The importance of agrotechnical and biological methods, the use of biogenic agents and biologically active substances in the regulation of populations of harmful organisms is noticeably increasing. In this regard, avermectins deserve special attention - the waste products of actinomycetes Streptomyces avermitilis, which have a nerve-paralytic effect on nematodes [156]. Of particular importance is the use of the biological potential of rhizospheric bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, as well as predatory and parasitic fungi of the genera Arthrobotiys, Paecilomyces, Trichoderma, etc. The creation of soil suppression by expanding the arsenal of biological agents is a key problem of our time.
... The nematicidal properties of pine and aspen infusions have been revealed, which make it possible to recommend the primary use of sawdust of these particular species as a loosening agent for greenhouse soils.

In vitro studies have revealed a high nematicidal activity of extracts of mustard, corn and marigolds, the effectiveness of which increases during storage for 7 days. The possibility of using preparations in the form of free-flowing powders is shown, the fractional introduction of which lengthens the period of protective action with a disinfection efficiency of up to 65%.

4. Established nematicidal action of biological products based on bacteria. The nematicidal effect of Bacillus thuringiensis was revealed, and the optimal dose of Bicol (200 g / m2) with a biological effectiveness against root gall nematodes at the level of 50% was established.

A 37% efficiency of seed treatment with Pseudobacterin-2 at a consumption rate of 100 ml / kg was revealed, indicating the promising use of the symbiosis of Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis when treating soil and seeds in regulating the density of the melodogin population.

6. Studies have established that the treatment of plants with elicitors from the group of rostregulators (Narcissus, Immunocytophyte, Krezacin, Albit, Silk, Mival) during the growing season turned out to be much more effective than seed treatment, while their biological efficiency ranged from 38 to 44.9%. The effectiveness of elicitors on cucumbers did not exceed 14%. Considering that, in addition to immunological properties, all studied elicitors also have growth-regulating activity, contributing to an increase in yield, their use in the system of cultivation of greenhouse crops in combination with other measures will contribute to obtaining stable high yields of environmentally friendly products.

7. Revealed high nematicidal activity of Agravertin, P (2 g / kg) with biological efficiency within 90% against root-knot nematodes, which is 10-20% better than the standard Vidat, G (100 g / kg). The unambiguity of the obtained results of field and production experiments, the high biological and economic efficiency of Agravertine, P (2 g / kg) allow us to recommend it for wide practical use in the regulation of the number of rootworm nematodes in protected ground conditions with a consumption rate of 200 g / m2 in 2-5 days. before planting seedlings in the ground, for the localization of foci or continuous application at a population density of melodyogin over 100 individuals / 100 cm3 of soil.

8. The prospects of using microbiological fertilizers in the system of regulation of the density of melodyogin in soil cenoses of greenhouses have been established. Treatment of seeds and soils before planting seedlings in the soil with Azotovit, APM, Baikal EM-1 under the conditions of the growing experiment reduced the soil contamination with the southern rootworm nematode by 55, 64 and 61%, respectively. "


METHOD FOR PUTTING POTATO NEATHODE
Patent of the Russian Federation
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used to combat cyst-forming potato nematode.
The cyst-forming potato nematode Globodera rostochiensis Woll is a highly harmful phytoparasitic nematode and is a quarantine object. The fight against potato nematode is mandatory for both collective farms and owners of personal plots. When even a low level of infestation is detected, a sharp decrease in potato productivity and a deterioration in the quality of the products obtained are observed. In the infested areas, the potato yield can decrease by 60-70%, and with a strong infestation, there is a complete death of potato crops.
Chemicals, fumigants, nematicides, for example, thiazone, heterophos, urea DD, etc., are widely used as means of protecting potatoes from nematodes.
However, these drugs are highly toxic to warm-blooded animals and humans and therefore require great care when working with them. In addition, they are effective at high application rates, which leads to the accumulation of nitrates, phosphorus and organochlorine compounds in the soil.
There is also known a method of combating Globodera rostoch. according to which granular nematicides are introduced into the soil, such as oxamil at a dose of 30, 60, 90 kg / ha, etoprofos at a dose of 60, 90, 120 kg / ha or fenamiphos at a dose of 70, 110, 150 kg / ha. Oxamil was most effective at a dose of 60 kg / ha, providing a decrease in the nematode population by 71% and an increase in yield by 59% (Kalyviotis Gazelas Claery Control of gelden nematode with granular nematicides. "Ann. Inst. Phytopathol. Benaki", 1982, N 13 , N 2, 145-150).
The disadvantage of this method is the high toxicity of drugs for warm-blooded animals, so for oxamil LD50 for rats orally is 5.4 mg / kg d. and high consumption rates of nematicides, which lead to environmental pollution. It should be noted that for the intensive decomposition of oxamyl, special soil conditions are required: good aeration, sunlight, an alkaline environment and high temperature. In practice, such a complex of factors is difficult to provide.
Recently, an integrated potato nematode control system has become widespread, including the use of soil fumigants along with the cultivation of nematode resistant potato varieties, as well as the introduction of crop rotation.
So, there is a known method of combating the golden potato nematode, according to which the soil is treated with fumigants (carbofuran, etaprop, oxamil, fenamiphos, aldicarb) and pasture grasses are grown as a precursor to potato crops.
However, these fumigants have strong phytotoxicity and toxicity, and in the climatic conditions of the North-West of the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia, in particular in Karelia, the use of these nematicides is difficult due to insufficient soil heating in spring and autumn, when it is recommended to apply these preparations. In accordance with the instructions for the use of fumigants, they must be applied to a depth of 15 cm, at a soil temperature of over 10 ° C, and potatoes can be planted a month after the field has been cultivated. Thus, the application of nematicides occurs at the end of May, June or August, which excludes the possibility of growing potatoes during this growing season. The disadvantages of this method also include the fact that all nematicides are scarce expensive drugs and are produced in our country in insufficient quantities, as a result of which they have to be partially purchased abroad.
The invention is based on the task of creating an effective, economical and environmentally friendly method of controlling the potato nematode.
For this, a mixture of freshly crushed pine and spruce bark with a fraction of 0.1-0.5 cm, containing, by weight, is used as a nematicidal agent. pine bark 50-60 spruce bark 40-60. The specified mixture of pine and spruce bark mulch the soil at a dose of 70-80 t / ha.
The proposed method is effective and economical. Its use in practice provides a 3-7 times decrease in the density of the parasite population and eliminates the cost of purchasing nematicides. The efficiency of the method is also increased due to the utilization of the large-tonnage waste of wood debarking (only in Karelia it forms 600-700 thousand m3 annually) and the reduction of environmental pollution and the costs associated with these problems.
The advantage of the method is that, being an environmentally friendly method of control, it creates favorable conditions for the growth and development of potato plants and thereby makes it possible to increase the yield of potatoes to 450 c / ha, with an average yield in Karelia of about 130 c / ha.
The method was tested during 1989-1993. on susceptible and immune to Globodera rostochiensis Woll. varieties of potatoes in laboratory and in the field.
PRI me R 1. Study of the nematicidal effect of a mixture of freshly crushed pine and spruce bark and the identification of effective doses of mulching was carried out on a nematode-susceptible potato variety "Detskoselsky". Potato plants were grown under laboratory conditions in 2.0 L pots from May to August.The substrate for cultivation was sand; Knop's medium containing all the necessary nutrients was used as a nutrient solution. Introduced infestation rate (Globodera rostochiensis Woll.) 100 cysts per plant. Freshly chopped pine and spruce bark with a fraction of 0.1-0.5 cm was mixed in a ratio of 50% pine and 50% spruce and the substrate was mulched in flowerpots. Three options were investigated:
1) mulching at the rate of 70 t / ha bark
2) mulching at the rate of 80 t / ha of bark
3) mulching at the rate of 90 t / ha of bark.
As a control, nematode-infected potatoes were grown without mulching with a bark mixture. Each variant and control were performed in six replicates. The results are presented in table. one.
From the data presented in table. 1, it follows that a freshly crushed mixture of spruce and pine bark with a fraction of 0.1-0.5 cm has a pronounced nematicidal effect on Globoders rostochiensis Woll. In the experimental variants, the level of invasion increased 2.7-4 times, in the control variant without the introduction of mulch from the bark, the level of invasion increased 26 times. The most pronounced nematicidal effect is observed at a dose of bark mulching of 90 t / ha, but at the same time there is a decrease in the weight of potato tubers. Therefore, the optimal dose of mulching is 70-80 t / ha.
PRI me R 2. Grown potato plants, variety "Detskoselsky" similar to example 1, but mulching with a mixture of pine and spruce bark was carried out at a dose of 70 t / ha. Three options were investigated:
1) mulching with freshly crushed bark with a fraction of 0.1 cm
2) mulching with freshly crushed bark with a fraction of 0.5 cm
3) mulching with freshly crushed bark with a fraction of 1.0 cm.
As a control, nematode-infected potatoes were grown without mulching with a bark mixture. Each variant and control were performed in six replicates. The results of the experiment are presented in table. 2.
Analysis of the data given in table. 2 showed that a mixture of pine and spruce bark, crushed to a particle size of 0.1 cm 0.5 cm, has the greatest nematicidal activity, which is confirmed by the smallest increase in the nematode population in variants (1 and 2). The level of invasion in them increased 3 times; in control, the growth of nematode populations increased 17 times. A mixture of bark with a fraction of 1.0 cm has a lower efficiency, compared with the control, there is a decrease in the increase in the number of nematodes by 2.5 times, while a mixture of a bark with a fraction of 0.1-0.5 cm decreases by 5.2-5.5 times ... Therefore, to suppress the number of nematodes, it is advisable to mulch with a mixture of bark, crushed to a particle size of 0.1-0.5 cm.
PRI me R 3. Grown potato plants, variety "Detskoselsky" similar to example 1, but the substrate was mulched with a mixture containing a different ratio of pine and spruce bark fraction of 0.1 cm at a dose of 70 t / ha. Five options were explored:
1) mulching with a bark mixture containing, wt. pine bark 40 spruce bark 60
2) mulching with a bark mixture containing, by weight. pine bark 50 spruce bark 50
3) mulching with a bark mixture containing, by weight. pine bark 60 spruce bark 40
4) mulching with one pine bark
5) mulching with one spruce bark.
As a control, nematode-infected potatoes were grown without mulching with a bark mixture. Each variant and control was performed in six replicates. The results are presented in table. 3.
Analysis of the experimental data given in table. 3 shows that the greatest nematicidal effect is provided by compositions 3 and 2, containing, respectively, wt. pine bark 60, spruce 40, and pine 50, spruce 50. The level of invasion under the influence of composition 3 increased 3.2 times, and under the action of composition 2 increased 3.4 times, which is 5.2-5.5 times lower than in control. Mulching the substrate with only ground pine or spruce bark has a less pronounced nematicidal effect than their combined use in the ratio indicated in compositions 2 and 3.
PRI me R 4. The study of the nematicidal effect of crushed pine and spruce bark with a fraction of 0.1 cm, containing pine bark 50% spruce bark 50% was carried out in the state farm "Konchezersky" in the field on an area of ​​100 m2. The plot was fertilized with cow dung (500 kg / 100 m2) and divided into two parts: experimental and control. On the experimental part of the plot, mulching was carried out with the above bark mixture with a layer of 2 cm at a dose of 400 kg per 500 m2, i.e. at the rate of 80 t / ha for the nematode-resistant potato variety Prigozhiy-2. The initial density of the nematode population at the site was high and amounted to 50-75 cysts / 100 cm3 of soil. In the experiment with mulching with a mixture of bark at the end of the growing season, the number of nematode cysts decreased by 3-5 times and amounted to 17 cysts / 100 cm3 in control, without mulching with bark, the number of cysts practically did not change and amounted to 80 cysts per 100 cm3 of soil. Thus, mulching with the mixture made it possible to reduce the number of potato nematodes by 66%. The yield of potatoes of the Prigozhiy-2 variety was 450 centners per hectare, which is 3 times higher than the average yield in Karelia.
The analysis of the soil subjected to mulching with a mixture of bark showed that its acidity did not change and was pH 6.3-6.5, the amount of nitrogen also remained the same (0.14%), traces of nitrates were found in the soil (0.65 mg / 100 g of soil).
The above examples 1-4 indicate that the claimed method of combating potato nematode is effective, economical and environmentally friendly. In addition, the method makes it possible to eliminate the nature-polluting effect of coniferous tree debarking waste on the environment, suggesting their use as a means to combat potato nematode. The method is simple and available for widespread use in agricultural practice.


Echinacea purpurea Magnus - this plant reaches 1.5 meters in height. It has large flowers up to twelve centimeters in diameter. The central part is colored brownish yellow. At the edges there are petals of a violet-purple hue. Flowers are held on hard and rough stems.

Echinacea Butterfly Kisses Is a perennial variety that reaches a height of 40 cm. It has bright pink flowers with a pink-brown center. The plant grows into a dense shrub, the diameter of which is more than half a meter.

Echinacea Cherry Fluff Is a perennial dwarf variety. An adult plant reaches a height of 45 cm. It has flowers of a delicate color. Petals are white and slightly drooping. The center is painted in several shades that smoothly transition from one to another. The underside turns light pink to cream and then lime color.

Echinacea Lemon Drop Is a perennial variety that grows up to 50 cm. The plant has beautiful yellow flowers, which consist of drooping petals and a velvet, spherical center. It blooms throughout the summer, perfectly tolerates the heat under the scorching rays of the sun.

Echinacea Green Twister - this variety grows up to 60 cm. It has large flowers, colored in several shades. The central part of the flower is maroon, and there are yellow-pink petals along the edges. The plant grows into a wide and dense shrub.

Echinacea Eccentric

A perennial plant that grows up to 60 cm in height. It has large inflorescences, consisting of a spherical, double center and lowered petals. Young flowers are painted in a fiery orange hue, and after flowering, they change color to bright red. This variety needs fertile soils and regular watering.

Echinacea Supreme Flamingo - a perennial growing up to 70 cm. It has large flowers with a double orange-red center, framed by a skirt of red-violet petals. The plant grows into clumps with a diameter of half a meter.

Echinacea Supreme Cantaloupe - a perennial variety, the stems of which grow up to 75 cm. It has large flowers, consisting of a double brown pom-pom and orange-yellow petals.The plant forms a dense shrub that grows well both in the shade and in the sun.

Echinacea Summer Salsa - the total height of the plant reaches 80 cm. Double red-orange inflorescences grow on strong stems. This variety is not whimsical to grow. It blooms beautifully in moderately acidic soil in an open, sunny area. Does not like abundant watering.

Echinacea Greenline Is an excellent perennial variety. Its flowers reach a diameter of 8 cm. They consist of a lime-colored terry pom-pom and white lower petals. An adult shrub grows up to 70 cm. Loves nutritious soils and moderate watering. It tolerates cold winters well without shelter.

Echinacea Blackberry Truffle - perennial growing up to 80 cm. Ripe inflorescences reach 10 cm in diameter. They have a pink pompom with a brown crown and delicate purple petals. The flowers stand out clearly against the background of brown stems and green foliage. One shrub gives up to thirty inflorescences.

Echinacea Marmalade - an excellent perennial variety, reaching 60 cm. The flowers are large with a diameter of 10 cm. They consist of a yellow-orange terry pom-pom with raspberry blotches and green-yellow petals. Drought tolerant and dislikes frequent watering.

Echinacea Double Decker - an ornamental variety that grows up to 50 cm. It is unique in that it has unusual inflorescences. It looks like a chamomile, but as it ripens, another flower with pink petals appears on the double central part.

Echinacea Terry

This is the common name for all perennial varieties that have flowers in the shape of a fluffy ball. At the bottom, the pom-pom is framed with delicate petals. There are a variety of colors - white, red, pink, green, orange. Terry varieties can be colored in one color or in several shades.

Echinacea Red Hat Is a perennial variety of purple echinacea. The shrub reaches one meter in height. It has large inflorescences similar to chamomile up to 12 cm in diameter. The plant tolerates cold winters well, but needs shelter for the first year.

Echinacea Hot Papaya - perennial, reaching 90 cm in height. It has large flowers with a red-orange double pom-pom. It begins to bloom from July to September. Forms dense bushes. Loves sunny areas and minimal watering.

Echinacea Meteor Red - this variety has large and double inflorescences. They consist of a red pom-pom with a green center and drooping petals of an orange-yellow hue. It blooms for a long time and in large batches of buds. The shrub grows to a height of 30 cm.

Echinacea Cherry Fluf - a dwarf variety that grows no more than 45 cm. In its double flower, there are lime, pink-cream and white tones. It quickly grows into lush shrubs with a diameter of 40 cm. It begins to bloom in August and stops at the end of September.

Echinacea Milkshake - is another variety of Echinacea purpurea. Young flowers have a lush light green pompom with an orange center. It is surrounded by white petals. Flowers retain this decorative effect for two months. The shrub can grow up to 1.5 meters.

Echinacea officinalis - such varieties include Bolero and Tanyusha. They were created by breeders specifically for the pharmaceutical industry, therefore they are not sold in stores in the form of seeds. Among the medicinal species on the free market, you can find seedlings of Echinacea purpurea: Mustang, Livadia, Red Umbrella and Red Hat.


Planting and care in the open field, growing from seeds

Eustoma or Lisianthus is a herbaceous annual or perennial plant. Eustoma belongs to the prominent representatives of the gentian family. Initially, its habitat was considered to be the territory located in the south of North America, Mexico, the north of South America, and the plant was also found on the islands of the Caribbean.

The translation of the name of the flower Eustoma from the Latin language means "beautiful mouth" or "beautifully speaking".Native Indians invented a legend that tells of his appearance. Once, after the death of a girl, an unknown flower bloomed at the site of her grave. The ancient story says that the girl fell victim to the spirit of war. He severely punished her for disobeying and refusing to offer marriage. In Europe, the plant became known thanks to the doctor and scientist Patrick Brown, who was born in Ireland.

The environment of experienced flower growers, eustoma is especially popular both for growing in the garden and at home. Cut flowers can be stored like this for about three weeks, while retaining their attractiveness and freshness. In artificial conditions, the plant began to grow in the last century.

Description of eustoma flower

Strong and graceful stems of eustoma resemble carnation stems in their structure and can reach a height of about a meter. The branch looks like a real bouquet due to the excessive branching of the stems. The number of buds on one branch fluctuates about 35 pieces, which bloom, replacing each other. The leaves, gray or bluish with a matte finish, have an elongated oval appearance.

Large flowers are funnel-shaped, cups are 5-8 cm in diameter. There are pink, lilac, white and purple buds. They can be the same color or have contrasting edging around the edges of the calyx. The half-open flower slightly resembles a rosebud, and the fully open one resembles a poppy.

Eustoma growing in its natural habitat is considered a biennial plant. The horticultural period only takes one season. In a flowerpot, she can live for about 4-5 years, and for open ground, her life span is reduced to several years.

Types and varieties of eustoma

Today, about 60 varieties of eustoma are bred. The indoor variety is called Russell's eustoma, and a large-flowered crop is used for garden cultivation. Some of the florists do not even distinguish between these types. To date, there are still disputes between them on this issue. However, for convenience, we will nevertheless highlight the main varieties of eustoma, depending on the purpose. For example, in order to cut a flower and further use it in bouquets, tall crops are bred. The stems of indoor plants reach a height of no more than 45 cm.

Tall eustoma varieties

  • Aurora - has blue, white, blue or pink buds and early flowering.
  • Echo - reaches a height of 70 cm, has spreading stems and large buds. 11 color varieties of this variety are grown.
  • Heidi - reaches a height of 90 cm, is characterized by frequent flowering. The variety has 15 color varieties.
  • Flamenco - the tallest and most picky variety, which can reach 90-120 cm. Large flowers have many shades.

Indoor varieties of eustoma

  • Mermaid - a low, branched plant, stems 12-15 cm long, small flowers can be white, blue, pink or purple in color.
  • Littlebell - reaches a height of 15 cm and does not need a clothespin, has simple funnel-shaped cups in various shades.
  • Eustoma Loyalty - a white flower up to 20 cm high, on which numerous simple buds are spirally located.
  • FloridaPink - a variety that has pink flowers that form a bouquet of the correct shape.

Features of growing eustoma

  • Eustoma should be planted in sunny and open areas of the garden.
  • The soil for planting is a prepared mixture of peat and humus.
  • The plant is grown using seeds. Cuttings are unable to reproduce because the root system is very fragile and does not divide.
  • The plant can only be watered if the surface of the substrate dries out, since it does not tolerate excessive moisture.
  • After the plant gets stronger and begins to bloom, do not transplant it elsewhere. The roots will not be able to take root in foreign soil and will simply die.
  • At home, flowerpots should be stored in a cool and well-ventilated room.

Growing eustoma from seeds

Growing a full-fledged strong plant at home is a rather difficult task even for experienced flower growers. Such a laborious and long-term process will surely bear good results. Today, among many garden and indoor crops, eustoma is gaining more and more popularity. For starters, it is worth noting the fact that small seeds are the main reason for the difficult cultivation of eustoma. Before planting begins, they are subjected to a special treatment that allows them to achieve high yields. The seeds have a low germination rate. Only 60 of 100 seeds can take root, and the rest will die.

Horticultural crops begin to be cultivated in February or March. Planting this early will allow the eustoma to bloom in July or August. A prepared sterilized substrate is used as a soil, which is distinguished by a low amount of nitrogen in its composition. The scattered seeds should be lightly pressed against the soil and covered with plastic wrap or glass to keep the soil surface from drying out.

To provide easy ventilation of the air, it is required to provide for small holes. Planted plants need additional lighting, so electric lamps are installed above them. The ideal daytime air temperature for seed development is considered to be at least 20 degrees, at night it should not drop below +14 ºC. To maintain constant soil moisture, regular spraying is necessary.

If all the conditions for the correct cultivation of eustoma are met, the first green shoots should appear in two weeks. Young shoots must be constantly sprayed with Fitosporin solution. After a month and a half, several pairs of leaves are already formed. The next stage of growing eustoma will be transplanting into pots, and after 3 months the grown seedlings are transferred to open ground.

Eustoma at home

To decorate an apartment in winter with bright and interesting eustoma flowers, it is necessary to sow seeds from July to September. To do this, you need to fill the planting container with a wet substrate, which includes an equal amount of sand and peat, and scatter seeds over it. The prepared containers are placed in a warm and bright place, remembering to regularly spray the soil.

When the first green leaves appear, watering is halved so that the soil surface can dry out slightly in the intervals between them. Then watering is carried out exclusively in the morning. As soon as two pairs of leaves appear on the shoots, the plant is planted in pots.

Indoor varieties of eustoma are quite capricious flowers that require constant lighting and access to oxygen. In the room, it is necessary to maintain an air temperature of 19-22 degrees, and also do not forget to ventilate it regularly. Watering is not done too often. The water must be settled. The leaves do not need to be sprayed so as not to provoke any diseases.

Plant feeding begins with the formation of buds and the rapid growth of stems. Liquid compound fertilizers can be used. Compliance with all conditions will ensure healthy development of the eustoma and re-flowering in a few months.

Details about growing eustoma at home

How to grow eustoma in the garden

Garden eustoma is grown from seeds. Sowing is done in December-January, in this case the first flowers will appear in June-July. As a container for sowing, an excellent option will be low plastic cups, which are filled with the prepared substrate. Seeds are placed in them and covered with film on top, creating artificial greenhouse conditions. It must be raised periodically so that the seedlings can breathe. Additional lighting is required for several months after planting. However, during this time the plants will still grow slowly.At the end of February, cups with young shoots are placed on the windowsill, which, if possible, is located on the sunny side.

Preventive measures to prevent the development of various plant diseases is considered to be spraying the leaves with a Fundazole solution. When a couple of leaves appear on young shoots, they are planted in pots.

You should also remember to water each container and cover it with plastic wrap. After a week, the shoots are doubled. Already at the beginning of March, they can be transplanted into large pots, while you cannot get rid of the earthen coma. This transplant is considered final before the eustoma plants grow outdoors.

Mid-May is the most favorable time for this process, since the risk of frost is minimal. The most suitable place for planting is the protected and unshaded area of ​​the garden. Plants are planted in the evening or when it is cloudy outside.

The prepared hole is poured with water, the seedlings are placed in it along with an earthen lump, the seedlings are covered with a glass jar or a cut plastic bottle on top, which are not removed for 2-3 weeks. The distance between eustoma seedlings should be 10-15 cm. Water them sparingly. Avoid both excess and lack of moisture in the soil.

After 6-8 leaves appear on the stem, the top must be pinched, so the eustoma will branch well. Young seedlings will already get stronger in a month, then they can be fed with a solution of mineral fertilizers, for example, Plantafol, which is used in June to accelerate growth and formation of buds. For watering the roots, you can use the drug Kemira. However, these additives must be dissolved in slightly smaller proportions than those stated in the instructions.

The eustoma begins to bloom in accordance with the time of planting the seeds. The first flowers can be seen in mid-summer if the seeds are sown in late fall or early winter. Also, the timing of flowering is interconnected with climatic weather conditions. When planting seeds at the beginning of the year, it can only be expected in August, and it lasts until the end of October. Old buds gradually wither, and new buds grow to replace them. While in the flowering stage, eustoma is resistant to frost and low temperatures. Only snowfall and severe frost can interfere with this process. Withered flowers are carefully trimmed, giving the opportunity to give birth to young buds.

Diseases and pests

Plant pests include slugs, aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites. Means that protect against insects are the following drugs: Aktaru, Fitoverm, Aktellik, Confidor. To prevent the occurrence of powdery mildew and gray rot, drugs such as Fundazol and Ridomir gold are used as a spray solution. These measures are a kind of prophylaxis that must be carried out regularly in order to maintain a healthy appearance of the plant throughout the entire period of its life.

Eustoma care after flowering

In a homemade variety of eustoma, after the end of the flowering period, it is necessary to cut off the stems, while leaving 2-3 internodes. The flower pot is stored in a cool room, the temperature in which does not exceed 10-15 degrees, watering is reduced and top dressing is excluded. In early spring, when the first green shoots appear, the plant is transplanted into new soil and the frequency of watering is increased.

To increase the duration of flowering of a garden eustoma, an adult plant is transplanted into a flowerpot and transferred to a balcony for storage or placed on a windowsill. This makes it possible to enjoy the beauty of fresh buds for some time. However, each plant needs rest in order to gain strength for a new cycle of life.After the flowers wilt, the leaves turn yellow, the stems are cut at a height of 2-3 internodes so that the plant does not deplete and does not die, and they are transferred to a cool place where it will be stored until early spring. Watering in the cold season is stopped.

Garden flowers Annual and biennial flowers


Echinacea flower - planting and care in the open field. Cultivation of echinacea from seeds, methods of reproduction. Description, types. Photo - Flowertimes.ru

Echinacea (Echinacea) is a flowering ornamental herbaceous perennial from the Astrov family, whose homeland is considered to be the eastern part of North America. The genus consists of 9 species, but the most popular is Echinacea "Purple", which has medicinal properties and is used in folk and official medicine. There are many of its hybrids and varieties that are popular in culture. These are Sonnenlach with dark red flowers, Julia with orange flowers, Cleopatra with bright yellow flowers, Passion Flute with golden flowers, Cantaloupe with pinkish-orange flowers.

The culture consists of rhizomes, high straight stems with a rough surface up to 1-1.5 meters long, oval basal and stem leaves with denticles along the edge, large inflorescences of white, pink and red flowers and fruits - achenes.

Planting echinacea

When to plant echinacea

Most often, planting is carried out after the plant has multiplied by dividing the bush, and this procedure can be carried out in early spring or early autumn.

Site selection and soil preparation

The echinacea planting site should be well lit by the sun during the day. If there is acidic soil on the future flower garden, you will need to dig it up along with lime. The most favorable place will be a fertile site after deep digging with a slightly alkaline or neutral soil composition. Light sandy soils and areas with high humidity will not work for the plant.

How to plant echinacea

Planting young seedlings, bush divisions and seedlings purchased in containers have their own characteristics. Seedlings are planted in planting holes 5 centimeters deep. At the bottom of the hole there is a small layer of compost. Sprinkle the plants with soil mixture and watered abundantly. For the cut, a hole is prepared with a depth of about 20 centimeters. A compost layer on the bottom and watering after planting is also required. It is recommended to plant seedlings purchased in containers by transshipment together with an earthen lump. In a hole about 40 centimeters deep, you need to pour a soil mixture of sand, garden soil and compost (in equal amounts) for about a third of the volume, and then place a seedling there. After filling the planting pit with earth, echinacea is watered.

Outdoor Echinacea Care

Caring for a flowering perennial does not take much time and effort, but it requires attention and care.

Watering

Flowers require frequent and abundant watering, which is best done after sunset. One watering a day will be sufficient.

Weed control

Weed vegetation causes great harm to ornamental crops, therefore it is recommended to weed regularly and in a timely manner. It is necessary to remove weeds at the initial stage, when they have not yet begun to take nutrients useful for echinacea from the soil.

Top dressing and fertilizers

In the first year after planting, the flowers do not need to be fed. Fertilizers are recommended to be applied from the second year of life. It is necessary to maintain the flowers with additional fertilizing in early spring before flowering and after flowering. A complete fertilizer for the crop is a mixture of wood ash and rotted manure.

Pruning

When the flowering period ends, seeds ripen on the plants. They can be harvested for further reproduction. When the collection of seeds is not carried out, then it is worth pruning the wilted buds along with part of the stem.

Echinacea after flowering

Seed collection

The collection of seed material is carried out gradually, because the seeds do not all ripen at the same time. The collection begins at the end of the summer season. The seeds are in the middle of the basket-shaped inflorescence.The maturity of the seeds is determined by the darkened center of the flower. It is more convenient to collect them with gloves. It is recommended to lightly dry the seed and sow it immediately in open ground, since its germination capacity remains for a very short time.

Preparing for winter

The cold-resistant plant will perfectly survive the winter without shelter in the presence of a large snow cover or in moderate cold. If your area is dominated by severe frosts in the absence of snow during the winter months, then it is worth taking care of the plants in advance. In the first year after planting, young crops definitely need a protective structure to keep warm. In the fall, around the last week of October, all stems are pruned and mulched. The compost mulch should cover the root collar, and the entire flower garden should be covered with a layer of fallen leaves and spruce branches on top.

Reproduction of echinacea

Reproduction by dividing the bush

A favorable time for this method is mid-spring or autumn. It is recommended to use plants four or five years old for separation. The bush must be carefully dug out, after watering it abundantly. Each divided part should have 3-4 growth buds.

Seed propagation

In early spring, seeds are sown on open flower beds, sprinkled with a thin layer of soil and watered. The temperature favorable for seed germination is 13-15 degrees Celsius. With spring temperature drops, the development and growth of delicate seedlings can be threatened. Therefore, it is better to use the seedling method.

Sowing for seedlings is carried out at the end of winter. Planting boxes are filled with a substrate, seeds are sown to a depth of 5 millimeters, ground with a thin layer of soil, the crops are sprayed from a spray bottle and left in a warm room until shoots appear. After transplanting strong seedlings into open ground, full care will be required, which consists in regular watering, weeding and loosening. The first bloom will come next season.

Diseases and pests

Powdery mildew on Echinacea is the result of excess nitrogen content in top dressing, abundant and prolonged precipitation, as well as sudden temperature changes. Control measures - treatment of plants with Bordeaux liquid or colloidal sulfur.

Numerous spots on the leaves (cercospora or septoria) can completely destroy the culture, as they weaken its immunity. At an early stage, all affected leaves are removed, and in case of severe damage, fungicide treatment will be required.

There is no way to save flowers from viral diseases. Signs of the virus are yellowed and drying leaves, deformed peduncles. To protect healthy crops, it is recommended to urgently destroy diseased specimens (in a remote area), and shed a plot of land with a strong manganese solution.

To combat harmful insects, special chemicals are used - "Karbofos", "Actellik". Most often, Echinacea attracts drooling pennits and bedbugs. When slugs appear, you will have to collect them by hand, and as a preventive measure, you must use folk advice. For example, scatter a large amount of walnut shells around the flower garden. It will be a serious obstacle to the movement of gastropods.

With strict adherence to all the rules for growing and caring for diseases and pests, there will be no.

Benefits of Echinacea

Echinacea is a medicinal herb, which (in the leaves, inflorescences and rhizomes) contains a huge amount of nutrients and elements. Essential oils and organic acids, tannins and polysaccharides, resins and fatty oils, macro (calcium and potassium) and trace elements (cobalt, silver, zinc, manganese and others) - all this allows you to fight many complex diseases.Fresh juice, tinctures, decoctions and other preparations from echinacea kill germs and fungi, heal wounds, strengthen the immune system, have a sedative and antiviral effect, increase male strength and accelerate blood clotting.

The medicinal perennial is known in many European and Asian countries, it is popular in Russia and the CIS countries. Official medicine compares the medicinal properties of echinacea to ginseng. Drugs based on this culture (for example, echinacin) are able to cure various inflammatory diseases associated with the respiratory system and chronic infectious diseases (for example, tuberculosis).

In folk medicine, there are many recipes for decoctions and tinctures that can be prepared at home if the flower grows on the site.

Tincture for the treatment of depression and overwork, as well as for the fight against various infections is prepared from freshly cut echinacea inflorescences. A half-liter jar must be filled to the top with flowers, filled with vodka, tightly closed and put in a dark place. After 40 days, the tincture is ready for use. It is filtered and taken 30 minutes before meals in a diluted form. For 100 milliliters of water - 15 drops of tincture.

A decoction made from the root part is recommended for colds and infectious diseases, as well as for chronic fatigue. The root must be crushed, filled with water, put in a water bath for thirty minutes, and then set aside for gradual cooling. For half a liter of water - about 2 tablespoons of chopped roots. Strain the broth before use. Drink before meals 3-4 times a day, one or two tablespoons.

For all its usefulness and popularity, echinacea can cause an allergic reaction. That is why you should not self-medicate. It is safer to take medications based on this herb only after consulting a specialist. This is especially true for people with various chronic and acute infectious diseases, as well as nursing mothers and pregnant women.

Echinacea: how to grow on the site, the benefits of echinacea (video)


Meristem - an unconventional way of plant propagation and firm - garden and vegetable garden

The currant cuttings, placed in the water, began to sprout roots.
What is the best root length for a container?

I put the currant cuttings in water with the addition of a rooting agent for a day and immediately plant them in a 9-9-14 container with the addition of a hydrogel to retain moisture, since the currants are very afraid of the substrate drying out. If there are few containers you can put in a cellophane bag if I cover a lot with a milky film. Acidity, humidity, the amount of light I control with the help of devices. Digital measures temperature, pH, humidity, illumination. The price of the device is 40S, a simple inductive device measures humidity, illumination, acidity - it costs 15S. Grapes are especially sensitive to improper soil acidity; when the pH is above 7.0, chlorosis (yellowing) begins.

Less is better. Long when landing and you can break off.

This is what currants grown in containers on osmokots (fertilizer) look like from March to mid-summer. Photos are not from catalogs.

Vladimir, were you planted with a handle?
And where can you buy the devices, tell me.

Cuttings were cut a week ago only from uterine annual plantations, so as not to transfer the kidney mite and the top of the infection must be paraffin.
I will post pictures from the beginning to the finished sajian.
I send the devices at the indicated price to everyone, it is very convenient especially for those who deal with Ukrainian producers of substrates and are trying to expand their production.
From Ukrainian varieties of currants abroad are grown: Yuvileina Kopanya, Sofiivska, Krasa Lvova, Amethyst, Suite Kievskaya are industrial plantings.

This is how currants grown in containers on osmokots (fertilizer) from March to mid-summer look like. Photos are not from catalogs.

I have watering with self-made pouring tables. Standard asbestos-cement sheets 1.5-3.0 meters along the edges made of beads. All this is covered with a thick milky film (sludge film). In one of the pots there is a humidity sensor when it drops to a certain level, the entire table is automatically up to a certain level is filled with nutrient solution. Nutrient solution of 1 kg of crystal per 1000 liters of water. Different nutrient solution in different phases of growth. I will post all this in the photo when making a new table. I grow more than 300 species of in-vitro plants in test tubes, then I plant them in pots and for each groups of plants have their own nuances.

I grow more than 300 species of plants in-vitro in test tubes and then plant them in pots

And what varieties of raspberries are there or will be later for sale?

How do raspberries do in such containers? What substrate do you use for filling? Thank you.

Does the container size change depending on the type of crop? If so, roughly what volume for which culture?

How do raspberries do in such containers?

The whole world sells in pots From nine to 2 liter Raspberries feel great there

in order to disperse a good seedling from a tiny nettle, the better to fill the pots?

Self-made (from the forest land) I would not advise There are so many byaki sho bent over manyuni at a time

According to European quality standards for planting material, all seedlings must be free from viruses and quarantine diseases.

... Hidden text (you must be registered on the grape forum and have 20 messages).

Igor, I didn't understand a little. Shoots grow from the top of the bag.
Or does it mean that half is cut off (say, a bag in a circle?
Or how?

Nettle grows after the top of the bag is removed. It remains to separate and root.

There is an easier way. Order seedlings of any plant in the in-vitro laboratory and receive ready-made plants in cassettes. The variety and purity of plants are guaranteed. True, the order of one grade is not less than 5000 pieces. On the other hand, the price of a plant in a multipayment of 1.5 - 1.7 dollars. By autumn, an adult plant grows when planted in April or May from a multipayment. What I have already done for 8 new varieties of raspberries and blackberries. And this is just the beginning. We select varieties for breeding. Please suggest the positions you need. I take over the financial part almost entirely.

The top of the bag is open. Plants are planted in it.
Which part of the bag is then removed. The top third? Half? or what?

Do not delete anything. When the roots are exposed, the buds begin to sprout together.

Nettle grows after the top of the bag is removed. It remains to separate and root.

There is an easier way. Order seedlings of any plant in the in-vitro laboratory and receive ready-made plants in cassettes. The variety and purity of plants are guaranteed. True, the order of one grade is not less than 5000 pieces. On the other hand, the price of a plant in a multipayment of 1.5 - 1.7 dollars. By autumn, an adult plant grows when planted in April or May from a multipayment. What I have already done for 8 new varieties of raspberries and blackberries. And this is just the beginning. We select varieties for reproduction. Please suggest the positions you need. I take over the financial part almost entirely.


Igor, I know what you are talking about.
And I know that the prices are lower there than you said.
But I have VERY BIG QUESTIONS about the quality of this in vitro.
In comparison with what I brought from England, it is not even close.
So it’s not so smooth and smooth, albeit cheap.)

Igor, I know what you are talking about.
And I know that the prices are lower there than you said.
But I have VERY BIG QUESTIONS about the quality of this in vitro.
In comparison with what I brought from England, it is not even close.
So it’s not so smooth and smooth, albeit cheap.)

Max you're wrong. I'm talking about seedlings grown in Poland and not here. There, the quality requirements are the same as in England. Europe in one word.
And for now, in-vitro really wants to be better.

Max you're wrong. I'm talking about seedlings grown in Poland and not here. There, the quality requirements are the same as in England. Europe in one word.
And for now, in-vitro really wants to be better.

Igor, I repeat - I KNOW WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT.
I have already tested these seedlings this year.
They don't stand next to English. :( :( :(
English are more expensive, but worth it.
If there was no English in vitro, it might not be bad.
But I have something to compare with.
And the result is not in favor of the Polish.

Not everything the Poles do is good.)
Moreover, the difference is very noticeable.

Also this year I compared in vitro raspberries from Poland (from the institute in Brezna) and the Dutch production.
And here, too, not in favor of the Poles.

Yes, Polish is cheaper.
But, in terms of quality, they are much inferior.
By quality, I mean how the plants grow, develop, the percentage of lunge, and so on.

Igor, I repeat - I KNOW WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT.
I have already tested these seedlings this year.
They don't stand next to English. :( :( :(
English are more expensive, but worth it.
If there was no English in vitro, it might not be bad.
But I have something to compare with.
And the result is not in favor of the Polish.

Not everything the Poles do is good.)
Moreover, the difference is very noticeable.

Also this year I compared in vitro raspberries from Poland (from the institute in Brezna) and the Dutch production.
And here, too, not in favor of the Poles.

Yes, Polish is cheaper.
But, in terms of quality, they are much inferior.
By quality, I mean how the plants grow, develop, the percentage of lunge, and so on.

Can you offer 40-50 thousand raspberry and blackberry seedlings from in-vitro from England for next spring? I can offer such a quantity from Poland.

Can you offer 40-50 thousand raspberry and blackberry seedlings from in-vitro from England for next spring? I can offer such a quantity from Poland.

I can from Holland.
What is the problem on this matter. shok :)

I can from Holland.
What is the problem on this point. shok :)

If you have a real conversation on this topic, then you know my phone number!)

I can from Holland.
What is the problem on this point. shok :)

If you have a real conversation on this topic, then you know my phone!)

We go into the shadows. And then the moderators will shower with slippers.

they brought me cassette raspberries from Holland. I moved it to containers. everything went well, but with the arrival of the heat, the leaves began to dry out. Due to the high temperature, the root began to boil. Today I urgently dropped everything in the OG under the drop. Question: how to deal with damping of roots in containers? except for placing the container in the ground. Thank you!

I have varieties: himbo top, tulamin, tulamadzhik, glen amp and cascade delight. Question: Is it worth bothering with the Lyuberian varieties (so far it has not been possible to bring it. This Liechtenstein turns out to be a dead end-hole in which no one wants to go.), Well, if I want to grow raspberries for berries? Thank you!

they brought me cassette raspberries from Holland. I moved it to containers. everything went well, but with the arrival of the heat, the leaves began to dry out. Due to the high temperature, the root began to boil. Today I urgently dropped everything in the OG under the drop. Question: how to deal with root damping in containers? except for placing the container in the ground. Thank you!

I have varieties: himbo top, tulamin, tulamadzhik, glen amp and cascade delight. Question: Is it worth bothering with Lyuberian varieties (so far it has not been possible to bring it. This Liechtenstein turns out to be a dead end-hole in which no one wants to go.), Well, if I want to grow raspberries for berries? Thank you!


The Lyuberian varieties are better than the varieties you received from Holland.
So it's worth it!)

How do raspberries do in such containers? What substrate do you use for filling? Thank you.

Does the container size change depending on the type of crop? If so, roughly what volume for which culture?

The photo clearly shows how the size of the pot affects the growth of plants. Plants from the same batch are planted in the same day in the same substrate in 1.0 and 10 liter pots. Plants in vitro.

they brought me cassette raspberries from Holland. I moved it to containers. everything went well, but with the arrival of the heat, the leaves began to dry out.Due to the high temperature, the root began to boil. Today I urgently dropped everything in the OG under the drop. Question: how to deal with root damping in containers? except for placing the container in the ground. Thank you!

I have varieties: himbo top, tulamin, tulamadzhik, glen amp and cascade delight. Question: Is it worth bothering with Lyuberian varieties (so far it has not been possible to bring it. This Liechtenstein turns out to be a dead end-hole in which no one wants to go.), Well, if I want to grow raspberries for berries? Thank you!
For this purpose, special cassettes made of dense pinoplast are used.
[M-30] for 91 and 15 compartments for pots 9-9 cm without a bottom. The cassettes protect from heat and frost and are very convenient for carrying pots and are durable. The price is about 15-16 gr.

Father's Garden he will have an open day this month.

So it seems like August 19.
Or will it be in July too?

So it seems like August 19.
Or will it be in July too?

You need to go ABROAD in order to buy pure-grade virus-free material with documents and certificates; you do not need to buy for bribes.

All this can be approximately seen at the Batkiv Garden, he will have an open day this month. I have an open day next year. All plants in unlimited quantities in Ukraine do not need any visas. Who wants to can send plants in vitro for free for testing. 300 species of plants All at one price. You can set the price yourself, I will consider any suggestions. When the plants leave the laboratory in-vitro between English, Polish or Ukrainian there is no difference, problems begin in the process of adaptation and growing on the street if this process is not technologically disturbed in the future there should be no problems everything will arise as usual grown plants. If, for example, from one batch of plants I send at the same time exactly the same plants to different testers, everyone will get different results and everyone will argue that they are right. For a sample I can offer rhodoredron, azalea, trowel, lilac, sakura, chokeberry, blueberry high, lingonberries, Kamchatka berries, blackberries, raspberries, irga, grapes, cranes.

Taking off my hat. I am ready to purchase trial lots of raspberries and blackberries.
Throw off in a personal what varieties are.

I am ready to purchase trial lots of raspberries and blackberries.
Throw off in a personal what varieties are.

And cho in a personal? You can also write mulberries. I, over there, the same cicavo

Let's open the curtain: the remains of the seedlings at the end of the season.

Nikolai Nikolayevich, do you fill up with soil for the winter or just cover it up? Or a greenhouse?

Nikolai Nikolayevich, do you fill up with soil for the winter or just cover it up? Or a greenhouse?

They hibernate in place: a greenhouse in a greenhouse + additionally cover with white agrofibre.

For this purpose, special cassettes made of dense pinoplast are used.
[M-30] for 91 and 15 compartments for pots 9-9 cm without a bottom. The cassettes protect from heat and frost and are very convenient for carrying pots and are durable. The price is about 15-16 gr.

Good afternoon. Tell me where you can buy foam cassettes. I haven’t met them anywhere. And plastic ones are really very inconvenient to carry. Thank you.

Good afternoon. Tell me where you can buy foam cassettes. I haven’t met them anywhere. And plastic ones are really very inconvenient to carry. Thank you.

So make a pallet like a tray with handles.

So make a pallet like a tray with handles.

Thank you. It's really easier to move, but you still need to put and remove the filled cassette from the tray with handles. Even a high-quality cassette filled with a substrate with a rooted cuttings is not easy to move. Not to mention how inconvenient it is to use a plastic cassette during green cuttings when the cassette is in 100% humidity. Of course, everyone adapts to their conditions. In my opinion, a foam cassette, in my conditions, would be useful. It would be more reliable, and therefore calmer.

Good afternoon. Tell me where you can buy foam cassettes. I haven’t met them anywhere. And plastic ones are really very inconvenient to carry. Thank you.

In such cassettes, we receive products from the in-vitro laboratory, and there are a lot of them. Rooting occurs in such cassettes much better than in plastic ones, since there is no overheating during the day and excessive cooling at night. A good rooting microclimate is created.

Thank you. It's really easier to carry, but you still need to put the filled cassette on and off the tray with handles.

The tray is made of 2 mm iron sheet, according to the dimensions of the cassette, the handles are welded at an angle of 90 degrees to the sheet so that their size is higher than the cassette and for convenience to be taken by hand. There is no need to remove and put the cassette off the sheet, it just moves, slides off the tray.

In such cassettes, we receive products from the in-vitro laboratory and there are a lot of them. Rooting occurs in such cassettes much better than in plastic ones, since there is no overheating during the day and excessive cooling at night. A good rooting microclimate is created.

If there is a lot, then put the used one. for sale. I would be the first to buy for flowers.

Good afternoon. Tell me where you can buy foam cassettes. I haven’t met them anywhere. And plastic ones are really very inconvenient to carry. Thank you.

Now I can tell. At Plashenko. Call, order, will not refuse.

Good afternoon. Tell me where you can buy foam cassettes. I haven’t met them anywhere. And plastic ones are really very inconvenient to carry. Thank you.

It must be remembered that plastic cassettes are also very dense and high-quality for multiple use and very easy to carry, but they are expensive.

In such cassettes, we receive products from the in-vitro laboratory, and there are a lot of them. Rooting occurs in such cassettes much better than in plastic ones, since there is no overheating during the day and excessive cooling at night. A good rooting microclimate is created.

High-quality plastic cassettes are produced by the company (HerkuPak) with a thickness of 1.0mm (HPD) for 3-4 years use and they cost about 1 euro and cassettes with a thickness of 2.5mm (QP) for 10-12 years use and cost about 2.5 euro.

Thank you. It's really easier to move, but you still need to put and remove the filled cassette from the tray with handles. Even a high-quality cassette filled with a substrate with a rooted cuttings is not easy to move. Not to mention how inconvenient it is to use a plastic cassette during green cuttings when the cassette is in 100% humidity. Of course, everyone adapts to their conditions. In my opinion, a foam cassette, in my conditions, would be useful. It would be more reliable, and therefore calmer.

I am sharing with you photos of how easy it is to make tables for cassettes, taking into account that the cassettes should be filled with a substrate and not silt. For this you need ordinary building foam blocks, wooden beams 10-5 and beams 5-5 cm, foam 10 cm thick. and a white milky film. Everything must be leveled in level. And so all this can be done from any materials, but the pinoplast is thick by all means.

Thank you. It's really easier to move, but you still need to put and remove the filled cassette from the tray with handles. Even a high-quality cassette filled with a substrate with a rooted cuttings is not easy to move. Not to mention how inconvenient it is to use a plastic cassette during green cuttings when the cassette is in 100% humidity. Of course, everyone adapts to their conditions. In my opinion, a foam cassette, in my conditions, would be useful. It would be more reliable, and therefore calmer.

After we learn to grow plants, a new problem immediately arises, this is selling, and competition in the market increases with an avalanche, and then a new problem is the label, which must be waterproof and lightfast. I had to buy a special thermal printer that prints all types of garden labels. It is very convenient to work with such labels and the buyer will immediately appreciate it.

In order to reduce the cost of growing plants, you can use instead of plastic pots, pots made of dense plyonka, they are of all sizes from 0.5 liters to 15 liters and are very convenient in transportation. Photo today.

And I will not refuse to learn about such pots. Where can I get them and for what? Otherwise, I collect plastic bottles from neighbors and friends, I tortured everyone.

Vladimir, are there any holes in these pots? Can I get a personal price for them?

There are 4 holes. On Monday I will be at the company that makes them. I will rewrite the prices, you can order any quantity from me. For example, 3.5 liters will cost 1 g. They are from a thin and thick film. Strawberries in the photo are Selva.

There are 4 holes. On Monday I will be at the company that makes them. I will rewrite the prices, you can order any quantity from me. For example, 3.5 liters will cost 1 g. They are from a thin and thick film. Strawberries in the photo are Selva.

And preferably also an e-mail address, the company's website, find out, we will be grateful.

And preferably also an e-mail address, the company's website, find out, we will be grateful.

Here are kind people suggested a site where you can buy pots from dense film http://agro-srv.com/index.php?cPath=162.
I myself have visited this site many times and did not pay attention.

Getting ready for the next season.

Of course, the terracotta color of the pots is very attractive, but they are more expensive and are used mainly for flowers, but when it comes to large quantities and large sizes, film pots greatly reduce the cost. In the photo in the substrate, white peas are perlite, Osmokot fertilizers are poured with a special measuring spoon on the bags pre-attach labels, you can make an inscription with an ordinary white corrector (clerical), the inscription is not washed off with a corrector.

Of course, the terracotta color of the pots is very attractive, but they are more expensive and are used mainly for flowers, but when it comes to large quantities and large sizes, film pots greatly reduce the cost. In the photo in the substrate, white peas are perlite, Osmokot fertilizers are poured with a special measuring spoon on the bags pre-attach labels, you can make an inscription with an ordinary white corrector (clerical), the inscription is not washed off with a corrector.

Very good at growing lingonberries in pots, it begins to bear fruit very quickly and attracts buyers with its crane berries. Photo today.

For several years I have been working with a manufacturer from Lviv. Round black nine -35 kopecks. The pot is sturdy, stable in the beds, easy to pack. For blackberries and raspberries, I use a square pot (Polish) 9x9x14 (1 g), 11x11x12 -0.8 g, 12x12x19 -1.7 g.
I usually do my purchases from autumn to winter.

Yes, I really liked the pots from this manufacturer. They are dense and have good holes.

Of course, the terracotta color of the pots is very attractive, but they are more expensive and are used mainly for flowers, but when it comes to large quantities and large sizes, film pots very much reduce the cost price. In the photo in the substrate, white peas are perlite; pre-attach labels, you can make an inscription with an ordinary white corrector (clerical), the inscription is not washed off with a corrector.

How much is their cost, volume and from what quantity.
You need about 10000pcs.

Very valuable information. I understand that there are electric heaters upstairs? How is watering?

The boiler room stands separately on liquid fuel, the coolant is supplied to the radiator and blown up by a fan in the greenhouse just like any in the supermarket. Watering with top nozzles, containers with water are inside the building.

Yes, I really liked the pots from this manufacturer. They are dense and have good holes.

How much is their cost, volume and from what quantity.
You need about 10000pcs.

There is any volume in packs of 100 pcs.

What kind of material (greenhouse cover) did you use instead of film?

An imported 5-season film is used in two layers with a constant air supply between them. One of these days I will redo another greenhouse, remove glass and put a double film, take a photo and post the whole process on the forum. It turns out like a thermos and significant energy savings.

Yes, I really liked the pots from this manufacturer. They are dense and have good holes.

How much is their cost, volume and from what quantity.
You need about 10000pcs.
Imported polyethylene pots made of dense polyethylene for 3.5 liters cost 1 g and weigh 2.150 g in a bag of 200 pieces made of thin polyethylene for half the price.

An imported 5-season film is used in two layers with a constant air supply between them. One of these days I will redo another greenhouse, remove glass and put a double film, take a photo and post the whole process on the forum. It turns out like a thermos and significant energy savings.


Imported polyethylene pots made of dense polyethylene for 3.5 liters cost 1 g and weigh 2.150 g in a bag of 200 pieces made of thin polyethylene for half the price.

And how the air is supplied between the films (where is the fence, exit), please write down, if not difficult.
__________________

And how the air is supplied between the films (where is the fence, exit), please write down, if not difficult.
__________________

I will install the greenhouse and post the whole process in photos on the forum.

In this regard, two questions:
Is your greenhouse covered with foil and is operated all year round or for some period?
Air supply with conventional compressor or heated in winter?

The air is supplied by a conventional fan, which is used to extract air from the premises, but after the fan there is a valve that opens under the pressure of the air, and vice versa. In fact, a huge cellophane bag of air is obtained.

The air is supplied by a conventional fan, which is used to extract air from the premises, but after the fan there is a valve that opens under the pressure of the air, and vice versa. In fact, a huge cellophane bag of air is obtained.

Does this bag have an inlet and outlet? Or a pressurized pole? Air intake from the greenhouse?

Does this bag have an inlet and outlet? Or a pressurized pole? Air intake from the greenhouse?

This bag has only an entrance, the pressure is maintained automatically by a timer that turns on for several minutes 5-6 times a day. The second picture shows all the movies. The film is attached with special clips that are very easy to mount and change films. Everything can be bought from us in Ukraine there are representative offices.

Vladimir, and how much does a square of such kindness roughly cost?

I will roughly count for you for a standard film but at Polish prices. 2 rolls of film 33m by 12m. $ 220 each 64 meters of the lower bar with fixation $ 3 each 24 meters for fixing along an arc of $ 4 each plus a pump, a valve, a fungus for connecting to a film, half a meter of a corrugated pipe. All this can be seen in spring in Kiev at a vistavka a modern greenhouse facility. Representative office in Gorodok Lviv region www.fhufarmer.pl www.tunele.com.pl www .agrosur.com.pl www.foliekassen.com

After we learn to grow plants, a new problem immediately arises, this is selling, and competition in the market increases with an avalanche, and then a new problem is the label, which must be waterproof and lightfast. I had to buy a special thermal printer that prints all types of garden labels. It is very convenient to work with such labels and the buyer will immediately appreciate it.

To increase the competition of their products and equally compete with foreign companies, you also need to order a color label with your logo in any language, the minimum batch of one sort they print is 500 pieces. The photo shows preparation for the next season.

There are filler mats with a film through which roots do not grow.

I met a very interesting irrigation system in the clematis nursery near Warsaw, where the entire site is divided into small areas, the bottom is covered with a thick film (for pools) and then a filler mat. Each site has a slight slope and an irrigation tape (hard) is installed around the entire perimeter. Water drips continuously. .At the edge of the bead, the water flows through the drain hole by the piping system into the reservoir and is fed back for irrigation.

I met a very interesting irrigation system in the clematis nursery near Warsaw, where the entire site is divided into small areas, the bottom is covered with a thick film (for pools) and then a filler mat. Each site has a slight slope and an irrigation tape (hard) is installed around the entire perimeter. Water drips continuously. .At the edge of the bead, the water flows through the drain hole by the piping system into the reservoir and is fed back for irrigation. Here http://www.ceres.com.ua/index.php/maty.html

Here's another handy thing http://www.ceres.com.ua/index.php/transporter.html

the whole site is divided into small areas, the bottom is covered with a thick film (for pools) then a filler mat. Thanks for the info.: up: I will do it on a tennis court, exactly as you describe.

Sveta, look, but THIS (http://td-leto.com.ua/product/2027) is the same as yours?
And then soon to throw different seedlings on the window.
And so it seems to me to water the grapes on the window.

Buy with black perforated film,
Podovzhuh term vikoristannya mativ, zapobigayuchi

sprout roslin roots in mat
the growth of algae and moss on the surface of the mat
mate He also has http://www.proffionline.com.ua if you get through, tell them to post a photo on the site. I think you know him.

And the cups are fed with water immediately, or only when the roots reach the mat?

The first time the water level rises so that all the substrate is moistened and then the water itself maintains the moisture level. The water should not stagnate. All nutrients are supplied through the water.

During a short thaw, I converted another greenhouse into an inflatable film. Near my house there was a greenhouse made of glass, which I rebuilt for the New Year. The most laborious process was to remove the glass. The glasses were glued to the Celikon and very few were removed whole. ...

After that, I began to mount special aluminum profiles on self-tapping screws for fastening the film. I mounted everything myself, I only need a ladder and a small clamp for the initial fastening of the film. If you do something wrong, everything is easily disassembled and corrected.

How do you deal with the snow between the ridges on top of the greenhouse? The photo shows the snow from above.

After that, I began to mount special aluminum profiles on self-tapping screws for fastening the film. I mounted everything myself, I only need a ladder and a small clamp for the initial fastening of the film. If you do something wrong, everything is easily disassembled and corrected.

After complete installation of the film, a pump is installed for pumping air and a microswitch of the pump when pressure drops and turns off when overpressure.Despite such an impressive appearance, the air blower consumes only 70 watts.

After complete installation of the film, a pump is installed for pumping air and a microswitch of the pump when pressure drops and turns off when overpressure.Despite such an impressive appearance, the air blower consumes only 70 watts.

After a short adjustment, the entire system is filled with air. From the inside, so that the air bag does not swell inward, a special 2.2mm fishing line is pulled. 3-4 rows to a height of 3 meters of film.

How do you deal with the snow between the ridges on top of the greenhouse? The photo shows the snow from above.

On this greenhouse, the top has not yet been redone, but where the top was redone already 4 years ago, due to the fact that the top layer of the film is constantly in motion and, as it were, hangs on an air cushion, the ice film has never formed and the snow has never dropped nihto all the more that the hail has never even damaged it. Although the neighbors had problems with hail, they just changed the new film right away.

After we learn to grow plants, a new problem immediately arises, this is selling, and competition in the market increases with an avalanche, and then a new problem is the label, which must be waterproof and lightfast. I had to buy a special thermal printer that prints all types of garden labels.It is very convenient to work with such labels and the buyer will immediately appreciate it.

Printer for printing all types of garden labels (light and moisture resistant) ZEBRAzt230.

... When heating the greenhouse in winter, either a dense P-50 agrofibre or a bubble film is still mounted on the inside from the inside around the entire perimeter.
The savings in winter heating are very substantial.

The bubble wrap can be attached to the vertical walls of the greenhouse from the outside.
The methods of fastening the film are quite simple (screws and wire).
The film is produced with a width of 1.5 m, the panels of the film are overlapped (without gluing, soldering, etc.)

The bubble wrap can be attached to the vertical walls of the greenhouse from the outside.
The methods of fastening the film are quite simple (screws and wire).
The film is produced with a width of 1.5 m, the panels of the film are overlapped (without gluing, soldering, etc.)

We have an additional film attached from the inside, since it is also used as a protection so that when watering, as little water as possible gets on the main film. With constant water ingress, light transmission is lost due to the wap and mosses are formed. It is easier to change a thin cheap film and from the inside, no wind, easier to fix.

Vladimir, when air is injected between the film, condensation must form, is that so?
If humid air is blown into it, then there will be condensation.

The bubble wrap can be attached to the vertical walls of the greenhouse from the outside.

This is exactly what they do in the Uman greenhouse plant.

If humid air is blown into it, then there will be condensation.

I did not notice any problem with condensate in the inside of the air bag. The exhibition on greenhouses in Kiev will be from March 28-3.

To reduce condensation between the films, the air for injection is taken not from the inside of the greenhouse (warm and humid), but from outside the greenhouse.

Everywhere the pumps are located inside the greenhouse closer to the ceiling.

To reduce condensation between the films, the air for injection is taken not from the inside of the greenhouse (warm and humid), but from the outside of the greenhouse. Everywhere the pumps are inside the greenhouse closer to the ceiling.

What did you want to explain by this?

What function then does the first layer of the film perform, if not warm air from the room is blown out behind it, but frosty outside air?

The principle of an ordinary thermos.

I suspect that the greenhouse needs to be heated, and if you run cold air under the first layer of the film, then condensation will inevitably form under the second layer of the film. And so, yes, if you remove both layers of the film, the frost will dry out for sure.: D

Of course, such a greenhouse is being prepared for intensive cultivation of heated plants for the next season. But since I build myself, I do it a little as I saw abroad. I even try to improve something. In the floor of the greenhouse there will be a container for 2000 liters of water through the system. the pipeline will accumulate heat during the day and partially heat it at night.

Of course, such a greenhouse is being prepared for intensive cultivation of heated plants for the next season. But since I build myself, I do it a little as I saw abroad. I even try to improve something. In the floor of the greenhouse there will be a container for 2000 liters of water through the system. the pipeline will accumulate heat during the day and partially heat it at night.

If you want to install a solar collector (gel installation) for heating water, you can also do it yourself.

Printer for printing all types of garden labels (light and moisture resistant) ZEBRAzt230.

It looks like a robot for planting and transplanting plants from one size of cassettes to another size. Serves 1 person. Adjustment when starting the robot.

This is how a robot for planting and transplanting plants from one size of cassettes to another size looks like. Serves 1 person.

Is this your device? You, in my opinion, got into the frame.
And how much, if not a secret, is such a pleasure worth?

Is this your device? You, in my opinion, got into the frame.
And how much, if not a secret, is such a pleasure worth?

A little more than 100 thousand and not UAH. But it replaces 20 people and the car never has a headache.

A little more than 100 thousand and not UAH.But it replaces 20 people and the car never has a headache.

Almost mulienne for our pennies, is it when it will pay off? She needs to be seriously loaded with work. And what to do with everything that she plant. By the way, what is the productivity in 1 hour?

Almost mulienne for our pennies, is it when it will pay off? She needs to be seriously loaded with work. And what to do with everything that she plant. By the way, what is the productivity in 1 hour?

In one hour to 8000 thousand, the nursery produces 5 million a year.

In one hour to 8000 thousand, the nursery produces 5 million a year.

Class. And the main thing is that the robot will always go to work, will not get drunk and will not treat the task with negligence!

Anecdote on the topic:
They brought about such a robot to a furniture factory.
Ivan took the entire board and inserted it into the apparatus. The robot Khrum - Khrum - Khrum - and on the other side the stool jumped out.
Ivan: - Well, not a fig for yourself!
Voice from within:
Ah. did you think?
Ivan brought the log and inserted it into the apparatus. The robot pulled up a little: Khrum - Khrum - Khrum - and on the other side the table jumped out.
Ivan: - Well, not a fig for yourself!
Voice from within:
Ah. did you think?
Priper Ivan a piece of rail and stuck into the apparatus. Robot Khrum - Khrum - Khrum. and stopped.
Voice from within:
- Well, not a fig for yourself!
Ivan, jumping happily:
Ah. did you think?
The moral of this story (anecdote) is as follows: when you urgently need not to go to work or go into a binge - an ingenious device can break down in time.: D: D

Well, in this case, then workers (people) will always be found! :) I watched the video, but everyone must have watched it, in Japan a robot collects strawberries in a greenhouse. I don’t know about performance there - it’s painfully he does it all carefully and unhurriedly. : shok:

It looks like a robot for planting and transplanting plants from one size of cassettes to another size. Serves 1 person. Adjustment when starting the robot.

Kolis in 2006 had a chance to try on a similar one in Dania. They sat down to quit. True, it was not 1 ludin who served him, but 7-8 people, more than the shvidkist shalen. There, having peredadzhuvav in a cassette of 6 pieces, de roslini grew more expensive for sale. Pratsyuvav the apparatus here 2 months in rіk - the chef Kazav, it is obvious - to play for an hour. Likewise, having planted a robot, like planting a rose garden with peat tablets in pots of 10-12 cm.

But all plants must be pre-planted only in capers, otherwise the substrate will spill out.

There, de I started to work the working organisms of the Trochi Buli Inakshi. Three barbells washed 4 darts, as they squeezed the breast of the earth with the growth. Rosesada is delivered from Syngenty. Before planting, the cassette was placed on a special delivery and the trochas were crimped, in such a rank, that there was no rossade in the cassette (the rosette was not in capers).
In us, the process of organizing in such a rank:
one lyudin constantly give empty cassettes to the conveyor
another slidkuє for planting, feeding the substrate, cleanliness of the working organs
the third is just on the control, if you miss a ride
and quarters of vistavlyaє on the trailers.

The wagons are connected by themselves in 10-15 pieces, they are sent to the electric car and delivered to the greenhouse, 2-3 people are installed.

For a day, one thousand 100 visajuwali.

There, de I started to work the working organisms of the Trochi Buli Inakshi. Three barbells washed 4 darts, as they squeezed the breast of the earth with the growth. Rosesada is delivered from Syngenty. Before planting, the cassette was placed on a special delivery and the trochas were crimped, in such a rank, that there was no rossade in the cassette (the rosette was not in capers).
In us, the process of organizing in such a rank:
one lyudin constantly give empty cassettes to the conveyor
another slidkuє for planting, feeding the substrate, cleanliness of the working organs
the third is just on the control, if you miss a ride
and quarters of vistavlyaє on the trailers.

The wagons are connected by themselves in 10-15 pieces, they are sent to the electric car and delivered to the greenhouse, 2-3 people are installed.

For a day, one thousand 100 visajuwali.
In our vypadku new automatic everything is automatic, load the loading on the way to the beginning.

There, de I started to work the working organisms of the Trochi Buli Inakshi. Three barbells washed 4 darts, as they squeezed the breast of the earth with the growth. Rosesada is delivered from Syngenty. Before planting, the cassette was placed on a special delivery and the trochas were crimped, in such a rank, that there was no rossade in the cassette (the rosette was not in capers).
In us, the process of organizing in such a rank:
one lyudin constantly give empty cassettes to the conveyor
another slidkuє for planting, feeding the substrate, cleanliness of the working organs
the third is just on the control, if you miss a ride
and quarters of vistavlyaє on the trailers.

The wagons are connected by themselves in 10-15 pieces, they are sent to the electric car and delivered to the greenhouse, 2-3 people are installed.

For a day, one thousand 100 visajuwali.
Everything is correct around the border de mi with Іgorom is not generally accepted by people from the Ternopil region, even rocky.

Of course, such a greenhouse is being prepared for intensive cultivation of heated plants for the next season. But since I build myself, I do it a little as I saw abroad. I even try to improve something. In the floor of the greenhouse there will be a container for 2000 liters of water through the system. the pipeline will accumulate heat during the day and partially heat it at night.

In less spring, galvanized frames from the greenhouse will be on sale for a platter. They are really assembled. The size is 60 meters for 150 meters. It is possible to carry out, if you need someone.


Echinacea terry planting and care in the open field

Echinacea, planting and caring for which will be described in this article, is a rather unpretentious plant, but at the same time it amazes everyone with its beauty. It is a well-known honey plant. By planting it on your site, you will attract a huge number of beneficial insects. It is known that from one hectare of land planted with these flowers, bees are able to collect from sixty to one hundred thirty kilograms of honey. If you love a variety of bright flowers, echinacea, planting and caring for which, by the way, does not require much work, is just what you need. Today, you can find a huge variety of colors of this plant.


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