Fruit and berry plants
The trees in the garden require care all year round, and the longevity and yield of fruit crops depend on how competently it is carried out. One of the most important points in the care of trees and shrubs is pruning, the main task of which is the correct formation of the crown. Formation begins from a young age, and its essence boils down to leaving and stimulating the necessary branches for development and fruiting, and removing the interfering, growing incorrectly, old and sick branches. Along with such care measures as fertilizing and protecting against pests and diseases, correct pruning helps the plant evenly distribute nutrition and strength, therefore, the harvest on trees with a well-formed crown is abundant, and the fruits are of high quality.
Pruning fruit trees
Pruning is the complete or partial removal of shoots and branches, a way of caring for ornamental and fruit shrubs and trees, which serves to regulate their development, growth and fruiting. In addition to the formative function, pruning also performs a sanitary one - it thinns the crown and frees a tree or bush from branches that endanger the health of the plant and endanger its longevity. And if the tree has entered old age, then rejuvenating pruning done in time will give it new strength and prolong the years, practically without reducing the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the harvest.
Pruning of trees is done both in spring and autumn, in some cases trees are pruned even in summer. Let's make a reservation right away: autumn pruning of trees is permissible only in areas with mild, cold winters, and in the northern regions this procedure is best done in the spring, since the frosts that come soon after autumn pruning lead to freezing of the bark at the cut sites and dry out the wood, which, as a rule, leads to death of plants. There are types of fruit trees that are pruned every year, or even twice a year, and there are those that do not need annual pruning.
Each agricultural technique has its own rules, and tree pruning is no exception. When to prune trees of certain types and how pruning of fruit trees is carried out in autumn are the topics of our conversation.
Apple tree pruning
When to trim
Apple trees are pruned in spring, in rare cases in summer, when ripening fruits in a dense crown do not have enough light, as well as in autumn. However, if in the spring before the start of sap flow with the help of a pruner, the consequences of winter are eliminated - the frozen ends of the branches are removed, while forming the crown of the tree, then pruning in November is carried out mainly for the purpose of reorganizing the crown. The procedure is started after all the foliage has fallen from the trees. Pruning of a columnar apple is carried out either at the beginning of summer or before winter.
How to trim
In autumn, pruning of old branches, as well as rotten, broken, spoiled branches, is carried out. Since the tree is dormant, pruning is stress-free for the tree. How to prune an apple tree in the fall?
Here's a roughly the plan:
- First, cut off large broken or dried out branches;
- cut out the weakest branches that grow too close to each other;
- trim branches that grow at an acute angle;
- cover all sections with garden varnish or paint on drying oil: wounds on dry branches are treated immediately, and on young ones - only after a day;
- burn all the cut branches.
In the photo: Growing an apple tree in the garden
Young apple trees do a weak pruning with pruning shears - they shorten the growth of the current year by a quarter of the length. After that, the growing apple trees, unless they grow in height too quickly, are not pruned for three to five years, removing only dry and broken branches if necessary. Five to six-year-old apple trees need to be pruned at medium intensity: strong branches are pruned by a third. Strong pruning is used in cases of thickening of the crown: for its thinning, the branches are shortened by half.
Rejuvenating pruning of old apple trees is carried out in three stages: in one year, about a third of the old branches are cut, the next third of the old branches are cut out after a year, and the last third after another year. The pruner will not take strong adult branches, you will have to wield a saw. All tools you will use to prune branches must be sharpened and thoroughly sanitized.
Pruning columnar apple trees
As for the columnar apple trees, you should know that the more you cut, the more actively what you left behind grows. If you cut more than half of the branch, then the remaining 3-4 buds will give powerful shoots next year. If you cut less than half of a branch, the remaining 5-7 buds will produce 5-7 medium shoots.
The central conductor of the column must not be cut, otherwise the crown will branch out. Forming the crown in a columnar manner, in the year of planting, the crown shoot of the seedling is tied to a support, and fruit links are formed from the lateral shoots, and if they are too powerful, then they are cut into a ring so that they do not retard the growth of the conductor, and wait for new shoots to grow, from which can form the skeleton of the crown.
When to trim
Newbies in horticulture believe that pruning a pear is no different from pruning an apple tree, but this is not entirely true. We will tell you about when and how to cut the pear, and you yourself do a comparative analysis. A pear, like an apple tree, is not recommended to be pruned every year.
Autumn sanitary pruning of pears is permissible as long as the outside temperature is above zero, but if frosts suddenly hit, then pruning should be transferred to spring - in cold weather trees cannot be pruned, since the wounds remaining after pruning not only do not heal, but also lead to freezing of the branches, which is why they die. It is best to prune the pear in the spring when the air temperature warms up to 8 ºC.
However, if it becomes necessary to do this in the fall, then pruning in September, but no later than that, will be quite acceptable. The most convenient crown shape for harvesting is pyramidal, and this must be taken into account when formative pruning of the pear.
In the photo: Pears on the tree
Autumn pruning of pears
They begin to form the crown of pear trees already in the first year of life: it is very important to determine the skeletal branches at once, so that in the future the crown develops correctly and symmetrically. Annual seedlings are cut at a height of 40-50 cm from the ground. In two-year-old trees that have already acquired 6-8 lateral branches, choose 3-4 of them as skeletal ones and prune them at the same level. The guide is pruned 20 cm higher than the skeletal branches.
Pruning of older trees in autumn pursues mainly sanitary purposes: the removal of branches thickening the crown, diseased and damaged branches during the fruiting period. It also does not hurt to shorten one-year shoots and even the top of the head by a third of the length, if the pear stretches up too much - this will strengthen the tree, strengthen its branching and serve as an impetus for the enhanced development of the buds. However, try not to disturb the pyramidal shape of the crown during pruning. After completing the procedure, treat the cuts and damage to the bark with garden varnish: on old dry branches immediately, and on young, green branches only a day later.
To make pruning for the rejuvenation of an old pear, you need to start by shortening its top, but if you have been conscientiously pruning the tree from year to year, and the crown height corresponds to the optimal indicators, then proceed to thinning it: remove dry, old, non-fruiting branches, cut out the shoots growing at an acute angle or parallel to the trunk, and shorten the remaining shoots by a quarter of the length. Treat all sections with garden varnish or paint on linseed oil.
In fairness, it should be said that rejuvenating pruning of old pear branches is less painful for the plant in spring, when the air temperature reaches 5 ºC, but the buds have not yet woken up.
Plum, like other garden trees, requires maintenance all year round and has to be pruned at different times as needed. In the spring, until the buds have opened, the frozen areas are removed from the plum and prepared for the growing season, forming a crown. In the summer, sometimes you have to help the tree cope with a bountiful harvest, preventing branches from breaking off, and in the fall, when leaf fall ends, it is necessary to prepare the tree for winter.
In the photo: Fruiting plum tree
Pruning plums in autumn
Autumn pruning of plums, in addition to preparing the tree for wintering, is designed to increase its yield. When the growing season is complete and all the leaves are discarded, and the plum begins to prepare for bed, dry and broken branches affected by insects or disease are removed from the tree, and if the top has grown above 2.5 m, then it should be shortened. Then, too actively growing shoots are pruned, competing shoots are removed, which in the spring, starting to grow, will begin to thicken the crown, preventing the penetration of sunlight into it.
In young trees, shoots are cut from above and on the sides by no more than a third, and branches growing inside the crown are removed completely. Pruning of old branches is left for the spring, but if you have a need to do this in the fall, remove the stem branches that did not bear fruit in the current year, cut off dead wood and branches infected with fungi or pests. All scraps must be burned, and the cuts must be processed. Old plums need to be pruned in the spring, because the wounds on them heal slowly, often gum begins to flow from them, and winter frosts can destroy a tree that could still grow and bear fruit for many years.
When to prune cherries
Cherries do not need to be pruned annually, but if such a need is ripe, formative and rejuvenating pruning is carried out in the spring, but this is a serious topic for a long article. In the fall, cherries are only pruned for sanitary purposes. The time for pruning cherries in autumn depends on the weather and climatic conditions of the region, for example, in areas with a cool climate, cherries are pruned in September, and in places with warm winters, pruning in October is quite acceptable.
The main sign that it is time to start pruning is the end of leaf fall, however, if forecasters predict the imminent onset of frost, it is better to postpone the pruning procedure to spring time.
In the photo: Cherry fruits
How to prune cherries
Annual seedlings are not pruned in the fall, since they do not yet have enough strength to have time to recover before frost. In older trees, up to five strong branches directed to the sides are left, growing no closer than 10 cm from each other. Mature trees are subjected to sanitary pruning, if necessary - broken, dry and diseased branches are removed. It is also imperative to remove all growth that weakens the tree and serves as a refuge for small rodents and harmful insects in winter.
If the cherry is self-rooted, the shoots can be used as planting material, since it retains the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. The overgrowth of grafted cherries is not suitable for this purpose, and the harm from it can be great, so it must be destroyed. Rejuvenating pruning of old cherries and formative pruning of young trees is done in the spring.
When to prune an apricot
Apricots are pruned in spring, summer and autumn, and in spring, pruning is carried out thoroughly - both formative and sanitary, and, if necessary, rejuvenating. In summer, pruning is done only when there is a danger that the branches may break under the weight of the fruit. The task of the fall sanitary pruning is to prepare the apricot for wintering.
Photo: Rich harvest of apricots
Pruning apricot in autumn
Before you start pruning, you need to determine what type of crown you want to form in the tree - tiered or non-tiered. If you have limited space, it may make sense to cup the crown, which involves cutting the branches by about half. But no matter what shape of the crown you formed, in the fall it is necessary to remove all diseased, dry and broken branches, thin out the crown, removing the shoots and branches growing inward - sanitary pruning of apricot must be done in the fall. However, it should be borne in mind that the apricot culture is thermophilic, so be careful, try not to make deep cuts on it, and if you still hurt the tree, treat the wound with copper sulfate and cover it with garden varnish so that there is no gum leakage.
When to trim
Just like other garden trees, the peach, which until recently was outlandish for our gardens, can be pruned at any time of the year, except for winter. In the spring, the tree is put in order after wintering, giving shape to the crown or correcting it, pruning the frozen ends of the shoots, making rejuvenating pruning of old trees. In the summer, pruning is carried out only if the need arises. Autumn pruning, as you probably already understood, is aimed at preparing the peach tree for winter.
In the photo: Peaches on a tree
Pruning in the fall
In the fall, you will need to cut off all unnecessary and diseased branches so that they do not take food away from healthy branches that are promising for fruiting. When freeing a tree from branches infected with any disease or pests, do not forget to burn such branches so that the disease and pest larvae do not spread throughout the garden. After sanitary pruning, do not forget to treat the cuts with garden varnish or oil paint.
When to trim
It is better to form a cherry crown in spring, however, autumn pruning of cherries is carried out not only for sanitary purposes, like in other garden trees, but also in order to rejuvenate the tree - these are the recommendations of most of the experts. However, there are practitioners who believe that cherry pruning should be done in autumn only in emergency cases - for the sake of removing diseased or injured shoots. Heavy pruning of cherries in the fall slows down fruiting.
It is up to you to decide what to do best. You can try rejuvenating pruning in the fall, and if you don't like the consequences, reschedule the pruning next time in the spring.
In the photo: Ripe cherries on a branch
Professionals recommend forming the crown of a sweet cherry in the shape of a cone with a wide base - it warms up well and is illuminated, and the air circulates freely between the branches. You can also shape the crown in a bowl or in tiers. In the fall, after the leaves have fallen, remove all diseased, dry, broken and damaged branches and pests by diseases or pests. In order to rejuvenate the crown, branches of six to eight years of age are cut into a ring, and the cuts must be treated with garden varnish or oil paint.
Other garden trees
As you already understood, the main, intensive pruning of all fruit trees, except for the apple and pear, is best done in the spring, when the air temperature is already above zero, but the buds on the trees have not yet swollen. Warm days are ahead, during which trees recover much faster from injuries and stress caused by pruning. On the eve of winter, it is better to limit ourselves to only the most necessary measures - the removal of branches, which will in vain take food from the tree in winter.
According to the same principle, autumn pruning is carried out for all, and not only the described garden trees - quince, sea buckthorn, irgi, cherry plum, viburnum, mulberry and others.
Photo: Fruit ripening
We offer you a description of some of the techniques used in tree pruning:
- Kidney cut: with this type of pruning, you can change the growth of a branch in the desired direction. Choose a bud on a one-year-old shoot that looks in the right direction, and cut a branch near it at an angle of 45º so that there is no too large stump left on the side of the shoot opposite to the bud - a spike 1.5-2 mm high is enough, since a taller one can dry up, and the bud will not wake up in the spring.
- Ring cut: in order to remove an incorrectly growing branch, which in vain takes food from the tree, it is cut off completely along the outer edge of the ring - a kind of influx of bark at the junction of the cut branch with the one that remains. Thus, you will transfer the course of growth from the unnecessary branch to the desired one, making the side branch the main one.
To care for garden trees, the following types of pruning are used: formative, regulating, rejuvenating, restorative and sanitary.
The layer of garden varnish applied to the wound should not be thinner than 3-5 mm. Instead of this time-tested remedy, it has recently been recommended to use latex paints containing copper salts, as well as the so-called artificial bark - a composition that accelerates tissue regeneration and protects the wound from drying out, moisture and harmful microorganisms entering it.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Information about Fruit Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Fruit trees Garden work
Pruning fruit trees. Crown formation. How to improve the quality of fruit trees harvest.
Pruning of fruit trees (apple, pear, plum, cherry and others) should be done annually. And throughout the season, no, no, yes, and you have to prune tree branches in order to correct omissions or direct the growth of the tree in the right direction.
The purpose of pruning fruit trees.
Pruning stimulates the growth of new branches, rejuvenates the plant, and prolongs its fruiting period. It is sometimes believed that the yield of a tree increases if it is pruned regularly. In my opinion, this is debatable. It is difficult to compare what is with what could have been. But the fact that the quality of the crop is increasing dramatically is a fact. Apples, pears and other fruits become a little smaller, but they become much tastier and larger. This is due to the fact that as a result of pruning, a slight imbalance occurs between the root and ground parts of the tree. Powerful roots supply nutrients in abundance and the tree has enough of them both for the formation of fruits and the growth of new branches.
Generally speaking, the tree does not grow "extra" branches. If he lacked nutrients, he would have nothing to grow them from. Another thing is that new branches may find themselves in worse conditions and will begin to compete with each other for light, moisture, food. And all this will affect its fruits. Everyone will get a little, as a result there will be many fruits - small ones. Therefore, the second goal of pruning a fruit tree is to create favorable conditions for the formation of fruits, so that they do not compete with each other.
What is the pruning of fruit trees.
In a good nursery, seedlings usually begin to form from the very moment they appear. But unfortunately, now almost everything is left at the mercy of the summer resident himself, who, as a rule, is not very advanced in terms of what and how to cut off from fruit trees.
After planting pruning. This pruning is designed to restore the balance between the damaged root (when planting) and the aerial (which is practically not damaged). In order to curb the appetites of the upper part and give time for the roots to take root in the new soil, they prune the branches. At the same time, at the same time, the formation of the crown of the tree itself begins.
Wellness pruning. With such pruning, all sick, badly damaged branches are removed, frozen and without hope for their revival, affected by cancer or rot, covered with scab. With this pruning, some of the healthy wood is usually removed, in order to ensure that the disease does not spread further along the tree. All such branches must be destroyed immediately by burning. And the faster the better. They should never be used for compost. The ash, after burning, can of course be used, it is sterile.
Shortening pruning. It is produced in order to shorten the excessive growth of branches, to suppress the attempt to dominate different branches of one order one over another. Shortening the main shoots stimulates their branching, since the buds located below the cut site begin to sleep out. Shortening pruning is mainly carried out on young fruit trees, in order to form the crown, the common basic skeleton of the tree. When the tree is formed, shortening pruning only restrains it from excessive growth, but thinning already dominates.
Thinning pruning. When thinning, competing branches are eliminated - duplicates, as well as branches growing down the crown, inside the crown and shading other branches that are more promising. When thinning, the crown becomes more "transparent" and ventilated. The bark of the tree does not block, dries faster after rain, is not affected by moss and scab.
Each tree is absolutely individual, no two are alike. Therefore, there are no unambiguous instructions on which branch to delete and which to leave. We cannot know how the tree will develop further. Only sanitary and sanitary pruning of a tree is unambiguous - there the affected branch is visible. As for the other types of pruning, we can only be guided by the basic principles applied when pruning a tree. For example, if you cut a branch above a downward bud, it is likely that a new branch will begin to grow from that bud and point downward at some angle. But this is just a probability. But another bud may also wake up, (or even several if the branch is thick), and directed completely in the wrong direction, as we intended ...
Therefore, pruning a fruit tree is a very creative process, and it is important to know these very basic principles. Let's consider them with an example.
Pruning is best done in early spring, late February to mid-March. In winter, I don’t want to climb deep snowdrifts and in the frost; in autumn, the root system has not yet fallen asleep and will swarm in the ground until the end of December, until the ground freezes to a solid depth. In summer, the tree grows. So there is only a small gap in early spring, when it is no longer cold, and the tree is still asleep. It is important to have time to prune before sap flow begins.
When shortening pruning, it is necessary to cut off the branch so that the last remaining bud with its tip ends at the point of pruning. Then a new branch that will grow from it will slightly change direction, and the cut site will heal quickly and practically without a trace. The place of the cut must be quickly covered with garden pitch. If you leave a piece of a branch long enough, it will still dry out and the wood in this place will rot. Various microbes will settle in it and can destroy the entire branch. If you cut off the branch at the base of the last bud, then the bud will probably dry up and only the next one will wake up, lower, directed in the other direction. Such pruning is used to change the direction of growth of the branch.
When removing a side branch, a small "stump" should be left, several millimeters high. This way we do not damage the main trunk and its wood. If you cut a branch “flush”, then a shell will most likely form in this place, which can develop into a hollow. And if you leave the stump too high, then it will dry out and become a breeding ground for diseases.
When removing a thick branch with a hacksaw, be sure to make an incision in the bark around the perimeter of the entire branch. Otherwise, during sawing, the branch may break off and tear off a long flap of bark - a bast from the main trunk. And this is a very serious wound for the tree, which could completely destroy it. Therefore, approach the removal of thick branches extremely carefully and try not to damage the bark surrounding the cut. After removing the branch from the hemp, sawdust and crumbs are cleaned off, and the stump itself is covered with garden pitch.
Unfortunately, flat photography does not convey volume at all, and it is difficult to explain in detail what is there and how. Well, what is there ...
Which branch to delete and which one to keep? The basic principle here is that each branch should be illuminated by the sun, at least for several hours a day. It makes no sense to "contain" branches that are forever in the shadow. Therefore, branch 2 (see photo) should be deleted. It grows inside the crown and will never see the sun. Accordingly, do not expect high-quality fruits on it. In addition, it unnecessarily thickens the crown and reduces its ventilation. And it is not easy to fight pests in a thickened tree, chemicals simply will not reach there, and there will be a kingdom and a breeding ground for the flower beetle, moth and other "friends" of our lesser ones.
Thin branch 1 in the photo seems to grow horizontally. But it is still "empty" and there are no fruits on it. But when they appear, they will tilt it almost to the ground. Then it will not be possible to just walk up to the tree so as not to disturb it. Not to water, not to feed, not to weed, not to mow weeds. Therefore, we also delete it. The root space should also be warmed by the sun and ventilated.
Branch - competitor 3 in the photo - is practically a "backup" to its neighbor (although they grow from different branches of a lower order). They are both still young and have not yet begun to branch themselves. And when they start, they will start to interfere with each other. Therefore, we remove the weaker one, and leave the stronger one.
This is how the entire fruit tree is pruned. Taking into account the fact that there is, and the prospects for the growth of branches, the direction of lighting and the wind rose. You should not start the tree, otherwise it will overgrow - and you will not figure it out. At the same time, a tree that is constantly pruned does not require much trouble, "extra" branches immediately catch the eye and removing them is a matter of a few minutes.
You should not get carried away with pruning, otherwise you can prune the tree so that it will only come to its senses for two years. The tree has no extra branches! It doesn't raise them. You just need to help him. Therefore, pruning should be done regularly and continuously. Then both apple and pear, plum and cherry will answer you with a rich and high-quality harvest.
Use of cut branches.
Many people send them to compost by passing them through a shredder. I am not a supporter of this method of disposal.
First, you also send all germs, viruses and small pests to the compost. Do you need it?
Secondly, the wood in the compost requires a lot of nitrogen, which is precious for plants, during decomposition. Therefore, what is more, harm or benefit from wood in compost is still unknown.
Thirdly, the compost matures for a long time - years.
Fourth, you can make all sorts of crafts from thick branches, from handles for hand tools to country-style hangers.
Fifth, the wood of fruit trees, apple trees, pears, cherries, etc. is an excellent wood chip for smoking various products. And then all the alder and alder ...
And very small twigs, the easiest way, of course, to burn and get another excellent fertilizer - wood ash. For her, plants that love potassium (and these are all root crops) will really say a tremendous thank you.
Fertilizer for apple trees
You need to feed the apple trees, starting from the moment of planting. The deepening, prepared in advance, somewhere about a month or two before planting the tree, is poured with diluted humus on two-thirds of the part. It is necessary to prepare a place for the future tree in order for the earth to erode.
Fertilizer for planting apple trees can consist of a mixed composition of manure or compost with wood ash. For top dressing, you need to take only that manure that has already been stored for a sufficient time and has managed to overheat, freed from ammonia and hydrogen sulfide vapors released by it without oxygen. These substances can harm young trees.
You need to be able to properly water the seedlings. To do this, they dig several pipes or buckets without a bottom or some other vessels around the crown, to a depth of about half a meter into the ground. Pieces of brick or small stones are poured into them and covered on top so that they do not clog up with earth.
You can water with diluted manure or throw a little undiluted just before watering. This design will be convenient for both young and mature trees. With this method, the water goes immediately to the required depth, and it will be enough to water the trees once a month.
To feed young apple trees, the ground around them is covered with a layer of manure or chicken droppings, mulched with straw, grass and leaves, which will not allow moisture to quickly evaporate from the soil and will become additional food for the apple tree.
So that the acidity and chemical balance of the earth under the tree does not change, causing harm, it is better not to apply mineral fertilizer for the apple trees.
Having enriched the soil under the apple tree with nutrients during the planting process, you can not do this for the next two years, since the earth will still contain them in the right amount.
Top dressing of apple trees depending on the season
- You need to start in the summer, at the beginning of June. In the event that feeding for some reason was not done on time at the beginning of the season, you should not try to replenish nutrition in the second half, since with fertilization more than the norm, not so much the fruits will grow into growth, but young shoots that may not have time to get stronger to the onset of cold weather and die.
- Before planting an apple tree in the fall, the soil must be fertilized with solutions of phosphorus, potassium and organic solutions.
- In order for the tree to successfully overwinter, you need to feed it with a phosphorus-potassium composition for the winter.
- Fertilizers for apple trees in the spring are best applied at the very beginning of the season and use nitrogen for this.
Preparing trees for processing
For the first treatment of fruit trees with urea, they must be prepared in early spring. At this time, the garden is checked with the implementation of some preventive actions:
- cut dry, frostbitten, damaged shoots
- loosen the soil near tree trunks
- the bark is checked for cracks and dead areas, if necessary, they are cleaned with a metal brush
- check cracks in the bark for the presence of insects, treatment with urea is carried out only after their destruction
- using a rake, they collect dry grass, last year's fallen leaves, and other debris, because bacteria and larvae can live in such an environment.
The first spraying of fruit plants is carried out at a temperature exceeding + 5 ° C. Processing in colder weather will not give the desired effect.
Pruning apple trees in spring
The essence of spring pruning of young apple trees is reduced to the formation of a symmetrical crown. The first pruning is done immediately after planting. The stem is shortened to a height of 80-90 cm. If there are side shoots, choose 3-5 strongest ones, directed in different directions, and shorten them by 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the length. If there are no side shoots, this procedure is carried out in the spring of next year.
Skeletal branches must be cut in such a way that the central conductor rises 20-25 cm above the upper ones, and the upper branches are shorter than the lower ones.
In subsequent years, the scheme for pruning an apple tree in spring involves the removal of all dry, frozen, damaged shoots, all branches thickening the crown, growing towards the center. It is also important to observe the subordination of the branches and not allow the remaining skeletal branches to be higher than the central conductor.
The basic principles of pruning an apple tree are presented in the following video:
Columnar apple trees are formed vertically, respectively, and the principle of their spring pruning will be slightly different.
The rejuvenating pruning of apple trees in the spring requires special care.If you see that the skeletal branches are rotten, rotten and obviously not viable, no amount of pruning will help save the tree, but, on the contrary, will only bring its death closer.
Pruning begins with large branches. When pruning old apple trees, it is better to shorten or remove a few large branches than many young shoots. This will make it easier for the tree to endure this painful procedure. In too tall trees, the central conductor is also shortened by about a third, forming a crown of lateral branches in subordination to it.
Remove the entire branch by cutting it off where it branches off from a larger branch or trunk. It is used infrequently because thinning does not stimulate regrowth and reduces the weight of the plant without affecting its size. After thinning, the bush does not look so massive.
2. Non-selective cropping
Cut the branch at any point. This pruning stimulates the growth of spinning buds from the dormant buds under the pruning site. Non-selective pruning makes plants thicker and fluffier, but does not reduce the size of the bush.
3. Selective (selective) cropping.
Prune a branch to a bud or to a side branch. Typically, the diameter of the remaining lateral branch should be half the diameter of the shoot to be removed. Branches with a diameter of 3 mm or less are cut per bud. This method of pruning allows you to reduce the height of the bush while maintaining its natural shape. Some shrubs tolerate strong selective pruning, others do not.
How to properly prune berry bushes.
Timing of pruning cherries and cherries in the fall
Correct pruning of cherries and cherries in the fall is carried out from September to November. The warmer it is in your area, the later you can start working. The main indicator is foliage fall. At this point, sap flow ends inside the trunk, and the tree will bear the loss of branches more easily. But it is important to be in time before the frost, otherwise the cuts may not be delayed until the onset of winter, and the tree will suffer.
Only prune in dry weather to reduce the risk of infection. If frosts are expected in the near future, it is better to postpone the procedure until spring.
You will need a pruner, knife, delimber or garden saw to work. All instruments must be sharpened and disinfected. You can disinfect the inventory with alcohol, potassium permanganate or a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate. To process the cuts, prepare a garden pitch or a special putty (RanNet, BlagoSad, etc.).
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Pruning fruit trees
Pruning Fruit Trees Planting a garden is a big deal. But it is no less important to grow it - to make sure that the fruit trees not only bear fruit, but also organically fit into the overall picture of your site, deliver aesthetic pleasure.
CROWN FORMATION OF FRUIT TREES
CROWN FORMATION OF FRUIT TREES
Chapter 3. Formation of the crown and pruning of fruit trees.
Chapter 3. Formation of the crown and pruning of fruit trees. Pruning fruit trees has a positive effect on their growth, on the timing of their entry into fruiting. Also, this process affects the yield and quality of the fruit. By means of pruning, the most productive
Pruning fruit trees
Pruning fruit trees Transplanting plants from nursery to garden is always stressful for a young tree. It is accompanied by significant damage to the root system, a sharp violation of the correlation of growth, loss of the physiological connection between the aboveground and underground
Methods for forming the crown of fruit trees
Methods for the formation of the crown of fruit trees Formation of rounded and flat crowns In order to prevent early thickening of the crown, first of all, you should not lay more main branches than is predetermined by the crown formation system.
Pruning and shaping pome and stone fruit trees
Pruning and shaping of pome and stone fruit trees Stone fruits are fast-growing, so the process of crown formation is shorter than that of an apple tree, and lasts 5-6 years. Pruning speeds up the formation of trees, but it is necessary
Seasonal pruning of fruit trees
Seasonal pruning of fruit trees Pruning of fruit trees in autumn Pruning of fruit trees in the fall is done to prepare the plants for winter. It runs from the end of August until the first frost. The beginning of leaf fall means that the trees go into a dormant period.
Crown formation and pruning
Crown formation and pruning The best time to prune an apple tree is late March - early April. Where to begin? If you are going to prune malformed trees, pay attention first to the crown as a whole. Mark the branches extending from the trunk under
The formation of the crown of Quince is light-requiring, and its crown cannot be allowed to thicken. Therefore, a sparse-tiered crown is formed in this tree. On annual seedlings, the stem is measured at a height of 50 - 60 cm from the vaccination site and retreat 7 - 8 buds above it. The first tier is formed from 3