Cypress (Chamaecyparis) is an evergreen coniferous tree that belongs to the cypress family. This genus unites 7 species, and there are also several hundred cultivars. Under natural conditions, the height of such plants in some cases reaches 70 m. The cypress looks very similar to the cypress, so these plants are often confused. Cypress differs from cypress in that its branches are smaller and flatter. This tree also has a pyramidal crown, which is very similar to the thuja. The native land of the cypress is North America and East Asia. It began to be cultivated at the end of the 18th century. Cypress is cultivated both in the garden and at home.
Features of the cypress
Native to North America are such species of this plant as: Nutkan cypress, thuve and Lawson. Natives of East Asia are such species as: blunt cypress, mourning, pea and Formosan. In the wild, these plants are very tall and have small, lush, scale-like needles, as well as round buds that are much smaller than cypress and contain fewer seeds. By the way, Japanese and North American species of this plant have a higher frost resistance compared to cypress. So, they can winter in mid-latitudes without shelter. But on dry periods in the summer, such plants react more negatively than cypress.
Such a tree has a cone-shaped crown, while the long branches are drooping or outstretched. The covering of the trunk surface is light brown or brown bark, which consists of small scales. Pointed, tightly pressed leaf plates can be dark green, smoky blue, greenish yellow, or green. Young specimens have needle-shaped leaf plates, and adults have scale-like ones. The diameter of the cones is 1.2 centimeters, while the seeds ripening in them are viable already in the year of planting the seedling. Recently, Japanese, European and American breeders have created more than two hundred cultivars, which differ in size, shape, crown color, etc.
Excursion to conifers. Cypress
Planting a cypress
What time to plant
For planting a cypress, it is recommended to choose a site that is located in partial shade, but lowlands should be avoided, since cold air stagnates in them. Species with light blue or green needles need relatively less light than those with greenish-yellow needles. The soil on the site should be saturated with nutrients, well-drained is best if it is loamy and in no way calcareous. A seedling is usually planted in the spring in April, after the soil warms up well, but it is recommended to prepare a hole for planting in the autumn, so the soil will have time to settle properly. To do this, you need to make a hole, the depth of which should be 0.9 m, and the width - 0.6 m. At its bottom, a drainage layer with a thickness of 0.2 m should be made, which should consist of sand and broken brick. Then the hole should be filled ½ part with a soil mixture consisting of humus, turf, sand and peat (3: 3: 1: 2). In winter, this soil mixture will rot and settle, and with the onset of the spring period it will warm up relatively quickly. In the event that you will plant more than one cypress sapling, then it should be noted that the distance between them should be at least 100 centimeters, and preferably more. This is because in a given plant, the root system grows horizontally.
How to plant
Most often, ready-made cypress seedlings are planted, which can be bought in a garden nursery or a special store. Before planting a seedling, you need to water the hole well for planting, and also shed a clod of plant earth using a root solution for this (1 package of product for half a bucket of water). After that, the plant must be lowered into the center of the hole and gradually covered with soil mixture (see its composition above), combined with 0.3 kg of nitroammofoska. After planting, the root collar of the seedling should be 10–20 centimeters above the soil surface, because the soil will surely settle. The planted tree must be well watered. After the soil has settled, it will be necessary to add more soil, so that the root collar is flush with the ground surface on the site. Then the trunk circle should be covered with a layer of mulch, and the cypress tree should be tied to the support.
First of all, you need to pay attention to the fact that this plant needs systematic watering, which should be carried out once a week, about a bucket of water is taken for one bush. However, if there is a long dry and hot period, then the frequency and abundance of watering should be increased. An adult plant must be sprayed abundantly once every 7 days, and young specimens are sprayed daily. In the event that the surface of the trunk circle is covered with a layer of mulch (peat or wood chips), then watering should be done after the top layer of soil dries up. In the event that the trunk circle is not sprinkled with mulch, then every time after the tree is watered, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil surface by about 20 centimeters in depth.
A couple of months after planting, the seedling must be fed with complex fertilizer, while the concentration of the nutrient solution should be half the amount recommended for an adult specimen. Top dressing of adult specimens is carried out 1 time in 2 weeks until the second half of July, while using a complex mineral fertilizer. Experts advise choosing a fertilizer such as Kemira for conifers, while before watering the plant, from 100 to 150 grams of a substance is scattered over the surface of the trunk circle, which must be embedded in the soil. From the second half of the summer period, it is necessary to stop feeding the tree, otherwise it will not be able to properly prepare for wintering.
Transplanting this tree is also recommended in the spring. The rules for transplanting a cypress tree are very similar to those used when planting a seedling in open ground. When you dig up a tree, be sure to keep in mind that it has a branched horizontal root system.
This plant also needs systematic pruning. In early spring, you need to cut off the tips of the stems that have suffered from frost, as well as cut off old, injured or dried branches. Together with sanitary pruning in spring, it is recommended to make shaping. To do this, it is enough to maintain the natural conical or pyramidal shape of the tree crown. Remember that no more than 1/3 of the green mass should be cut off in one cut. When the season of active growth in autumn ends, it will be necessary to cut off 1/3 of the growth of this year, while it is imperative to preserve the existing shape of the crown. Bare branches should not remain on the tree, because after some time they will dry out anyway. It will be possible to start forming the crown 12 months after planting or transplanting the plant.
Diseases and pests
Cypress trees are highly resistant to diseases and harmful insects. However, sometimes scale insects and spider mites can settle on such a tree, and root rot can also appear. If spider mites settle on a plant, then it will turn yellow, and its needles will fly around. To get rid of such pests, it is recommended to treat the tree several times with an interval of 7 days with an acaricidal agent (Neoron, Apollo or Nissoran). The scale insects suck the vegetable juice out of the cypress, as a result of which it begins to dry, and its needles fall off. To destroy these pests, it will be necessary to treat the plant with nuprid, and in most cases, several sprays are required to achieve a lasting effect. In the event that the tree is very infected, then it is recommended to dig it up and burn it, otherwise the scale insects can move to other plants.
If there is stagnation of water in the soil, this will lead to the development of such a fungal disease as root rot. A good prevention against this disease is a thick drainage layer in the planting pit, which is done during planting. In the event that the disease is not detected in time, it can cause the death of the tree. It is recommended to dig up the affected plant, freeing its roots from the ground, it is necessary to cut them off to healthy tissue. Then the root system should be sprayed with a fungicide, and the tree itself should be planted in another place that suits it best for agronomic requirements. In the event that the entire root system of a tree is affected, then it will have to be burned.
Such a tree can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering. As a rule, only wild cypress species are propagated by seeds. The most reliable propagation method is cuttings, and the simplest is layering.
Growing from seeds
If the seeds are collected correctly and dried well, then their germination capacity will remain for 15 years. To increase the percentage of seed germination, they must be stratified. Seeds must be sown in a container or box filled with light soil, then the container must be taken outside, where it is buried in the snow. The seeds will be there until the onset of the spring period. If you wish, you can put the box with seeds in the refrigerator on the vegetable shelf. When spring comes, containers with seeds should be brought indoors, where they should be placed in a warm (18 to 23 degrees), lighted place, which is protected from direct sunlight. If everything is done correctly, the first shoots will seem fast enough. Seedlings must be provided with moderate watering, in the event that the seedlings are dense, then the plant must be dived. After a positive temperature is established outside, the seedlings will need to be transferred to fresh air every day, so that they can harden. Fortified seedlings must be planted in open soil, for this you need to choose a place located in partial shade and with loose soil. There the plants will spend the winter under cover. But with this method of reproduction, it is worth considering that seedlings very rarely retain the varietal characteristics of the parent plants.
Cuttings are harvested in the spring. Apical cuttings are cut from young lateral stems. The length of the cuttings can vary from 5 to 15 centimeters. The lower part of the cuttings must be freed from the needles, and then they are planted for rooting in pots filled with a soil mixture, which includes perlite and sand (1: 1); it is also recommended to add a little small coniferous bark to this mixture. After that, the container must be covered with a polyethylene bag. If the air humidity is constantly maintained close to 100 percent, then the cuttings will give roots in 4–8 weeks. Cuttings, if desired, can be planted immediately in open soil, while they must be covered with plastic bottles, from which the necks should be cut off in advance. Cuttings planted in open soil can survive the winter without shelter, but only if they develop normally. If the rooting of cuttings is extremely slow, then they will have to winter indoors.
How to propagate by layering
In this way, the creeping or prostrate forms of this plant can be propagated. To do this, you need to choose a stem that grows very close to the surface of the soil. An incision must be made on its outer side, in which a small stone must be placed. This is to ensure that the incision does not close. Then the shoot must be laid on the surface of the ground with an incision down and fixed with a bracket. The upper part of the stem should be tied to a support, and at the same time the place of the incision should be covered with a layer of soil. During the period of active growth, the cuttings should be regularly watered together with the parent tree. When the roots grow in the layer, it should be cut off from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place. It is recommended to transplant in the spring, despite the fact that the cuttings can grow roots in the fall.
Cypress in winter
Preparation for wintering
Those varieties and types of cypress that are winter-hardy must be covered for the first 3 or 4 years after planting in open ground. This should be done not in order to protect the plant from frost, but to protect it from the excessively bright sun in winter and spring. To cover the tree, it should be wrapped with acrylic, kraft paper, burlap or lutrasil.
In Siberia, in the Urals, as well as in the Moscow region, such a plant is not cultivated in open ground. As a rule, it is planted in a large tub, which is transferred to the street in the summer, and brought back into the room in the autumn. In those areas where winters are not so harsh (Moldova, Ukraine, Crimea), cypress is grown directly in the open field, and it is not sheltered for the winter.
Types and varieties of cypress with photos and names
Below will be described 7 types of cypress, as well as their cultivars, which are most popular with gardeners.
Pea cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera)
The homeland of this species is Japan. In the wild, such a tree can reach a height of about 30 m. The brown bark has a reddish tint, while the openwork crown has a wide conical shape. The outstretched branches are horizontal. The needles are bluish-gray in color, and the cones are brownish-yellow, and their diameter is only 0.6 centimeters. Popular cultivars:
- Boulevard (write Boulevard correctly). The height of the tree can be up to 5 m and even more. The crown shape is a pin. Bluish-silver awl-shaped needles are bent inward, while they can reach 6 centimeters in length. The seedlings of such a cultivar are characterized by extremely slow growth. However, as the tree matures, its growth accelerates, with 10 centimeters of growth added every year. This plant has low winter hardiness, so it is recommended to grow it in regions with mild winters.
- Phillifera... The height of this tree can reach up to 5 m. The shape of the crown is broadly conical. Hanging or spaced stems droop strongly towards the ends. It does not grow very quickly. Scale needles are dark greenish-gray in color. Cultivated since 1861.
- Nana... It is a low-growing, slow-growing shrub. Its squat crown is cushion-shaped. Such a tree, when it turns 60 years old, can have a height of only 0.6 m, while it will reach 1.5 m in diameter. Scale-like small needles are painted blue. Cultivated since 1891.
Lawson's cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana)
This species is native to North America. In the wild, a tree can reach a height of 70 m. The crown has a narrow conical shape, which expands downward, as a rule, the top of such a tree tilts to one side, and the branches are able to descend to the ground surface. The brownish-red thick bark is not intact; it cracks into lamellas. The upper surface of the green needles is glossy. Pale brown buds have a bluish bloom, and their diameter varies from 8 to 10 centimeters. Popular varieties:
- Lawson Elwood... A tree with a cone-shaped crown, its height can reach 3 m. Straight branches are slightly drooping. The blue needles are thinner than the original. There are different forms: Elwoody Gold, Elwoody Pidgemy, Elwoody White, Elwoody Pillar.
- Blue Seprise... This bonsai can grow up to 3.5 m in height.The dense crown has a narrow pyramidal shape, and it reaches 1.5 m in diameter. The red-brown bark often cracks. Small needles are colored bluish-silver.
- Loveson Flatchery... It can reach a height of 8 m. This tree has a columnar crown, while the branches are directed upwards. In green or light blue branches, with the onset of autumn, a purple tint appears. It has been cultivated since 1911.
Blunt cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)
The birthplace of this plant is Japan. In natural conditions, it can reach a height of 50 m. The trunk girth can reach a couple of meters. The smooth bark is pale brown. The stems branch many times and very densely. The tops hang a little. The front surface of the needles is green or greenish-yellow glossy, and on the surface of the purl there are clearly distinguishable stomatal stripes of white color. Scale-like leaves are pressed to the stems. Cultivated since 1861 Popular varieties:
- Albopicta. The height of such a dwarf cultivar can reach 200 centimeters. There are many branches that run horizontally. The tips of the branches are whitish-yellow, and the needles are colored green.
- Sanderi. This dwarf form is very slow in growth. Branches of uneven thickness are arranged horizontally, and can be straight. Fork-shaped branches. Greenish-blue needles in winter change their color to violet-purple.
- Contorta. Such a tree has a pin-shaped crown, and in height it reaches 200 centimeters. The dense needles are pale green.
Thuate cypress (Chamaecyparis thyoides)
Originally from North America. In the wild, the height of such a tree can be up to 25 m. The trunk has a diameter of about 100 centimeters. The crown has a narrow conical shape. The color of the bark is brownish red. The needles are painted in a pale blue or dark green color, if you grind it, you can feel the characteristic smell. Cultivated since 1736. Popular forms:
- Konica. This dwarf slow-growing tree has a pin-shaped shape. There are straight blunt branches. The subulate needles are bent downward.
- Endelaiensis. This dwarf keeled tree can reach a height of 2.5 m. The branches are short and dense. The branches are straight and slightly fan-shaped. The pairwise opposite needles are colored greenish-blue.
Nutkan cypress, or yellow (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis)
In the wild, it can be found along the Pacific coast. The height of such a plant can reach 40 m. There is a lush graceful crown. The tops of the branches create a fan-shaped pattern. The brownish gray bark is flaky. If you grind the dark green needles, then you can smell a not very pleasant smell. The shape of the cones is spherical. Most popular forms:
- Weeping (Pendula). The height of such a plant is about 15 m, it is resistant to smoke and drought. The tops of the stems are drooping. Glossy small needles have a dark green color.
- Glauka. The height of the tree can vary from 15 to 20 m. The crown of the narrow conical shape reaches about 6 m in diameter. The brownish-gray bark is prone to cracking. Scaly prickly needles are colored greenish-blue.
Gardeners also cultivate such types of cypress as Formosian and mourning and their cultivars.
Lawson's cypress "Blue Surprise" - video review from Greensad
Types and varieties of cypress
Presented by trees and shrubs. They belong to conifers. They belong to the extensive Cypress family. They are often confused with cypress. Mainly due to the consonance of the names and some external similarity. The homeland of the cypress is considered to be the Asian countries - Taiwan and Japan, as well as the forests of North America. It was from there that they began their rapid conquest of the world's gardens. The cypress was introduced to Europe from the beginning of the 18th century, where it was widely used in decorating palace parks. In addition, some species are characterized by very high quality wood. In Japan, it is still used in the construction of Buddhist temples.
In our gardens, out of 7 existing species of cypress, only 5 are cultivated. These are dull-leaved (dull), pea-fruited, Lawson, nutkan and thue-like. Mourning and Formosan cypress trees are practically not grown. These 5 species are distinguished by good winter hardiness in adulthood, resistance to sunlight and the ability to grow on different types of soil. But almost all of them prefer moist soil. In addition, some species have pleasant-smelling needles.
Cypress is a great find for breeders and landscape designers. Due to the strong susceptibility to mutations, new forms often appear. On the basis of just a few species of cypress, more than 200 varieties have been bred to date. Cypress varieties differ from each other in all kinds of crown shapes (columnar, pyramidal, curved, weeping), speed, strength and direction of growth. Well, and of course, a wide range of colors of needles - from light bluish to golden yellow shades. Moreover, the cypress, like many other conifers, remains exclusively decorative throughout the season.
- Pea cypress (lat. Chamaecyparis pisifera)
- Cypress "Boulevard"
- Cypress "Plumosa (lat. Plumosa)"
- Cypress "Plumosa Aurea (lat. Plumosa Aurea)"
- Cypress "Filifera Nana (lat. Filifera Nana)"
- Cypress "Lawson (lat. Cupressus lawsoniana)"
- Cypress "Yvonne / Yvonne (lat. Ivonne)"
- Ellwoodii cypress
- Blunt cypress (Cupressus obtusa)
- Cypress "Nana Aurea (lat. Nana Aurea)"
- Cypress "Nana Grasilis (lat. Nana Gracilis)"
- Fernspray Gold cypress
- Nutkan cypress (lat. Cupressus nootkatensis)
- Cypress "Pendula (lat. Pendula)"
- Cypress "Glauca (lat. Glauca)"
- Thuate cypress (lat. Cupressus thyoides)
- Red Star cypress
Description and features
Name chamaecyparis cypress plant received with the light hand of Europeans who saw dwarf Japanese specimens. Later there was an acquaintance with the wild species of cypress. Among them there are erect trees with a height of under 70 meters. These cannot be called creeping, or low. But, the name has already stuck, has entered the literature.
The Russian name cypress is also a diminutive. A shrub, not a tree, appears immediately. There are analogies, for example, rowan and fieldfare. The latter is a shrub. The hero of the article also has an English name - false cypress. Translation - false cypress. Not a connoisseur can confuse. However, in fact, the cypress tree is the middle between the real cypress and the thuja. This is an external impression.
Cypress DNA is closer to thuja. Like hers, the hero of the article has flat branches and leaves of two types. The first is scaly or facies. The second type of leaves is acicular or lateral. If the plant is young, its foliage is acicular. If the tree is mature, the greenery is scaly. During the transition period, both types of leaves are present.
In fact, these are needles. It is not surprising that the cypress belongs to conifers. However, the branches and leaves of the cypress are thinner than those of the thuja. Therefore, the crowns of most types of the hero of the article are drooping. This is confirmed by the cypress tree in the photo.
The hero of the article got cones from the cypress. Their scales of the same size are arranged crosswise, in pairs. Cones are ligneous, located at the ends of the branches. The only difference is less than that of cypress. Cones are hidden under each scale from 2 to 5 seeds.
The valuable, white wood of the hero of the article also reminds of the relationship with cypress. It is covered with bark, which changes depending on the age of the plant. The young cover is reddish, thin, scaly. In adult cypress trees, the bark thickens, acquires a relief from the furrows. Distinctive features of young cypress trees are called juvenile, that is, children's.
Plants can move to adults gradually, or even abruptly, literally in a year. According to historical chronology, the cypress is younger than the thuja, which, together with the tuyevik, separated into a separate genus about 110 million years ago.
This is the border of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. It took another 10 million years to split off the cypress tree. The hero of the article forms a single genus with fokienia. It is also called Vietnamese cypress. He has a cone diameter of about 1, 2 centimeters. At the cypress:
- the width of the fruit does not exceed 1 centimeter
- the seed is symmetrical, its 2 wings are exactly the same, and not of different sizes, like in the fokienia
- stomatal veins are blurred and greenish, and in fokienia, clear, white stripes are visible on the back of the leaves
Another cypress, thuja and fokieniya are distinguished by their smell. There are many essential oils in young needles of plants. You need to knead the foliage in your hands. In a cypress, it gives off an unpleasant odor. But, not everyone catches it. In addition, the perception of aroma is individual. You might like the smell. The analysis is complicated by the abundance of hybrid species in which representatives of different genera are combined.
Description and photo of cypress
The cypress belongs to the Cypress genus. North America is considered the homeland. After some time, the plant began to grow in East Asia. Now you can meet it in countries with a humid and warm climate. For example, in Great Britain, in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in the Caucasus, on the Black Sea coast, etc. It is for these territories that cold winters and dry summers are not typical.
The cypress grows rapidly. It is an evergreen tree or shrub (depending on the species) with a whorled, opposite, less often alternate arrangement of leaves. As a rule, the leaf plates are acicular or in the form of scales. In some specimens, needle-like leaves are formed first, and then scale-like leaves.
The crown is conical, with open or drooping branches. The bark of small scales tightly covers the trunk, is brown or brown in color. Leaves can be dark green, green, smoky bluish, yellow-green. Young seedlings have a reddish, tender cover. Cones are small, round, woody, located at the ends of branches. They are no more than 1.2 cm long.
Cypress is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees, the conical crown of which resembles thuja. The homeland of the cypress tree is considered to be North America and East Asia, but, due to the hardiness and frost resistance of some species, the plant is grown in other regions. Although the cypress is similar in appearance to the cypress, it is distinguished by flatter branches and smaller buds, usually with no more than two seeds under the scales.
Species and Varieties.
The genus cypress has seven species, including many cultivars. Depending on the species and variety, plants differ in shades of needles (from blue to yellow), sizes (from dwarf to tall) and crown shapes (weeping, columnar, creeping, and others).
Pea cypress (Chamaecyparis Pisifera).
This species, originating from Japan, is also suitable for the Russian climate due to its frost resistance. The pea cypress is a large tree (its height in good conditions reaches 25–30 m, and the trunk diameter is 2 m) with spreading branches and a crown in the shape of a cone. It has green needles and miniature round-shaped cones, similar to peas (thanks to them, the species acquired its name). The bark of the tree is smooth, reddish.
The plant is considered light-loving, requires regular watering and grows best in fertile soils. May wither away if contaminated with calcareous soil or air. Wet snow adhered to branches can break them off.
About 100 different varieties of this species have been registered.
A variety of cypress trees with scaly needles of golden yellow color. The shape of the crown is narrow, conical.
A variety with trees reaching 5 meters in height and characterized by long and drooping branches, like ropes.
A dwarf variety, distinguished by a yellow-golden crown of a wide conical shape and filamentous shoots. Trees grow very slowly.
Low trees (up to 1 m), with yellow needles (on old plants - with a greenish tint). This variety tolerates bright light well and does not fade.
A dwarf variety with a spherical crown and growing very slowly (more in width than in height). It has dark green needles and cord-like shoots that fall to the ground.
Differs in soft to the touch needles and silvery-gray hanging branches. The height can reach 10–20 meters. It is better to plant such a plant in a shaded place, otherwise in the first years it may suffer from sunlight.
Boulevard (Sguarrosa shoot mutation).
Dwarf trees with a pin-shaped crown. The needles have a silvery-blue color, slightly change their color in winter. Although the plant is light-requiring, it can burn in the spring, but it usually recovers in the summer.
Slow-growing trees up to 10 meters tall with threadlike branches. The needles are soft, green (brown in winter). Such cypress trees are light-requiring and frost-resistant.
Dwarf form, not exceeding 1 meter in height and width. The crown is neat, and the branching is very dense. The needles are bright green, scaly.
Lawson's cypress (Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana).
The homeland of the Lawson cypress is the west of North America, the mountains of Oregon and California. It has been grown in Russia since 1874.
It is a tall tree (60–70 m.) With a cone-shaped crown and a narrow, usually inclined to one side, top. The plant has powerful branches, often descending to the ground, so it looks like a tent. The bark of such a tree is thick and has a reddish brown tint. The color of the needles is bluish-green, and the cones are light brown (often with a slight bluish tinge). In this case, the cones (8–10 mm in diameter) have a rounded shape, and their scales have a concave, wrinkled surface.
Lawson's cypress is less winter-hardy than the previous species, but it adapts to almost any type of soil and air pollution. In addition, it is shade-tolerant, moisture-loving and wind-resistant.
Different varieties of such a cypress (and there are about 250 of them) differ in shades of needles and in height. Some of them:
TOultivar trees (up to 10–15 m tall) with a columnar crown and scaly needles of a bluish-steel shade. Shoots of young plants are facing upward, while the branches are numerous and located in the same plane. This form is widespread and easily propagated by cuttings and seeds. Can grow in urban environments.
Mutation of Alumii, but smaller. Trees with a narrow conical crown shape and yellow needles on the tops of the branches. In the middle of the crown, the needles have a greenish and bluish tint. Plants are prone to freezing.
Compact trees up to 2 meters tall with a conical crown. The branches point upwards, while the branches are slightly drooping. They have thin needles of a bluish tint.
A variety similar to Alumii, but with thicker branches. The crown is columnar, the needles are dark blue. Such trees are the most winter-hardy.
Dwarf cultivar up to one and a half meters high. The trunk and shoots are directed upwards, the branches are densely branched. Trees of this variety have scaly needles of light green color.
Nutkan cypress (Chamaecyparis Nootkatensis).
Nutkan cypress (also called yellow) originated from North America and grows along the Pacific coast, in most cases in river valleys.
It is a tree with a picturesque dense conical crown. Although such a cypress grows at a slow pace, its height in adulthood is 30–40 m. Hanging branches at the ends, resembling a fan. The brown-gray bark exfoliates in large flakes. The needles have a dark green color and an unpleasant odor when rubbed. Spherical cones (10–12 mm in diameter), brown with a reddish tint, ripen in the second year, unlike other types of cones. In the protruding scales (4–6 pieces in a cone) there are 2 seeds each (without resin glands).
For successful growth, Nutkan cypress requires high humidity and bright sunlight. Winter-hardy enough. The lifespan of such a tree is impressive - up to 500-600 years.
Some scientists attribute this species to a different genus of cypress - xanthocyparis, since according to certain biological characteristics it differs from other types of cypress.
The most popular varieties in Russia are as follows:
A variety of trees with a height of 15–20 meters and a narrow conical crown shape (5–6 meters in diameter). The needles are prickly, scaly, dark green. Although the plant is quite frost-hardy, it can freeze slightly during particularly harsh winters.
A spectacular variety with a straight crown. The branches are drooping, the needles are rich green.
The most popular weeping variety. The ends of the branches are drooping, even the top of the head is bent. The needles are small, shiny, dark green in color. Hardy enough and drought-resistant.
Columnar variety with slightly drooping branches and bright light green needles.
Cypress (Chamaecyparis Thyoides).
The homeland of the cypress is the Eastern regions of North America. It is a tree up to 25 meters high and has a narrow conical crown. The needles are densely arranged and have a bluish-green color. Cones are small, their number is large.
Despite the fact that the cypress is recognized as the most frost-resistant species of its kind, gardeners breed it less often, as they consider it less beautiful.
This cypress has about 40 varieties, including Andalyensis, Aurea, Сonica, Variegata, Ericoides, Nana.
Dull Cypress (Chamaecyparis Obtusa).
The homeland of the blunt cypress is Japan. It grows on the northern slopes of low mountains, in places with high air humidity. It is a tree up to 50 meters high with a dense cone-shaped crown and spaced branches hanging slightly on the tops. Possesses shiny yellowish-green or green needles, from below which white stomatal stripes are clearly visible. Cones are spherical (8-10 mm in diameter), consisting of 8-10 wrinkled scales.
The plant is light-requiring, winter-hardy, prefers fertile soils. The ideal conditions for keeping are cool, humid summers and mild winters.
About 130 varieties are known, but they have hardly been tested in Russia. Some of them: Arneson's Compact, Albospica, Densa, Nana gracilis, Pygmea, Repens, Chabo Yadori, Crippsii, Draht, Erika, Snowflake, Wissel, Caespitosa, Comracta, Kosteri.
Formosa cypress (Chamaecyparis Formosensis).
In its homeland (Formosa Island) it reaches 65 meters in height. It has flat branches and brown leaves. You can recognize the plant by its elliptical buds.
Cypress Funeral or Weeping (Chamaecyparis Funebris).
Widely distributed in China. The height of the tree does not exceed 20 meters. Plant with a wide crown, tight-fitting leaves of a gray-green hue. The buds are rounded and dark brown in color.
For the successful growth of cypress, it is recommended to observe the following rules when planting:
For most cypress trees, partial shade is desirable, with the exception of varieties with yellow needles - it is preferable to plant them in the sun. Cypress trees will not take root in the lowlands, where there is too much cold air.
The best time for planting is spring, when the frosts receded and the soil warmed up. Nevertheless, it is better to prepare the planting hole in the fall. To do this, place a drainage of sand and broken brick on the bottom of a dug hole (about 70–90 cm deep) and leave to winter.
It is recommended to plant cypress in fertile and loose soil, avoiding calcareous and clayey soils. During planting, it is advisable to add mineral fertilizer (5–6 kg. Peat compost). It should be remembered that the distance between trees should be at least 1 meter due to the developed root system of these plants.
To carry out high-quality care of a cypress, it is necessary to adhere to the tips: water it often and abundantly (about 10 liters per tree, in dry times - more) spray it weekly with water in the spring, remove dry leaves and branches from the tree, if necessary, trim the crown in spring, but it is recommended to wait two years after planting, feed some varieties with mineral and organic fertilizers (preferably monthly in summer), cover some varieties for the winter, mainly at a young age. To do this, you need to place a ten-centimeter layer of peat or dry leaves at the roots.
If the plant is weakened, there may be times when emergency assistance is needed. The tree can be attacked by bark beetles and bark beetles eating the core of young shoots. To combat pests, you need to sprinkle cypress with karbofos twice (90 g per 10 liters of water).
If water stagnates in the soil, root rot can occur. In this case, the tree should be transplanted to another location.
It is the most reliable and convenient method. To do this, it is necessary to cut the cuttings from the young shoots at the top in the spring and plant them in flower pots with fertile soil. To speed up root growth, it is recommended to cover the pots with plastic to maintain soil moisture.
Before planting a plant in open ground, it should be hardened. To do this, when the cutting takes root, the pot is periodically taken out into the street. If the plant is immediately placed in soil for rooting, it should also be covered with polyethylene to retain heat and moisture.
Reproduction by seeds:
They are often used for growing wild species. To begin with, the seeds need to be stratified so that they germinate more easily. To do this, in the fall, the seeds are sown in a container with sand and peat, then they are placed under the snow for the whole winter and only returned to the room in the spring. After warming up, the seeds begin to germinate.
Reproduction by layering:
Easier to use on young plants in the spring. To do this, it is necessary to gently press the lateral shoot to the ground and make an incision, where roots are later formed. Then insert a small stone into the incision and secure the shoot with staples. An important condition is frequent watering to avoid drying out the soil. When roots are formed, the plant can be cut off from the mother plant and transplanted to another location.
The coniferous aroma and aesthetic appearance of the cypress tree can delight any gardener, so the efforts to care for such a plant will pay off handsomely!