Calendula, or marigolds, is a flowering herb from the Astrov family. The flower is found in the usual natural environment of the Mediterranean and Western Europe, and has about 20 species and varieties of annuals and perennials. Each of the types has its own characteristics and differences. Some have high decorative properties, while others are medicinal plants widely used in traditional and folk medicine.
Description of calendula flower
Calendula translated from Latin means "the first day of the month." The plant consists of a strong root system, simple light green oval or elongated leaves, single bright yellow or orange flowers and fruits - achenes. The seeds are highly germinating within 5 years after harvest. In most cases, calendula reproduces by self-seeding. The flowering period is quite long - from the very beginning of summer to almost the end of autumn.
Growing calendula from seeds
In a garden or flowerbed, seeds can be sown in spring (around mid-April) or fall (mid-October).
For spring planting, a well-warmed and dry soil from melted snow is needed. It is preliminarily recommended to dig it up, approximately 10-15 days before sowing the seeds, making various nutritious dressings in the process. For each square meter of land area, you will need: humus - 3-4 kg, superphosphate and potassium chloride - 20 g each, urea - 30 g. If the future flower garden is dug up in the autumn, humus is added to the soil, as well as fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. In the spring, it will remain to feed the flower beds with nitrogen supplements.
The depth of planting seeds is no more than 2 cm. The planting pattern is different for different species and varieties. Decorative varieties are sown at a distance of 20-30 cm, between rows - 60-70 cm.Medicinal species - at a distance of 7-10 cm, between rows - 30-40 cm.
The first shoots will appear in 7-10 days, and after 15-20 days, the first thinning of the seedlings is carried out, after which a desert segment about 35 cm long should appear between the crops. Young plants removed during the thinning process will easily take root in a new place, therefore not worth throwing away. The first flowering after sowing seeds in open ground can be seen in 2-2.5 months.
Seedling of calendula
When planting seedlings on open ground, the flowering of calendula can begin much earlier. Its cultivation begins from March 20th to April 10th. The seeds are sown in planting boxes or in small plastic cups filled with soil mixture for garden flower crops. The depth of planting seeds is 1-2 cm. The soil with the crops is moistened and covered with polyethylene for 6-10 days, until the first shoots appear. The containers must be kept in a bright room with room temperature. Seedlings should be protected from direct sunlight. In the future, the seedlings are grown at a temperature of about 15 degrees Celsius.
The main care of young plants consists in moderate moistening of the substrate in containers and in regular fertilization (once every 10-15 days). As a top dressing, it is recommended to use a weak concentration of a complex mineral fertilizer. When 2-3 full-fledged leaves appear, a dive can be carried out. Seedlings are transplanted into individual cups or thinned out, leaving an interval between them of at least 5 cm.
Planting calendula in open ground
When to plant calendula
Planting seedlings on open flower beds is carried out in steady warm weather and if plants have at least 5-6 full-fledged formed leaves. The most favorable time for this is the second half of May.
Calendula is highly resistant to cold and light frosts, but still, as a preventive measure, it is worth carrying out preliminary hardening procedures with seedlings. The containers in which the seedlings grow are recommended for 7-10 days before planting in open ground every day to take out to fresh air for 5-6 hours (for example, on an open veranda or on an unglazed balcony).
The flower bed or flower garden should be located in an open, sunny location with fertile and well-drained soil. When choosing a site, it is worth remembering that the root system of calendula negatively affects the basil and radish planted nearby, but for many other vegetable and garden plants it is a reliable protector against pests. The specific aroma of marigolds scares away ticks and butterflies, therefore it is recommended to plant calendula in the aisles on vegetable beds.
The seedling planting scheme is similar to the seed planting scheme. It also differs among medicinal and ornamental species and varieties. The first flowering with the seedling method of cultivation begins in 1.5-2 months.
Caring for calendula in the garden
You don't have to spend a lot of free time and effort on growing marigolds. The unpretentiousness of this flowering plant allows you to get by with minimal effort.
Regular watering is not required for plants, the only exception is prolonged dry weather.
Throughout the entire flowering period, it is recommended to loosen the soil and remove weeds in a timely manner.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Complex mineral dressings should be applied once a month during the entire summer and autumn seasons.
To extend the flowering period, regular pruning of opened inflorescences - baskets will be required. Without this procedure, the calendula will stop blooming in a month. The constant removal of open flowers will promote the formation of a large number of new buds, as well as an abundant and long-lasting flowering.
Calendula after flowering
To prevent self-seeding, it is recommended to put small bags of gauze or fine calico fabric on ripening seeds. In this case, the seeds can be harvested after they are fully ripe, safe and sound. It is recommended to store the seed in small paper bags or in cloth bags in a dark place with dry air.
Preparing for winter
Annual species of calendula after flowering are removed from the flower bed and disposed of. The land must be dug up, fertilized and left until next season.
Diseases and pests
Since the culture with its aroma is capable of scaring off many insects, pests are practically not dangerous to it. The only possible pest is aphids. You can destroy the aphid invasion by spraying with such preparations: Akarin, Aktellik, Antitlin, Biotlin.
As a preventive measure against various diseases, it is recommended to prevent thickening in the flower bed and the growth of weeds. When diseases appear, it is worth immediately removing the damaged parts of the plant or the entire bush.
Possible diseases of calendula are powdery mildew and black spot. Signs of the appearance of diseases are black or brown spots on the leafy part of plants, a light bloom of a white tint. With a large spread of the disease, immediate treatment will be required. For spraying a flower garden, the following preparations are recommended: Topaz, Fundazol, Topsin.
Calendula properties and uses
The medicinal properties of calendula are in great demand in medicine, and therefore the cultivation of this crop occurs on an industrial scale. Tinctures, ointments, creams, syrups, elixirs, decoctions, essential oil, and aqueous solutions are made from flowers. They contain a huge amount of useful substances and chemical elements - for example, carotene, resins, acids, vitamins and much more. With the help of this plant, you can relieve spasm and inflammation, help in disinfecting and healing wounds. Calendula flowers have sedative, diaphoretic, relaxing, expectorant, tonic and analgesic properties. Marigold-based preparations are used in the treatment of skin diseases and problems with the work of many internal organs. Calendula gives high efficiency in complex therapy for tonsillitis, stomatitis, problems with the gums and oral cavity, with poorly healing wounds, bedsores, burns and ulcers. Combined with chamomile and hop cones, it has a positive effect on the scalp, roots and hair condition.
With great popularity and effectiveness in official medicine, calendula also has contraindications. You should not self-medicate, especially during the period of bearing a child and if you have problems with the heart and blood vessels. It is recommended that you seek professional advice from your doctor before using calendula products.
Types and varieties of calendula with photos and names
The most common in the culture are the Field and Pharmacy calendula. Both types have a lot in common, but the Pharmacy or Medicinal calendula is presented in many varieties with simple and double flowers in various shades - yellow, orange, light and dark brown. The best varieties are Juvel, Radio, Emperor, Gold Kugel, Sonnenstein, Kalta, Sakharovskaya orange.
Calendula. Planting and leaving.
Tincture of calendula
In folk recipes, calendula is very often mentioned - a plant that has unique healing properties. The flowers and roots of calendula have been used since time immemorial to combat inflammatory processes, with their help, you can treat purulent wounds, female ailments, as well as fungal skin lesions and hypertension. Decoctions are usually used to combat various diseases, but when it comes to increasing the disinfecting qualities of this plant, it is best to use an alcohol tincture of calendula.
What is yarrow - a quick botanical reference
Yarrow has been known since ancient times. It was used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The hero Achilles applied grass to wounds to stop bleeding. The ancient Romans specially planted the grass near the military camp and near the workers' workshops, so that in case of injury it was always at hand.
Yarrow (Achillea) belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes over 150 species. The plant got its name in honor of the Greek hero Achilles, who used this plant to heal wounds during the Trojan War. Yarrow is a perennial plant. In most cases it grows like grass, but there are varieties in the form of a miniature shrub. The stem is erect, slightly curved. Numerous finely dissected toothed leaves are arranged in regular order. Flowers are small, collected in "basket" inflorescences. The color of the flower depends on the species, it can be white, deep pink, bright scarlet and purple.
In the 17th century, the herb was added to food as a spice.
Calendula: planting is not difficult
# 1 Nina Volkova
Every grower has a favorite flower, which he succeeds in planting very well from year to year. For me, it's calendula. It is she who is the "queen" on my site. The people also call it "marigolds". In summer, it is this flower that looks the most harmoniously among other plants, sparkling with bright yellow-orange flowers. In many countries, calendula is very popular (Holland, Italy). It is also known that it is added to food, various soups, but my hands did not reach such experiments. It's enough for me to just admire her. It is calendula that tends to scare off pests. Calendula varieties are striking in their variety. Personally, I know of chrysanthemum, tiled, radiant, gerberal forms of varieties. There are also differences in height: some are short, others are tall. In general, calendula can grow from 20 - to centimeters. Growing calendula is not at all difficult even for a beginner who has not been involved in planting flowers before. It is unpretentious, easily tolerates cold and does not require special climatic conditions. Also, it can be safely transplanted during flowering, and various pests are not at all afraid of it. When it comes to choosing a planting site, I try to choose sunny places where the flowers will be in a prominent place, and it does not matter at all what the soil will be. I choose a different landing site each time. The seeds of calendula are large enough and I do not sow them deeply (3-4 cm). Shoots can be seen within 8 - 10 days after planting the seeds. It is also necessary to thin out the seedlings in about a month, keeping a distance of at least 20 centimeters. It begins to bloom 65 - 70 days after sowing. It's probably a little late. Has anyone tried to use stretched plants as seedlings? How to do it correctly? It is easy to care for calendula. It is enough just to water, sometimes gently loosen the soil. I heard about the drugs that are used to treat calendula before flowering. I think this is a publicity stunt and there won't be much sense from it. But, in principle, it is also worth trying. Be sure to cut off damaged leaves, slightly wilted inflorescences. Until the very frost, only this flower remains and makes me happy. When to start collecting inflorescences, you decide. I start after flowering for 2 - 3 months. Start drying as soon as possible, immediately after harvesting within 3 - 4 hours, but do not overdo it with temperature. It should not exceed 50 degrees.
# 2 livza
Calendula has medicinal substances. Since ancient times, the plant was valued precisely for its medicinal properties. And in beauty. There are much brighter flowers.
# 3 IrinaIrina
When the calendula first appeared on our site, no one sowed it on purpose, apparently, the seeds were blown by the wind or the bird dropped. But this bright orange flower immediately became a decoration of the garden. Besides the fact that it has such a festive look, it requires almost no maintenance and blooms during the warm season. After that, I specially collected calendula seeds with lush flowers from the flower bed and sowed them in different places of the garden plot in the spring. Where many plants had sprung up, and I did not have time to thin them out, the flowers were not so lush. Nevertheless, I managed to dry them. I not only make a decoction from dried inflorescences from all kinds of diseases, but also add them to tea for prevention. Only, like any medicinal plant, calendula has contraindications and it should not be overly carried away. All season, while this sunny flower blooms, I add its petals to vegetable salads. Interestingly, no matter how much you collect flowering heads, new ones appear nearby and the general appearance of the plant does not cease to please the eye. Now I do not specifically sow the seeds of marigolds, they themselves scatter in those places where they were planted earlier. I only have to break through them in time so that they do not grow thickly. But I noticed that exactly where, once upon a time, for the first time, the flowers of calendula themselves grew, they still bloom best - probably, the soil is not the same as in other parts of the garden, and this affects the growth and flowering. I advise all gardeners who like to breed marigolds, as this is a useful and beautiful plant that does not require much trouble, but brings pure pleasure.
# 4 Guest_Irina_ *Guest_Irina_ *
In my garden, I see calendula as a simple weed. It all started with the fact that a neighbor decided to sow it along the fence adjacent to us, wanting to prepare flowers as a useful herb. The next year, I found that young shoots of calendula sprouted almost all over the site, I had to pull it out, because the tomatoes and marigolds, some strange and unnecessary combination. True, I usually leave a few bushes in the corner of the garden.I also collect and dry flowers - they also help with coughs and with various female diseases, and with alcohol tincture, skin rashes are excellently treated. In general, calendula, on a level with chamomile and sage, is considered a female herb, which should be in the medicine cabinet of every housewife, especially since it is not at all difficult to grow it yourself. True, every year you will have to fight with young shoots, since the calendula is easily dispersed throughout the site. From a purely decorative point of view, calendula does not attract me - the flowers are small, the bushes are tall, shapeless. We even joke with a neighbor that ordinary weeds were not enough for us, so we decided to sow another one. I also noticed that the flowers of marigolds are different: some bushes have a yellow center, some have a dark brown one, and some have them, though not large, but plump.
# 5 Guest_Kristina_ *Guest_Kristina_ *
You can safely advise calendula to all novice growers. This is really an extremely unpretentious flower! I ran into him a couple of years ago, when I first planted this miracle, and after the fall I could not come to the autumn cleaning of the site. My surprise knew no bounds when the next year, instead of one island, calendula grew all over the flower garden - the result of autumn self-sowing. Oh, and she spoiled the whole plan of the flower garden for me - it was too painful to tear it out!) Since then, she has not planted her again. Recently in the store I again stumbled upon this miracle - how many new varieties and shades have appeared gorgeous! Before, I saw mostly yellow ones, but now I am pleased with the bright juicy orange and warm salmon. In the end, I could not resist, I bought it!) But this time in the fall I will definitely harvest the seeds on time so that there are no more unexpected surprises ..
# 6 Ksenia Konoshko
Indeed, it has long been known about the possibilities of calendula to grow on any soil with minimal care and without any sowing, as well as about its healing properties and about its beneficial effect on the human body. Long ago, in my grandmother's garden in the village, calendula grew by itself and without any care. Once it was a very rainy summer, and the shoots grew in heaps, displacing other plants, they had to be systematically pulled out. But at my dacha I tried to plant it, and more than once, but for some reason it does not take root with me. Perhaps the soil is not suitable, or the ecology is not so suitable (there is a metallurgical plant next to the dacha). I would very much like it to grow, so to speak, "at hand", very often we use this flower as a decoction for rinsing the mouth, and in many other cases where herbal treatment is required. Can anyone advise, or suggest tips for growing?
# 7 Guest_Natasha_ *Guest_Natasha_ *
I also try to sow these beautiful and useful flowers every year. At the beginning or at the end of the garden, I allocate 1-2 rows for them. Seedlings appear quickly (within 10 days) and amicably. And if the earth is warm and wet, then earlier. Several times I loosen the ground, pull out large weeds, with small grown plants they cope on their own - they oppress them. In severe drought, I water the flowers, but this need does not arise every year. I don’t fertilize the soil specially, I don’t spray it with anything. And why? Marigolds bloom and so abundantly and for a long time, it does not make sense to additionally stimulate flowering.
I do not think that the metallurgical plant can harm calendula, its growth. Another thing is that the flowers grown near it will be contaminated with heavy metals and, unambiguously, will do more harm than good when eaten or for treatment. By the way, for these purposes, it is recommended to pick flowers during the day, in dry, sunny weather, and dry in a well-ventilated, shaded place. Sometimes I do this with an electric dryer to speed up the process.
I make calendula honey from freshly picked flowers. At night I fill the heads of flowers (pieces 200-250, without legs) with boiling water. I do this to remove the bitterness. In the morning I wring them out, fill them with clean water and cook for 5 minutes. I cool it down, squeeze it out again. I add 1 kg of sugar to 0.5-0.7 liters of broth, half a teaspoon of citric acid, a clove seed. I boil over low heat until it dies, but at least half an hour. I roll it up in clean hot jars. We use 1 teaspoon several times a day, for tea or just with water.
I add dry flowers to herbal preparations. It is useful to rinse the throat or oral cavity with a decoction of calendula in case of inflammation.
Calendula is said to ward off pests such as the Colorado potato beetle. But either it is a very easy remedy, or our beetle is adapted to natural means of dealing with it, but marigolds do not harm my beetles at all. They eat potato bushes, live well and reproduce literally half meters from the calendula plants.
# 8 Alisa Milova
My calendula grows all over the site, I do not sow it on purpose every year - it was enough once many years ago, when I bought seeds of different varieties of decorative calendula: there were both double and simple, in colors from light yellow to brown, with different the shape of the petals, different heights, different sizes of flowers. The calendula was subsequently scattered on its own, the next year the flowers still retained the properties of different varieties, but over time they degenerated into ordinary orange-yellow flowers with a yellow or brown core. Until now, they grow up arbitrarily with me. I just mercilessly weed out a certain number of seedlings at once, transplant some of the sprouted seedlings to those places where, due to lack of light, poor soil or other unfavorable conditions, no flowers can grow, but I somehow want to decorate the site. Calendula always helps out in this regard. By the way, she also tolerates a transplant at any age, but it is better to transplant it before flowering and it is important not to damage the root, it is very brittle. I collect a certain amount of flowers and dry them so that they can be used in the form of a decoction or infusion in winter for colds. In the summer I use calendula for hair care - I make hair masks from crushed calendula, I wash my hair with calendula broth - such procedures greatly strengthen the hair and have a beneficial effect on the scalp. If the calendula grows in the beds, then I do not touch it, this plant scares away insect pests from vegetable crops. You can spray berry bushes from aphids with an infusion of herbs and calendula flowers - I will not say that it radically solves the problem with pests, but there is benefit, especially when the berries have already set and the hand does not rise to spray them with chemicals. In general, I really like calendula, the only minus is that you constantly need to regulate its amount on the site, and if you use it for decorative purposes, you need to pick off dried flowers and leaves in order to stimulate further flowering and the bush looked neat.
Health Benefits of Calendula
Calendula is primarily known as a medicinal plant for its soothing properties. Although it is a gentle plant, the healing effects obtained from calendula petals are very strong, making them indispensable in the medicine cabinet. Calendula is used to heal wounds, including from insect bites, bruises, blisters, cuts, and herpes.
The herb is also effective in treating minor burns, including sunburn. It helps protect from the sun and therefore can be included in sunscreen formulas for prevention. Calendula cream, ointment, or healing balm can be applied to wounds to reduce swelling, and their antimicrobial and antifungal components can prevent secondary infection, leading to a faster healing process.
Calendula helps the digestive and immune systems. It soothes internal wounds and burns such as ulcers, heartburn, or irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, it has a protective effect on the stomach, improving digestion, restoring the intestinal walls, while reducing discomfort.
Calendula soothes the skin against symptoms of eczema, dermatitis and dandruff. By stimulating the production of collagen, an essential protein for glowing skin, calendula helps maintain skin while soothing and moisturizing.
Calendula also helps to slow down the development of wrinkles. The antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds of calendula have been shown to significantly protect human skin cells from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an imbalance in the balance of damaging atoms and antioxidants. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the aging process, as well as in the development of a number of diseases. Calendula keeps skin hydrated and healthy, making it a great ingredient for daily lotions or lip balm.
One of the outstanding benefits of calendula is its ability to reduce scarring when healing wounds. The wound healing properties of calendula also apply to the scarring process. Calendula increases blood flow to injury, promotes a quick and healthy healing process free of infection, and promotes the growth of new healthy tissue. For skin ulcers such as chickenpox and acne, the herb softens and soothes the skin, preventing inflammation, boosting the immune response, allowing wounds to heal quickly and cleanly.
For coughs and inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract, rinsing from calendula flowers is considered one of the most effective remedies.
Infusion of calendula has been used since time immemorial in folk medicine and for the treatment of childhood rickets, scrofula.
Traditional medicine recipes can be found here CLICK HERE
Folk recipes - calendula for hundreds of diseases
1. Tincture of calendula - a universal remedy used to treat diseases of the throat and upper respiratory tract - a rinse solution is prepared, for hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system - 20-30 drops 2-3 times a day. It is also used as a choleretic and healing agent for gastritis and ulcers - 10-20 drops 3 times a day and for the treatment of headaches, increasing efficiency and strengthening immunity - 10 drops, dissolved in a small amount of water, 3 times a day. Tincture of calendula is used as an external remedy for otitis media - 2-3 drops are instilled into each ear canal 3 times a day, for the treatment of wounds, cuts, burns and boils - 1 tsp of tincture is diluted in 0.5 liters of water and lotions are made and compresses with solution. Alcohol tincture is also used in gynecology - for the treatment of thrush and inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis - 1 tsp of tincture is diluted in 1 tbsp of water and a solution for douching and baths is used. You can buy calendula tincture at the pharmacy or prepare it yourself. To do this, 2 tablespoons of fresh flowers are crushed, poured in 0.5 tablespoons of 40% alcohol and left to infuse in a glass container for 7-10 days. After that, the tincture is filtered and stored in a dark, cool place.
2. Infusion of calendula flowers - is used in the same cases as alcohol tincture, if the use of drugs for alcohol is prohibited. It is prepared by pouring 2 tablespoons of fresh calendula flowers with 2 tablespoons of boiling water and infusing the solution under a lid for 1 hour. Take an infusion of 1 hour or 1 tbsp 3 times a day. The main disadvantage of calendula infusion is that the shelf life of the finished infusion is no more than 2 days in the refrigerator.
3. Calendula decoction - used for gastritis, liver diseases, stagnation of bile - inside, in gynecology and for colds - externally. The broth is prepared as follows - 1 tbsp of calendula flowers is poured with 2 tbsp of water, boiled in a water bath for 10 minutes, infused for 20-30 minutes, filtered and taken 12 tbsp 3 times a day.
4. Calendula oil - used externally to treat wounds, cuts, burns, frostbite and as a cosmetic. To prepare the oil, fresh calendula flowers are placed in a glass jar up to about 34 volumes and poured to the brim with olive or sunflower oil. Insist in a cold place for 1-2 weeks, occasionally shaking the oil. Inside, calendula oil is used for nervous disorders, diseases of the stomach, intestines and liver and menopause - 1 tbsp 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
5. Calendula ointment - It is used to heal skin lesions, varicose veins, allergic inflammation and dermatitis. The ointment is prepared from 12 tbsp of calendula flowers, which are thoroughly crushed, pour 1 tbsp of interior fat or petroleum jelly. The resulting mixture is placed in a boiling water bath, stirring constantly, brought to a homogeneous state and left for several hours.
Calendula - gardening
Medicinal calendula, or marigold - an original annual with golden-yellow or orange flowers of all shades, has long been grown not only for decorative purposes, but also as a plant with unique medicinal properties.
Back in the XII century, healers advised looking at blooming calendula to improve vision and lift the spirit. And in the 17th century, with its help, they strengthened the heart, treated smallpox and measles. It has not lost its significance today.
In folk medicine, calendula flower baskets are mainly used, which are collected in the flowering phase, i.e., from early summer to late autumn. To preserve their color, they are dried in the shade in a well-ventilated area, laid out in one layer on paper or fabric.
Preparations made from inflorescences of marigolds are used to rinse the mouth and throat for stomatitis and sore throat, are taken orally for diseases of the liver and biliary tract, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, cough, gastritis and in menopause. Calendula has a calming effect on the central nervous system, reduces excitability and blood pressure, and regulates the activity of the heart in case of heart rhythm disturbances.
Lotions from calendula perfectly heal long-term non-healing wounds and fistulas, ulcers, burns, acne, scratches, cuts.
As practice shows, under the influence of calendula, cancer patients become less intoxicated, dyspeptic symptoms disappear, sleep and appetite improve.
You can buy alcoholic tincture at the pharmacy or prepare it yourself. To do this, part of the flower baskets is poured with ten parts of 70-degree alcohol and kept for two weeks in a dark place. Take a tincture of 30 drops two to three times a day.
You can prepare a tincture according to a different recipe. 200 g of dry or 600 g of fresh raw materials are placed in a glass jar, poured with a liter of moonshine or vodka, tightly closed, and kept in a dark, cool place for two weeks, shaking occasionally. The strained tincture is stored in dark glass bottles and taken three times a day by a teaspoon, diluted in a quarter of a glass of boiled water.
The infusion of calendula also has a good healing effect. For its preparation, two teaspoons of dried flowers are poured with two glasses of boiling water, insisted until cooled and the entire dose is drunk during the day in several doses.
If you mix fresh juice or powder from dry calendula petals with lanolin or lard (1:10), you get an ointment that is excellent for various skin diseases.
As you can see, calendula is used for many ailments. However, it cannot be taken orally with low blood pressure, individual intolerance. In some people with hypersensitivity, its drugs can cause allergies.
In addition, tincture of calendula on alcohol is contraindicated in hepatitis, gastritis, treatment of children and pregnant women.
By the way, dried and powdered calendula flowers can be added as a spice and dye to soups, salads, pilaf and baked goods.