The golden rules of fertility
Gardeners often wonder: what fertilizers to buy? How to choose the right food for plants to get a good harvest? Without certain knowledge, it is impossible to randomly guess what the soil and plants need. We will tell you how to choose and correctly apply organic and mineral fertilizers.
Farmers turned their attention to fertilizers that increase the yield about 2 thousand years ago. They noticed that it is impossible to grow a good harvest on old arable lands without them. But they did not yet know about what the plants eat?
Much time passed, and the German chemist Justus Liebig in 1840 proved that the source of plant nutrition is the mineral salts contained in the soil.
It is now known for sure that organic and mineral fertilizers can significantly increase plant productivity, improve the quality of agricultural products, cope with drought and unfavorable wintering conditions.
The choice of fertilizers on the Russian market is now very extensive, and in order to help you make this choice, we will tell you about the basic rules for using fertilizers.
According to the teachings of V.I. Vernadsky, there is a constant exchange of nutrients in the ecosystem between soil, plants and fertilizers. Plants from this cycle strive to extract the required amount of elements, while reducing the reserves of these elements in the soil, reducing its fertility. To prevent this from happening, regular application of nutrients to the soil in the form of fertilizers is required.
We have already talked about how to increase soil fertility in detail (see the article "Caring for the soil: ten most common mistakes made by gardeners and gardeners. Part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4, part 5.").
In the same article, we will talk about how to apply fertilizers correctly.
At present, it is known that more than 77 elements included in the periodic table are involved in the formation of soil fertility and plant yield, of which 18 are absolutely necessary for plants - plants cannot live without them. These are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, boron, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt and iodine.
To follow any rule means to answer exactly four questions:
- What fertilizers should be applied and how much?
- When to deposit?
- How to deposit?
The first two questions are: What and when to fertilize? - are solved based on the specifics of each fertilizer, the requirements and characteristics of the cultivated crop, and the questions: Where and how? - based on soil and climatic conditions and plant agrotechnology.
So, the first rule is that fertilizers should be used for their main and main purpose - to increase soil fertility.
It must be remembered that plants do not feed directly on fertilizers. Fertilizers are prepared to fertilize the soil. After being introduced into the soil, they undergo a complex "culinary treatment" in it, as a result of which the soil is enriched with nutrients and becomes fertile. Only after this do the plants begin to feed on nutrients from the soil. Therefore, fertilizers are made in such a way that, once in the soil, they become a source of plant nutrition in the shortest possible time.
The soil, as you know, emerged from the rock as a result of a constantly occurring centuries-old process. Crystalline rocks in nature under the influence of precipitation, temperature fluctuations, wind and sun were destroyed, water-soluble compounds appeared - nutrients, which made it possible for plants and microorganisms to settle, grow, and develop.
Plants, as pioneers, having received mineral food and energy from the sun, began to convert non-living mineral salts into living organic matter. This is how life and soil appeared. Dying plants and microorganisms began to enrich the upper layer of the earth with organic matter, during the decomposition of which fulvic acids and dark-colored humic compounds appeared, which formed negatively charged particles - colloids with clay minerals.
They were able to keep mineral salts from washing out and accumulate them in the upper horizon of the earth, thus turning this layer into fertile soil. As a result, nutrients began to accumulate in the soil, and the soil became more and more fertile. This process lasted hundreds of thousands of years.
And what we call soil fertility in everyday life is its ability to provide plants with nutrients, optimal physicochemical and acid-base parameters, beneficial microorganisms, carbon dioxide, water and oxygen.
Read the next part. The specificity of various fertilizers →
Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Regional Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
Photo by E. Valentinov
Read all parts of the article "Golden rules for the use of fertilizers"
- Part 1. General information on fertilizers
- Part 2. Specificity of various fertilizers
- Part 3. Types and uses of organic fertilizers
- Part 4. Types and uses of mineral fertilizers
- Part 5. Combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers
- Part 6. Control of soil pollution, lime fertilizers
Height of windows on the veranda
In order to protect the space of the terrace or veranda from bad weather, insects and noise, it takes a lot of effort.
This is an important task, and to create favorable conditions for a good time in any weather, you should choose windows for the veranda. There are many types of them, each of which has certain features, advantages and disadvantages.
Now in the modern construction market you can find various verandas and their glazing from all kinds of options.
Municipal preschool educational institution "Kindergarten No. 63 of general developmental type" is located in one building at the address: 144004, Moscow region, Elektrostal, st. Victory, building 8, building 4.
The territory of the MDOU is fenced around the perimeter with a fence and a strip of green spaces. Green spaces are used to separate the group sites from each other and to separate the group sites from the economic zone. Group sites are individual for each group. To protect children from the sun and precipitation, pavilions have been installed on the territory of each group playground. The sports ground houses sports equipment designed for all age groups of the MDOU. The covering of the sports ground is grassy. The sports ground consists of an area with gymnastic equipment and sports equipment, a treadmill and an obstacle course. The territory has an organized ecological zone - a vegetable garden, green spaces, flower beds.
The building contains: 6 group cells, 1 music and exercise room, 1 medical office, 1 isolation ward, 1 catering unit, 1 grocery store, 1 material storeroom, 1 manager's office.
The division of pupils into age groups was made in accordance with the laws of the child's mental development.
The group cell includes: dressing room (reception) (for receiving children and storing outerwear), group (for playing games, classes, eating, sleeping), pantry (for preparing ready-made dishes for distribution and washing tableware), toilet ( combined with a washroom). For the organization of sleep, folding beds are used in groups No. 3-6 (a folding bed, the base of which is made of metal pipes with a dense fabric stretched over them), in groups No. 1-2 - beds.
For group work with children, there is a music and gymnasium.
MDOU "Ts.r.r. - d / s No. 31", Magnitogorsk. Location: 455038, Chelyabinsk region, city of Magnitogorsk, Suvorov street, house 10, building 3.
Working hours and hours:
MDOU "Ts.r.r.-d / s No. 31" of the city of Magnitogorsk creates conditions for the realization of the guaranteed right to citizens of the Russian Federation to receive public and free preschool education.
The kindergarten carries out activities determined by the Charter in order to implement preschool education and carry out the functions of education, training, development, care and supervision of children aged 1 to the end of educational relations. The institution operates full-time (12-hour stay), according to the schedule of a five-day working week from 7.00 to 19.00. Weekends: Saturday, Sunday, public holidays established by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Educational activities under the Basic Educational Program of Preschool Education MDOU "Ts.r.r.-d / s No. 31" of the city of Magnitogorsk are carried out in groups of general developmental and combined orientation.
The main structural unit of a preschool educational institution is a group of preschool children.
The groups are completed by students according to the age principle.
3 groups of early age - second and third year of life
2 groups of younger preschool age - the fourth year of life
2 groups of middle preschool age - the fifth year of life
2 groups of senior preschool age - sixth year of life - general developmental and combined orientation
3 groups - preparatory group for school - the seventh year of life and until the end of educational relations - general developmental orientation. Combined orientation - 1 group.
General developmental groups are staffed according to the principle of the same age
The kindergarten room has: 12 group cells, 1 music and sports hall, a speech therapist's office. There is a medical office.
On the territory of the kindergarten there are: 12 walking areas, a sports ground, a glade of fairy tales, Bazhov Park, a bird park, a platform for studying traffic rules, a vegetable garden.
Government of the Republic of Crimea
School principals got acquainted with the experience of implementing pre-vocational education in Moscow schools
The training was conducted on the subject "Geography"
Special attention was paid to the issue of ensuring anti-terrorist security
© 2017 MBDOU "Razdolnensky kindergarten No. 1" Zvezdochka "
Created and maintained by Valknut LLC
General information about orchids
Orchids lead a very interesting lifestyle. Many of them are epiphytes or lithophytes, grow either on trees, using them as a support, or on stones or rocks. Moisture accumulates in leaves, bulbs or roots. Orchid roots are something special and very interesting in and of themselves, apart from the plant itself. In phalaenopsis, the roots are covered with velamen, in which moisture accumulates. Due to the presence of chlorophyll in the roots, the roots are greenish when wet, and when dry, the roots of Phalaenopsis are silver.
What are the orchids left on the ground doing? Most of them lead a terrestrial lifestyle, settling in open light places or adapting to a lack of light. The most common terrestrial orchids are in temperate and subtropical regions. Many orchids have underground storage organs here - nodules or rhizomes. With the arrival of spring, they throw out leaves that die off in the fall. In the tropics, especially in areas with a mild, even climate, many terrestrial orchids do not have pseudobulbs, storing moisture in succulent leaves and branched roots. It should also be noted that the division into epiphytes and terrestrial species is rather arbitrary, since there are many transitional species that feel equally comfortable both on the ground and in the air.
There are two main ways to grow orchids: traditional and intensive.
- A characteristic feature of the traditional method of cultivation is the strict alternation of periods of dormancy and growth with prolonged preservation of plants in a state of forced dormancy, the timing of plant growth to the most favorable time of the year (usually summer). This method is used by many botanical gardens and amateur flower growers. In this case, there are no quick results, but the plants turn out to be strong and easily endure the hardships of life.
- Intensive orchid cultivation is the most modern and often used in industrial orchid cultivation. Its essence lies in the fact that watering of plants is resumed immediately after the passage of a period of biological dormancy. At the same time, orchids begin to grow regardless of the season, which makes it possible to obtain two or more increments per calendar year. With this method, success comes quickly, but can sometimes alternate with failure.
However, orchid lovers use both methods in their practice. It all depends on the conditions, skill and, if you like, temperament. At the same time, regardless of the chosen method of culture, there are basics in orchid agricultural technology that you need to know, regardless of personal preferences and preferences.
Of the basic requirements for growing orchids, the main thing is good lighting and humidity. It is necessary to ensure that the temperature in the room where the orchids are located does not fall below 9 degrees Celsius. After the orchid transplant, do not water for several days. It is best to place the pot in a cool, humid place. If it is not possible to organize sufficient moisture, then orchids, if desired, can be placed in small aquariums. This is how the necessary favorable microclimate is achieved. If the transplant was carried out according to all the rules, then the plant will quickly acclimate and will bloom in the same year.
Like many plants, orchids need to be sheltered from the strong midday sun, and in winter, additional lighting is often needed for flowering. Orchids are watered mainly by immersion, allowing the roots to drink plenty of moisture. On average, once a week, a little more often in summer, less often in winter. Flooding of plants and, as a result of root decay, is one of the most common mistakes. There are, of course, various viral and putrefactive diseases, but fortunately they are not so common.