Experienced summer residents know that with the arrival of autumn, work on the site does not stop. It is necessary to complete the harvest, to have time to plant seedlings before the cold weather, to put things in order in the garden and in the garden, to prepare the plants for wintering. Competently carried out autumn activities will keep the plantings healthy and lay the foundation for a successful start to the next season.
Dates of autumn works
The main stages of preparation for winter remain unchanged. Each autumn month has its own to-do list: in September, in addition to harvesting and processing the crop, it is necessary to feed the lawn, trim shrubs and perennials; in October - remove plant residues, dig up a vegetable garden, apply fertilizers, mulch bulbous; in November - finish cleaning the site, prune and whitewash trees, make protective shelters for plants from impending frosts.
In the fall, you need to tidy up the site and create favorable conditions for wintering for plants
But the specific timing of the preparatory work depends on the climatic characteristics of the region, so such a calendar is more suitable for the Moscow region and central regions with a relatively warm period from September to mid-October.
In areas of risky farming, preparatory work is completed in October. Indeed, in the Urals at the beginning of September there is a sharp cooling, in October - frost and snow, and in the first decade of November comes winter. The same short and cold autumn is in the North, where morning frosts are possible already at the end of summer, and by mid-October a stable snow cover is established and severe frosts hit.
To prevent the branches from breaking under the weight of snow caps, on the eve of winter, the crowns are tied with conifers
In the south, cleaning the beds and preparing the garden for winter begins only in November. In the first month of autumn, it is still warm in summer, a decrease in temperature is noted only from mid-October - at this time the last harvest is only being harvested.
Autumn cleaning of the garden and vegetable garden after the harvest
After the end of the summer season, it is necessary to carry out a general cleaning of the local area.
What to do with plant residues
Having grown and harvested, many summer residents do not know what to do with a mountain of plant debris - tops, stems, branches, carrion. Overripe vegetables, rotten fruits can be buried in the ground or sent to the compost heap. But the remains of fruits and vegetables with signs of disease must be burned.
The correct solution is to collect volunteers and compost them in a rodent-proof pit, along with other plant debris.
Waste from carrots, beets, beans, weeds are laid in a compost pit. Tomato and potato tops are buried behind the site or burned, since they are often infected with late blight.
Cut branches from trees and bushes, affected by lichens, fungal diseases, are also burned. And healthy dry knots are useful for heating the stove.
All branches and twigs under trees and shrubs must be removed
In the fall, I grind the flowers and stems of calendula, marigolds and bring them to the garden when digging. These annuals are natural insecticides that remove wireworms and other pests from the soil.
When buried in the ground, marigolds effectively suppress the nematode
Cleaning of fallen leaves
In autumn, a lot of fallen leaves accumulate on the site. They rake it with a rake and, if it is affected by diseases, burn it. Litter from fruit trees often harbors insect pests. Healthy dry leaves, chopped, are laid in a compost pit.
The entire garden area is freed from fallen leaves
The collected foliage is also used as mulch, spreading out in the beds. By the spring, she, overheating, will make the earth looser and more fertile.
Only healthy leaves can be used as mulch in the beds.
With dry leaves, hydrangeas, roses and other perennial plants are insulated before the cold, only in spring they must be removed on time.
You can cover the plants with dry leaves.
Perennial plant care in autumn
From the beginning of September, it is time to prepare garden perennials for the next season. And if for some types of plants it is limited to feeding, pruning and mulching, then for others a full cycle of work is needed: digging, dividing, processing, sheltering.
The flower garden also needs care
Faded perennials with non-growing shoots that have lost their decorative effect are cut off in the fall.
- In daylilies, peduncles are removed immediately after flowering, and when the leaves wither and dry, the stems are cut at the root.
Root pruning of daylilies should be postponed until late autumn, when the leaves are completely wilted.
- Withered shoots of aquilegia, dicentra, iris are cut off, leaving hemp 5–7 cm high.
- Dried stalks of asters, rudbeckia are cut to the very ground.
- From the end of September, the buds are removed from the roses, and with a decrease in temperature, the branches are shortened at a height of 30-50 cm. The bush is thinned out, leaving 5 strong shoots.
Video: pruning perennials in the fall
In conifers, only broken off, diseased and yellowed parts of the branches are cut out.
Old, diseased bushes and mustaches are removed from the strawberry bed. Don't rush to prune your garden strawberries. In the autumn period, it does not shed green leaves, but accumulates useful substances in them, thanks to which it does not freeze. Removing the entire leaf rosette will greatly weaken the bushes.
In autumn, only dry and damaged strawberry leaves are removed, and healthy leaves are left
With prolonged September rains, watering is stopped; in dry weather, it is watered once a week. Water is applied in the first half of the day under the root, and not along the leaf, to avoid rot. On the eve of frost, the plants are abundantly moisturized. Water-charging irrigation is especially important for coniferous plants, which in winter suffer more from drought rather than frost.
When caring for thuja in autumn, as well as for all conifers, the main thing is watering
For moisture and air access to the roots, the soil must be loose. After watering, the soil in flower beds and strawberry beds is loosened to a shallow depth - no more than 3 cm, so as not to damage the suction roots located close to the surface.
By the end of the season, faded perennials need to recuperate in order to survive the winter and start growing in the spring. Autumn dressings should contain potassium, which helps plants to better endure harsh winters, phosphorus, which increases resistance to low temperatures, and magnesium, which reduces sensitivity to external influences, which is especially important in a snowless winter.
Nitrogen-containing compositions are not used in the fall to stop the growth of young shoots.
Fertilizer "Autumn" increases the cold resistance of perennials
Perennial plants are fed in late September - early October with mineral fertilizers. A nutrient solution is introduced under the root (15 g of superphosphate + 15 g of potassium salt 10 l). The flow rate of the working fluid is 4–10 l / m².
Treatment against diseases and pests
Winter treatment is carried out in a complex, from pests and diseases at the same time.
In coniferous plantings, copper-containing preparations are used to fight infections, and Actellik (2 ml 1 l) is used against pests.
Chemical preparations are used in the form of solutions with which plants are treated from small-drop sprayers
For autumn processing of strawberries against fungal diseases, copper oxychloride (15 g 10 l) is used, from strawberry mites, weevils are double spraying with Fitoverm solution (2 ml 1 l).
In the flower garden:
- Diseased stems are removed, in case of severe damage, the plants are uprooted and burned.
- In dry weather, flowers and soil are sprayed with fungicides that suppress the development of fungi (3% solution of iron or copper sulfate, 1% Bordeaux liquid).
- To protect against pests hibernating in plant residues, the flower garden is treated with insecticidal preparations (Iskra, Fufanon (1 tab. 10 l).
Now you can start transplanting, separating the overgrown perennial flowers.
Division, transplant and storage
In September, perennials continue to be divided and planted: asters, hosts, peonies, dicenters.
Up to 20 numbers are planted in the garden bulbs of daffodils, lilies, tulips, hyacinths.
For bulbous plants, you need to choose the right time for planting: if planting too early, they can sprout - and the very first frosts will destroy them
At the beginning of the month, gladioli are cut off, after a few days, corms are dug up and, after treatment with a manganese solution and drying, are stored in a cool, dry place until spring.
Corms of gladioli are shaken off the ground and dried well
Dahlia tubers, cannes rhizomes, crocosmia corms are dug up and stored.
The soil around the plants must be mulched with humus, compost, foliage, tree bark. A layer of mulch 5–10 cm thick will protect the root system from freezing in the winter cold.
Autumn mulching with humus protects plants from the coming cold weather
Construction of a shelter for the winter
Plants that are not resistant to frost should be insulated for the winter. Shelter can be a layer of soil, branches of conifers, frame structures, burlap, spunbond, plywood, etc.
So that roses, clematis and other perennials survive the winter well and delight them with lush flowering next year, they are covered in autumn
Before the cold weather, plants with hibernating shoots (carnation, creeping gypsophila, evergreen Iberis, Aubrieta, roses, splayed phlox and subulate) must be covered with spruce branches, and in snowless winters additionally covered with leaves with a layer of 10 cm.
Spruce branches are also used to insulate climbing plants, the shoots of which are removed from the supports, cut to 1 m, twisted, bent to the ground and fixed with staples. So that the lashes of roses do not break under the weight of the snow, arcs are installed above them and a non-woven material is pulled from above.
The cut branches of roses are pulled together and tied with spruce branches in the form of a hut, you can cover them on top with plywood boxes. Miniature species are sprinkled with peat and covered with ceramic pots.
With heavy snowfall, the branches of the conifers may break, so the columnar-shaped plants are tied with twine, but not too tightly. And in order to additionally protect from sunburn, they shade the crown with burlap, fabric cloth.
A wooden frame is installed around the ephedra and covered with burlap
Young tall thuja, spruce, fir for the winter must be fixed with a long support, to which the trunk is tied.
In regions with little snowy winters, it is recommended to insulate garden strawberries before frost using agrofibre.
Features of the preparation of fruit trees
The list of autumn work in the orchard includes not only feeding with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, water-charging irrigation and treatment against infections and pests. It is important to carry out sanitary pruning on time and correctly, whitewash trees and create reliable protection for them from rodents.
When and how to prune
Pruning is carried out after leaf fall, when the sap flow stops in the plants and a period of rest begins, but you need to catch it before frost. In the northern regions, the leaves fall off in early autumn, in the Urals a little later, by the end of September. In the central regions, leaf fall ends in late October, and in the south, at the end of November, it just begins.
Trees are freed from broken, dry branches damaged by diseases, with cracked bark. Sections are disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (10 g 1 l) and covered with a thin layer of garden varnish. All shoots are removed at the root. In Siberia and the Urals, it is recommended to limit ourselves to only sanitary pruning in the fall, since trees may not have time to heal their wounds before the onset of cold weather.
In autumn, sanitary pruning is carried out, shaping and rejuvenating pruning of trees in cold regions is transferred to the spring in order to prevent freezing and drying of the bark in the places of cuts
In warmer climates, regulating pruning can be performed. When thinning the crown, tops are cut out - vertical shoots that take away strength from the tree and do not bear fruit, intertwining branches and growing at an acute angle. They clean the trunks and thick branches from old bark, moss and start whitewashing.
Why whitewash the garden in autumn
Applying garden whitewash will protect the tree from exposure to the sun, which causes burns and frost holes on the trunk and skeletal branches. It is better to process it with a special garden paint containing 3 components: chalk or lime, the white color of which reflects ultraviolet light; glue that allows the solution to stick to the trunk; insecticide that protects against wood pests.
Acrylic paint will protect your garden from sunburn and insect pests
You can prepare the whitewash yourself by diluting 3 kg of lime, 100 g of casein glue and 100 g of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water. In dry, calm weather, the finished composition is applied to the skeletal branches and trunk up to 1.5 m in height.
In autumn, whitewashing is mandatory - without it, frost cracks form on the trees, since at night the trunks cool down a lot, and during the day they heat up in the sun
How to insulate plants
Many trees successfully endure cold weather, but immature seedlings often freeze slightly, a strong wind dries out their bark, breaks branches. Therefore, when the temperature drops to +20They need to be insulated. Burlap, dense agrofibre is wrapped around the trunk, the area at the roots is covered with mulch or insulating material.
Foamed polypropylene is also suitable for sheltering a tree, which retains heat well, and, due to its porous structure, allows air to pass through
Video: preparing trees for winter
How to protect trees from rodents
In winter, fruit plantations can suffer not only from frost, hares and mice inflict great harm on them, damaging trunks and even roots. Therefore, it is necessary to establish protection against rodents in the fall.
Tying the trunks with light agrofibre, nylon tights, roofing material, spruce branches will protect trees from toothy animals. The protective material should fit snugly to the trunk, and so that nimble voles do not make their way to the roots, the lower edge of the roofing material is dug into the ground.
Tying with thorny spruce branches will not allow the animals to approach the plants
A fence made of metal or plastic mesh with small meshes will protect the planting from hungry mice and hares. The trunk is covered with a mesh cover up to a height of 1.5 m, the lower edge is buried 40 cm into the ground.
Metal mesh - reliable protection of young apple trees from rodents
To get rid of uninvited guests, bait with poison (Rat Death, Storm, Nutcracker), which I lay out in the garden, help me. The effectiveness of such products is 90%, but they are dangerous for pets.
Features of the preparation of shrubs
When preparing berry bushes for winter, pruning is of particular importance, affecting their fruiting in the next season.
All berry bushes need annual pruning even more than fruit trees, because they grow quickly and tend to thicken
After leaf fall, thinning of currants, honeysuckle, gooseberries is carried out. Old and thickening branches are cut out completely, leaving 5–8 ripe healthy shoots. A sparse bush receives more light, the berries will be large and sweet.
Raspberries are cleaned of root shoots, branches that have bearing fruit are removed, and the tops of annual shoots are cut off. In remontant raspberries, the entire aerial part is cut off, only the rhizome is left.
After pruning, pre-winter watering of berry bushes is carried out, fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, treated for diseases and mulched with humus.
Before frosts, a thorough water-charging irrigation is carried out, during which the soil under the bushes should be saturated with moisture 50 cm deep
However, in a harsh winter, shoots and roots can freeze, so raspberry and blackberry bushes should be insulated. With the onset of cold weather, the stems are tilted, sprinkled with earth or covered with spunbond.
Ornamental shrubs that love warmth (forsythia, rhododendron, hibiscus, chubushnik) also need to be covered with fallen leaves, spruce branches and non-woven material that allows air to pass through well.
Agrofibre stretched over arcs will protect plants from cold weather and strong winds
Digging the garden in autumn
Before the first frost and snow, the garden should be dug up - in the spring it will be easier to develop the beds. Do not do this after the rain - moist soil will quickly compress. The site is dug up shallowly, on a shovel bayonet, without breaking large layers - this way the soil will not settle.
Digging the beds in late autumn will significantly reduce the number of harmful insects
When digging, weeds are removed, pests that have hidden in the ground for winter are destroyed, the soil becomes loose and breathable. During the winter, the earth will be enriched with minerals introduced during digging, the snow will quickly saturate it with moisture.
Tips for beginners from experienced gardeners
Before the onset of cold weather, there is a lot to do: tidy up inventory, prepare a lawn and artificial reservoirs for wintering, disinfect greenhouses, and cover garden sculptures.
All fallen leaves should be removed from the lawn to prevent damping and bald spots. In dry weather, once a week, you need to moisten the lawn; when the temperature drops, stop watering. To stimulate root growth and increase frost resistance, fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (30-50 g / m2) is carried out, scattering the dry mixture over the grass.
2 weeks before frost, the last haircut is carried out at a level of 8 cm from the ground. Tall grass (more than 10 cm) will fall and rot during frosts, too short will freeze.
The optimal height to mow the grass during the last autumn cut is 8 cm
Video: when to mow the lawn before winter
Disinfection of greenhouses
In greenhouses, after harvesting, the soil is cleared of plant residues, the top layer is dug up and renewed. Be sure to wash the structure with a 5% solution of copper sulfate, the earth is treated with 3% Bordeaux liquid. By spring, there will be no parasites or fungus in the greenhouse.
Preparing the greenhouse for winter is one of the main summer cottage procedures that completes the harvest season.
Preparation of artificial ponds
All reservoirs in the fall are first of all cleared of debris, twigs and leaves. It is better to drain the water from small ponds that freeze to the very bottom. The pipelines are purged and sealed with foam. Pumps, hoses, underwater lights are cleaned, dried and stored.
For the winter, a small pond should be closed after cleaning so that debris and snow do not get there.
But in plastic structures, the bottom without water in winter can deform and crack. Therefore, the water is not drained from them, and so that it freezes and does not break the container, several plastic bottles with sand are placed in it. Aquatic plants will survive the winter successfully if the pots are lowered deeper.
From reservoirs with a concrete base, the water will have to be drained - in severe frosts, the ice exerts excessive pressure on the walls, which will lead to cracks. The bowl is cleaned of accumulated dirt and covered with a tarpaulin.
Assembly of hoses and pumps
With hypothermia, the autonomous water supply system can finally come out of working condition. To prevent this from happening, the pumping station tank is freed from water residues.
If the water is not drained in autumn, it will freeze and burst the tank.
Water is also drained from metal pipes brought to the site, the taps are left open. The watering hoses are dried, rolled up and brought into the barn.
In the fall, it is necessary to audit the inventory.
- Wash, dry and sharpen shovels, hoes. Lubricate the cutting parts with machine oil.
- Clean pruning shears and garden saws and coat with oil.
- Tidy up mowers, garbage shredders and other garden equipment.
- Pour liquid from sprayers.
- Pack fertilizers and chemicals carefully.
- Drain the watering barrels.
Store garden and garden tools in a dry shed or garage
Clean inventory is laid out on shelves and stored in a shed
Shelter for garden sculptures
Decorative garden sculptures are usually made from frost-resistant materials.
Garden figurines will last longer if removed from the site for the winter.
But under the influence of moisture, temperature extremes, they sometimes crack and crumble. Therefore, it is better to cover large-scale statues that are outdoors all year round with a dense polymer film. Small figurines can be moved to a house or shed.
The garden and vegetable garden require a lot of care in the fall. It is necessary to put things in order at the site, help the plants survive the frosts, and protect them from winter threats. To have enough time and energy for everything, you should plan the work. The reward for your efforts will be a generous harvest of vegetables and fruits for the next year.
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Common gardener problems
Regardless of the age of the trees and shrubs, the problems the gardener faces are the same. Among the most common are the following:
- excess and / or lack of moisture
- lack of nutrients
- thickening of the crown (the need for pruning).
In a young garden, you can still add the problem of seedlings survival. During this period of their life, they are very vulnerable to adverse situations and require increased attention: spraying with growth regulators, as well as stimulating the growth of the root system.
Preparing your garden for winter: What to do in the fall
Traditional fruit and berry crops - apple, pear, plum, cherry, currant and gooseberry - are quite adapted to our harsh winters. But in recent years they have suffered too - the weather has become very unpredictable. Therefore, the plants need help. So what should you do at the end of the season to get your garden ready for winter?
What should be done in the garden in the fall? It is imperative to feed the trees. Why is it necessary? In the fall, plants store nutrients for the winter. And the more they accumulate, the easier it will be for them to endure unfavorable weather. However, at this time, there are very few nutrients in the soil - everything was used in the summer. Therefore, autumn dressing must be done without fail. How to do it. Each fruit plant has its own time and feeding rates (doses are indicated for 1 plant). Apples and pears are fertilized immediately after harvest: 1.5 cups of superphosphate and 1 cup of potassium sulfate. Plum and cherry plum - after harvesting: 3 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and 2 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate. Cherries and cherries - at the end of September: 1 glass of superphosphate and 3 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate. Currants - in late September - early October: 0.5 cups of superphosphate and 1 cup of potassium sulfate. Gooseberry - in late September - early October: 1.5 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and 4 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate. It is also useful to sprinkle the trunks with humus or compost - they also increase the winter hardiness of plants. Organics are planted under berry trees every year, and under fruit trees - once every 3-4 years. But in no case should mineral nitrogen and fresh manure be added in autumn! They delay the ripening of wood, which greatly reduces winter hardiness.
Why is it needed. It is the water that carries the nutrients to the plants that help them survive the harsh winters. Therefore, it is imperative to carry out water-charging irrigation in the garden. How to do it. They do it in October when the leaves fall. At this time, the soil must be soaked to a depth of 40-60 cm.To achieve this, it is necessary to pour under each plant: on sandy soils - 4 - 5 buckets of water, on loams - 6 - 7, on clay soils - 8 - 9. be sure to do, even if it rains!
Why is it needed. Why autumn? Yes, all sorts of uninvited guests annoy us usually in the spring and summer, in the fall they are not. But it is at the end of the season that it is easiest to deal with them - they leave for the winter and are not able to fly away or crawl away from your anger. How to do this. The first step is to collect all the fallen fruits and those that remained hanging on the trees in the winter. And not just collect, but also burn! Or bury it deep in the soil - at least 50 cm. Then you need to shovel up all the fallen leaves. If there were few pests and diseases in the summer, the leaves can be placed in a compost heap. But remember: their layer should be no more than 10 - 15 cm, and a thick layer of earth or peat must be poured on top (at least 30 cm). Only in this case, in the spring of next year, fungal spores and pests will not be able to get out and die. If there are a lot of pests and diseases, then the leaves must be raked and burned! But the ash from them can be safely used - this is an excellent fertilizer. And only if there are no pests in the garden (which is extremely rare), and there is only disease, you can not rake the leaves, because at first it is an excellent mulch, but then (when they start to decompose) also an excellent organic fertilizer! And it is very simple to kill disease spores: you need to sprinkle the fallen leaves with urea (500 - 800 g per 10 liters of water). The next step is to clean the stems and thick branches of adult trees from dead bark. Remove all larvae and cocoons. But before starting work, spread a cloth or paper under the tree so that later all debris and pests can be collected and burned. If there are lichens on the tree, they should be scraped off with a wooden scraper. Polypores are removed with a knife and a chisel. Trunks and skeletal branches affected by diseases must be cleaned with a sharp knife to healthy wood, then the wounds are disinfected with copper sulfate (10 g per 1 l of water) and covered with a thin layer of garden varnish. If the affected tissues cover the branches with a ring , they are cut out and burned. And if the trunk is damaged, then the whole tree is removed. All dry and wilting, with thickening, swelling, with cracked bark branches and shoots immediately cut out and burn! Remove shoots from cherries as often as possible - aphids feed on them. And finally, under trees and berry bushes, you need to dig up the soil (except for plants, for example, sea buckthorn, whose roots are close to the ground - in this case, the soil is simply loosened by 2 - 3 cm). There is no need to break up clods of earth - leave them in the winter. It is in them that most pests will be found. And when the frosts come, they will die. This is one of the most important stages in preparing a garden in the fall. 4. Whitewash
Why is it needed. Many are sure for beauty. But no. The idea of whitewashing is to protect trees from sun exposure, which causes burns and frost damage on trunks and skeletal branches. They happen in winter, when, under the influence of rays, the water in the trunks thaws, and at night it freezes and the ice breaks the bark. Therefore, it is necessary to whitewash, and be sure to fall! How to do it. The easiest way is to buy a special acrylic tree paint from a garden center. It is easy to use, it does not wash off for a long time (it will definitely be enough until spring), and modern formulations also include substances that protect the trunks from pests, diseases and destroy mosses and lichens. If you are a supporter of ecological agriculture, you can use a mixture of clay and mullein. Clay perfectly protects the trunks from the sun, frost and dry winds and at the same time does not clog the pores on the bark, allows plants to breathe. The mullein sticks the clay together and prevents it from falling off. And besides, it contains a lot of nutrients and bioactive substances. You can add a little lime and ferrous sulfate to this mixture. This is a good prophylaxis against diseases, and also beauty - such a "whitewash" has an unusual yellowish-salad shade and looks very impressive on the trunks. But traditional lime should not be used - it draws precious moisture from the trunk, and young plants can even ruin. 5. Mulch the soil
Why is it needed. Mulch prevents root damage when the soil is very frozen during snowless winters. After all, the roots are more sensitive to frost than the trunk and branches. Even in the most winter-hardy apple trees, the crown of which can withstand -40 ° C, the roots can be damaged already at -12 - 14 ° C. Therefore, mulching the soil is simply necessary to prepare the garden for winter. How to do it. It is not necessary to mulch the entire garden - it is enough to insulate the trunk circles. This is done after water-charging irrigation, before the onset of frost. Humus, peat or sawdust can be used as mulch - they are poured in a layer of 5 - 10 cm within a radius of 1.5 - 2 m from the trunk.In years when humus or compost is introduced in the garden as fertilizer, additional mulch is not needed - they themselves play the role of a blanket.
Autumn is the time of picking and planting
The well-known proverb: "A spring day feeds the year" - for gardeners it would be necessary to add: "And an autumn day - at least two." And this is truly so. It is necessary to have time to collect and store the already grown crop. It is not so easy. Harvested early - lost in weight, taste and keeping quality. Late in collection - most of the fruits may end up on the ground, and those that can be harvested will turn out to be overripe. This means that their taste is mediocre at best, and they will not be stored at all. To get the harvest on time, follow the color of the fruit, the color of the seeds in them, to taste for the onset of removable maturity.
Not all fruits can be consumed immediately or even processed immediately. Yes, this, perhaps, is not necessary. Some must be put into storage in order to feel the taste of the summer sun in winter. But for this, it is not enough to remove the fruits on time, it is necessary to prepare a room for their storage. Remove debris, dust. Seal the holes to block access to the rodent storage. Disinfect it to guarantee. Take sulfur at the rate of 10-20 g for every 1 m3 of the room, put it on an iron sheet, light it and close the door tightly. After a while, ventilate the room. Now you can go to harvest and deposit the fruits. If the harvest coincided with cloudy, humid weather, if there is dew or drops of recent rain on the tree, the fruits will be wet and must be dried before storing.
Shelf life of apples many varieties can be significantly increased if they are placed in plastic bags with a capacity of 1.5-2 kg and carefully soldered. Unfortunately, this does not help one of our most common varieties - Antonovka. When stored in boxes, it is advisable to layer the fruits with fine wood chips from deciduous trees. As a last resort, sawdust can be used. Promotes the safety of fruits by wrapping them in paper oiled with mineral (vaseline) oil.
It is not only the harvesting of the already grown crop that the gardener should worry about. Fruiting are perennial plants. From planting to the first harvests, most berry bushes take three years, while woody ones take four or even five years.This means that aging plants that are losing the ability to bear fruit must be replaced in advance. Otherwise, you can find yourself without fruits and berries for several years in a row. Autumn in this regard is a unique time, and it should not be missed.
It's not too late at the beginning of September plant strawberries... In August, of course, it would be better to finish this work, but, unfortunately, the seedlings are not always ready for this date. Therefore, a delay in boarding is quite possible. But the site, of course, should be ready by this time. It is well lit (outdoors). The soil is filled with organic fertilizers, loosened, leveled. With deep digging, all weed roots are carefully selected and taken out of the site. Previously, there were no potatoes or tomatoes on this site. So everything is all right. It is better to plant seedlings in rows. If the soil was usually excessively wet during the summer, it is advisable to make beds. Where the first row of strawberries is outlined, pull the cord and pin it in several places so that it does not stray to the side when planting. Along the cord with a scoop or bayonet, make holes so deep that the root system can freely fit in them. Stick the scoop from the cord vertically. Then one wall (adjacent to the cord) of all holes will be vertical. Attach seedlings to it. Make sure that the roots do not bend or twist, but that they fit freely in the hole. If they are not placed, it is necessary to deepen it, and if it is already deep enough, slightly trim the roots. Using the same bayonet or scoop, spread the roots and cover with earth. After that, use both hands to squeeze the plant so that the soil fits tightly around the roots. Make a watering hole around the plant. Watering should be abundant, even in rainy weather: at least 0.8-1 l of water for each newly planted plant. After watering, be sure to mulch the soil with peat, rotted manure, compost or dry soil. When planting, watering and mulching, make sure that the apical bud, or, as is often said, the heart of the seedlings, is not covered. But also do not plant the plants too high, do not expose the roots, and do not raise the bulk of the plants above the soil. In both cases, this will negatively affect their growth. After planting the first row, move the cord to the position of the second row. On heavy soil, the distance between adjacent lines should be 50-60 cm, on light soil - plant two or three lines every 20 cm, then a gap of 50-60 cm and again two or three lines. In all cases, the distance between neighboring plants should be about 25 cm.
All planting work, including planting strawberries, is best timed to coincide with cloudy days, and even better if it is drizzling at this time. But it is not worth waiting for such weather on purpose, you can not wait, and miss the time. Therefore, one has to take advantage of hot dry days. On such days, it is better to plant in the late evening, and on the day the plants are shaded with freshly cut grass or paper.
Autumn is the time for harvesting planting material and planting berry bushes... Raspberries are best and easiest to propagate by root suckers. They can be dug up on a fruiting plantation. You need to use those offspring that are located from a number of plants or individual bushes at a sufficient distance. Remember, however, that when harvesting a large number of suckers, the root system of the bushes can be severely damaged, which will lead to their weakening and, accordingly, to a decrease in yield. So do not try to squeeze both out of the plant to the maximum. Harvest offspring in moderation, take only those whose digging will not harm the plants, because next year you will pick berries from them.
In September, you can already cook for planting currant cuttings... It is necessary to take only strong annual shoots as thick as a pencil, without signs of damage by pests and diseases. It is good if you have selected the mother bushes in advance, based on observations of plants for two to three years. And nevertheless, when cutting off shoots, look at their end. If you see black holes in the center, it means that a glass case was in operation here. Such cuttings cannot be used. Cuttings can be planted both in spring and autumn. If a spring planting is planned, the harvested cuttings are stored buried in cold rooms, in snow piles or refrigerators. For autumn planting, cut shoots are cut into cuttings. Everyone should have 4-5 kidneys. Make the bottom cut just below the kidney, and the top cut above the kidney. Plant on the cord. Distances between cuttings - 10-12 cm, between rows - 50 cm. Cuttings are inserted into the soil at an angle of 45 °, leaving 1 - 2 buds on the surface. After planting, as usual, abundant watering and then mulching. The layer of mulch should be such that the cuttings are not visible on the surface. You will receive seedlings from cuttings next year, and this year, if you do not have your own planting material, you can use the purchased one for now.
Red currant berries
It is better to plant berry bushes in rows. The distance between the rows of raspberries - 1.5-2 m, currants - 2-2.5 m, gooseberries - 2.5 m, in the row between neighboring plants of currants and gooseberries - up to 1.5 m, and raspberries - up to 40 cm. Plant currant plants at an angle of 45 ° 5-10 cm deeper than they were in the nursery. Plant gooseberries vertically, as well as raspberries. The technique of planting currants and gooseberries is similar to the technique of planting apple trees, but the holes for them are 20 cm narrower and 20 cm shallower. Raspberries are planted in furrows 2-3 cm deeper than they grew in the nursery. Naturally, after planting, watering at the rate of 1 bucket of water for 2-3 plants and mulching.
So, the landings are over. There is a pledge of the harvest for the coming years. But that's not all. Simultaneously with planting work, it is necessary to take care of the not-so-distant future, namely, the next year's harvest and the safety of the plants that this harvest should give.
No matter how the gardener contrives to get rid of pests and diseases, there is always a certain amount of them left. And if you hope that they will not do much harm because of their small number, then you can easily make a mistake, And with a small "reserve", once in favorable conditions, pests and diseases can multiply so much that there can be no question of a full-fledged harvest. Therefore, already in September-October, it is necessary to take care of attracting insectivorous birds to the garden. Arrange feeders for them. Let them get used to your garden. Remove, inspect and burn trapping belts. Examine the bark, especially if you have scab in your garden, sprinkle the trees with a 5% urea solution. This, firstly, will contribute to the enrichment of plants with nitrogen, which is very important for the beginning of the growing season, and secondly, the stock of scab pathogens will sharply decrease. Spray not only trees, but also fallen leaves under the crowns.
Cleaning and burning of fallen leaves
Collect fallen leaves. Use them for composting if you are sure they are not a source of infection. Remove any remnants of damaged fruit and discard. Carefully dig up the soil under the crowns so as not to damage the roots with a garden pitchfork. Select the weed roots carefully. Apply organic fertilizers for digging. The calculation of fertilizers is approximately the following: for 1 m2 of crown projection for young trees - 4 kg, for those entering fruiting - 6 kg and for abundantly fruiting - up to 8 kg. Organic fertilizers should not be applied annually. You can do it at such doses every 3-4 years. Give mineral fertilizers, if necessary, focusing on the data of soil and leaf analyzes or on visual signs indicating a lack of some element. When the soil is kept under black fallow, fertilization is not a particular problem. When turfing, it will take some tweaks to embed them in the soil. If the trees are in a row, then along the row along the border of the projections of the crowns, dig a groove about a bayonet width of a shovel and a depth of 30-40 cm. Only first remove the sod and carefully place it next to it, and then remove the earth. To prevent the earth from scattering among the grass, it is advisable to fold it, for example, on a stretcher or on a film spread along the groove. Mix the removed soil with organic fertilizers and pour into the groove. On top, gently replace the sod you removed earlier. Now pour water over everything properly. Let the sod take root and the fertilizers begin to "spread" in the soil. On a turfed area, you can make wells with a soil drill and fill them with fertilizers in liquid form. Be careful, however, with the concentrations so as not to damage the roots.
Also prune the berry bushes in the fall. For black currants and gooseberries, cut out all branches older than 5 years. Their productivity has already begun to decline sharply, but by their presence they interfere with the growth and fruiting of younger, more productive branches, on which the berries are much better. In red and white currants, the productivity of the branches remains at a high level up to 7-8 years, and sometimes longer. After removing old branches, cut out diseased and broken ones, as well as young ones with no growth prospects and very weak ones. When cutting branches, no stumps should be left. Cut at ground level or even slightly below. In raspberries, cut out all two-year-old branches that have borne fruit also carefully, leaving no stumps, and very weak annuals. If the raspberry variety is not resistant, then bend the branches to the ground along the row and tie. Snow will fall, cover them and keep them from damage.
And one more work. How many times have you seen how proud a gardener is who whitewashed the trunks of trees. The main point of whitewashing is to protect plants from sunburn, from the appearance of cracks on the trunk due to a sharp drop in bark temperature during heating and cooling. And this happens already in the winter in January and February. This means that by this time the trunks and bases of the large branches of the first tier should have already been whitewashed.
How to feed strawberries after harvest?
In August, feed strawberries with a mixture of 10-20 g of superphosphate, 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate and 5-10 g of potassium chloride per 1 sq. M. In the fall, fertilize strawberries with Ammorphos at the rate of 30 g per 1 square meter, as well as poultry droppings diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 15-20. The mixture is infused for two days and grooves are shed between the bushes.
If the infusion gets into the leaf outlet, it is dangerous for the plant!
You can also use another organic fertilizer: for this, pour 1 part of the finished mullein infusion with 10 parts of water. If the soil requires it, for every 10 parts mullein, you can add 1 part charcoal. The solution must be kept warm for about a day, after which it can be used on strawberry beds (1 liter per 1 bush).
At the end of October, wood ash must be added under the base of the plant at the rate of no more than 1 glass of ash per 1 sq. M.
Preparing the greenhouse for winter
During autumn work in the garden, the greenhouse must be properly prepared for winter.
A lot of attention when carrying out work in the autumn-winter period requires the care of the greenhouse, because over the summer a lot of different diseases and pests settle in it, which are looking for the best conditions for wintering.In the greenhouse, we disinfect the soil and walls as follows:
- To treat the greenhouse from diseases and pests, we use such products for the garden and vegetable garden as HOM and karbofos.
- After harvesting plant residues from the greenhouse, we dilute 40 grams of HOM or copper oxychloride per 10 liters of water and spray the entire greenhouse, starting from the roof, walls and earth, which we shed thoroughly. Thus, we treat the greenhouse against fungal diseases.
- After 5-6 days, we spray the greenhouse against insects with the following composition: 50-60 grams of karbofos per 10 liters of water, also spray the entire greenhouse.
After such processing, it will be possible to prepare the ground in the greenhouse by digging it up, adding mineral fertilizers, or organic ones. You can also sow green manure. Everyone improves the fertility of the land in their own way.
PREPARING FOR THE WINTER OF TREES AND SHRUBS:
- we cut off all dry, diseased branches that have ceased to bear fruit. Cover the tree cuts with garden pitch
- we cut down and uproot old bushes and trees. We carefully select all the roots from the ground and dig up the soil. We disinfect the soil with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. If necessary, we prepare planting holes for new trees in advance
- we remove old, dried and mummified fruits and berries from trees and shrubs, do not forget about pest nests. We spray the plants with a 3% solution of copper sulfate
- whitewashing tree trunks
- we tie the trunks with dense cloth, roofing felt or spruce spruce branches - to protect against rodents
- we bend the shoots of berry bushes to the ground - to prevent freezing. The soil under the bushes must be clean, free of weeds.
- collect fallen leaves (burn them or put them in a compost pit).
It is necessary to carry out planned pruning after the completion of leaf fall. It is best suited for this clear sunny weather, always before the onset of cold weather.
In autumn, I wrap the trunks of young trees with a "belt" of roofing felt or roofing material - this will protect them from rodents. At the same time, I deepen the lower part of the belt into the ground by 10 centimeters. Between the roofing material and the tree trunk, I put burlap, and the belt itself is white. Thanks to these activities, the tree bark will not get heat burns in February-March. I do not write off the "old-fashioned" way: I wrap the trunks with nylon tights. Firstly, such a "treat" will not be gnawed by mice, and secondly, the bark under the tights will not melt. To protect against hares, I tie the young trees with coniferous spruce branches, directing it with the needles downward, starting from the ground itself.
Vitaly SALKEVICH, Grodno
Examine the berry bushes carefully. Raspberries, currants, gooseberries and blackberries tolerate autumn pruning better than spring pruning. Therefore, thickened and thin branches of gooseberries, currants and blackberries are thinned out, and the side ones are shortened by 5-6 cm. plant roots are cut out, broken and diseased processes are removed.
In raspberries, all fruiting branches with a height of no more than 70 cm are left, the rest is cut off. Sick and thin processes are subject to complete cutting: both inside the plant and along its edges.
In currants and gooseberries, old branches are cut out to the very root (without hemp). They are quite easy to distinguish from young ones by their dark, almost black color and woodiness. In the same way, fruit-bearing blackberry branches are removed.
Autumn is the most suitable time for currant shoots. To do this, the large extreme branches of the bush are bent to the ground, where shallow holes must first be dug. Part of the branches is laid in them and sprinkled with earth, and the upper part is freed. In order for the branches to lie tightly in the pits, they are strengthened with special wooden or metal staples. With the onset of spring, the rooted twigs are carefully dug out, separated from the main trunk, and transplanted for the independent formation of a new currant bush.
It is best to untie the raspberry shoots for the winter from the trellises and pin them to the ground. You can do the same with blackberries. In this position, they spend the winter more easily and retain a larger number of fruit buds. Experienced gardeners advise to cover black currants and gooseberries with soil with a layer of 10-12 cm. And it is better to tie up young bushes and trees so that they do not fall apart with snow.
After that, it’s time to start “general cleaning” in the garden, carefully removing fallen leaves from tree trunks, from under bushes and ornamental plants, from the lawn. By the way, not all gardeners remove foliage from the site on the eve of winter, using it as an additional insulation for the roots of trees and shrubs.
However, experts recommend not to risk it, since fallen leaves are the enemy of lawn coverage.And in it (even under the snow!), Pathogenic bacteria and even insects that pose a direct threat to the plants on the site are perfectly preserved and multiplied. Therefore, it is best to burn the fallen leaves. Cut branches, blackened, semi-rotten and mummified fruits must suffer the same fate. If this is not possible, the foliage can be buried in the ground. Only you need to do this away from the plantings.
The soil near berry bushes can be mulched with pine bark or humus. The mulch layer should be at least 10 cm.
It is imperative to remove the foliage if fruit trees have been ill this season, for example, with scab.
After the termination of the growing season of tree and shrub species, it is useful to loosen the soil, which will facilitate greater penetration of autumn and spring precipitation into it, and also prevent parasites from staying overwintering near the plant itself. This procedure can be combined with the application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
We offer a list of fertilizers recommended for incorporation into the soil after the end of the growing season:
- phosphoric... Promote the strengthening of the root system and the accumulation of protein compounds and sugary substances in tree sap
- potash... Increases frost resistance of all crops, helps to remove excess liquid from plant tissues
- wood ash or plant ash... They structure the soil, prevent its acidification, enrich the soil mixture with all the necessary microelements
- organic... They increase the content of humus in the soil, improve its moisture and air permeability, prevent soil mineralization, and also increase the yield of all crops.
The exact application rates for each crop (depending on the type of fertilizer and plant age) can be found in the instructions on the package.
Thus, the list of autumn fertilizers does not include nitrogen fertilizers, which have not been introduced into the soil since mid-summer. This chemical element activates the growth of green mass and stimulates the growth processes of trees and shrubs, and already from the end of summer, plants (which have finished or are finishing fruiting) are preparing for a dormant period. Accordingly, the activation of vitality is simply contraindicated for them.
To enrich the soil with phosphorus, simple or double superphosphate is used. The difference between these compositions lies only in the concentration of the main active element. It is important to know that phosphorus is an inactive substance and hardly soluble in water. It is for this reason that it is useless to scatter it over the soil surface. Superphosphate is embedded in the soil at the locations of the suction root shoots to a depth of 10 to 15 cm for trees and 5 to 10 cm for berry trees. It is best to apply this fertilizer in holes up to 30 cm deep, dug out according to the projection of the tree crown around the trunk. A handful of fertilizer is poured into each hole, poured with water and buried.
Potassium sulphate is considered the best potassium supplement, which does not contain chlorine, which is harmful to some crops. The rate of incorporation of this fertilizer for digging is from 5 to 10 g / m 2.
It is much more effective to introduce phosphorus and potash compositions not separately, but simultaneously, since in this case phosphorus is better assimilated in the soil complex.
Using potassium chloride - a more economical option. So that chlorine does not harm the plants, fertilizer is applied to the soil as early as possible, so that before the onset of winter, the harmful substance is washed out by irrigation water and autumn precipitation into the deep layers of the soil.
Kalimagnesia - a fertilizer containing, in addition to potassium, magnesium, which is much needed by trees and bushes. It is advisable to use this fertilizer in the form of an aqueous solution, watering near-trunk circles and the ground under bushes.
Currently on sale you can find a large number of autumn fertilizers (both mineral and organomineral) that do not contain nitrogen compounds. There are specialized fertilizers for fruit and berry crops marked "autumn", which will help the plants to overwinter and gain strength for the next season.
For the autumn feeding of fruit trees and berry bushes, you can use plant ash, which practically does not contain nitrogen compounds, as well as chlorine, which is dangerous for some crops. This fertilizer is considered a natural source of phosphorus and potassium, it contains magnesium, iron, calcium, fluorine, boron, iodine and other components necessary for the life of plants. By the way, many gardeners successfully replace potash-phosphorus mineral fertilizers with ash. The only drawback is the need for large quantities of this fertilizer.
As for fresh manure, it is not used for fruit trees and shrubs due to the content of high doses of ammonia, which can significantly damage (burn) the roots.
The best organic garden feeds are:
- matured compost
- peat or peat compost
- humus (composted or completely rotted mullein)
Under each plant, depending on age, from 1 to 5 buckets of organic fertilizers are applied.
The filling is carried out while digging the soil.
According to experienced gardeners, the best option for a garden would be a combination of organic and mineral fertilizers. It is the complex top dressing that will ensure the assimilation of all nutrient components in the soil and their transformation into forms that are easily accessible to the absorbing roots.
Under trees younger than 8 years old, 10 kg of humus or compost are applied, from 8 to 10 years old - 30 kg each, and over 10 years old - 50 kg each. Fertilizer is plowed deep into the trunk circles and in the crown projection by digging.
Plums and cherries. Dry bird droppings or mullein are scattered in an even layer and embedded in the trunk circles with a shovel. A few days later, the plants are watered with a nutrient solution: 10 tbsp is dissolved in 40 liters of water. l. superphosphate and 8 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate. Fertilizer consumption for young trees from 3 to 5 years old - 2 buckets, adult plants are watered at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 tree.
Berry bushes (raspberries, gooseberries, currants). Under each bush, 15 kg of humus or compost are applied, 60 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt are added. The nutrient mixture is embedded in ditches about 20 cm deep, dug at a distance of about 0.3 m from the plant in a circle or in the aisles.
Experts recommend to carry out planned feeding no later than the third decade of September - early October.
After top dressing, all trunks can be insulated with compost. At the same time, with the onset of spring, it is not necessary to remove the mulching layer - it is enough to dig it up together with the ground after the snow melts.
The autumn preparation of the garden for the winter cold also includes
processing of tree trunks and shrubs for the prevention and treatment of diseases, as well as for getting rid of pests. First of all, the plants are cleaned of old bark, mosses and lichens. It is best to carry out autumn spraying after waiting for the foliage to completely fall off. Since autumn processing solutions are highly concentrated, they can cause leaf burns (if you hurry and do not wait for them to completely fall off), which will negatively affect the plants.
There are various garden treatments available. Let's dwell in more detail on the most common ones.
Spraying with urea... If some of the foliage is preserved on the trees, you need to prepare a 5% solution (500 g of urea per 10 l of water), if it completely falls off, use a 7% solution (700 g of urea per 10 l of water). It is possible to process not only the trunks and branches of plants, but also the ground in the near-trunk circles. It is important to remember that too early treatment with urea will reduce the winter hardiness of fruit trees.
Copper sulfate will help protect the garden from moniliosis, scab, coccomycosis, curl, anthracnose and other ailments. They can also treat wounds on fruit trees - for disinfection. Dilute the drug according to the recommendations on the package
Treatment with iron vitriol will be of greatest benefit to old trees, since it will protect them not only from pests, but also from overgrowing with mosses and lichens, from scab, cytosporosis, septosporosis and black cancer. In addition, ferrous sulfate will become a good feeding for fruit plants that are especially sensitive to iron deficiency: pears, apples, plums, peaches, raspberries.
Whitewashing trees should also be added to the list of autumn garden tasks. This must be done in the fall - to protect against frost and early spring scorching sun. Spring whitewash, as a rule, serves only as a decoration of the garden. The trunks should be whitened as high as possible - up to the skeletal branches.
This event will also be a good pest control. For whitewashing, a solution of lime (2-3 kg), copper sulfate (about 500 g) and wood glue (no more than 150 g) is most often used. The composition forms a film that can protect the bark of trees from sunburn, which is quite likely not only in spring, but also in winter. In stores today you can find not only components for the preparation of solutions for whitewashing trees, but also ready-to-use mixtures.
Will help overwinter the inhabitants of the garden and watering (or subwinter) watering. This abundant watering is usually carried out in October along tree-trunk circles or along grooves in the aisles of the garden. However, if the site is located in a swampy place or in a lowland, as well as with a close location of groundwater, autumn watering is hardly necessary, because moisture stagnation may occur. In this case, the roots of plants can suffocate and die due to the fact that atmospheric air will not flow to them through the water column. Thus, when preparing a site for winter, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of its location.
The trunks of garden trees for the winter should be covered with a layer of compost or humus. Do not use straw or hay as mulch, which will attract rodents. For the same reason, it is not worth wrapping tree trunks with straw for insulation - rodents will quickly smell this "bait" and will certainly settle in the prepared "nest". To protect the garden from these pests, a strapping of spruce branches, roofing felts or a net, which must be buried in the ground, will help. However, such protection should be erected not earlier than the end of October - beginning of November, otherwise, under a tight harness, the trunk may become resistant.
To protect against frost damage on a sunny, frost-free day, I whiten garden trees with a solution of lime or water-based paint. For several years in a row I have been adding rat poison to this solution - to protect it from rodents. And I am very pleased with the effect. Tatyana Olegovna VRUBLEVSKAYA
Strawberries and garden strawberries for winter should build up a healthy leaf apparatus, which will serve as a natural defense of the buds from frost. It is for this reason that in the fall it is important to observe all the rules of agricultural technology, to apply top dressing in a timely manner, to fight diseases and pests. One of the mandatory stages of preparing a berry for winter is hilling it with subsequent mulching. The land around the bushes is loosened at the end of summer. If this is done on the eve of winter, the damaged parts of the roots will not have time to recover before the onset of cold weather, which will negatively affect the winter hardiness of plants. For the same reason, it is not recommended to transplant strawberries and strawberries late. By the way, weeds that have grown on strawberry beds are also best removed in spring: before the onset of cold weather, they will not give ripe seeds, and when weeding, the roots of the strawberry or strawberry can be damaged.
The best protection berry from frost is snow, however, in conditions of snowless winters, you will have to use a shelter. A good choice would be spruce branches, under which (for better breathability) you can put brushwood or dry raspberry branches. Pine needles can also be used as a covering material, which retains heat well and at the same time allows air to pass through. Large adult bushes can be showered with needles in a circle, as if hilling, and young bushes are best covered with needles completely.
If there is no opportunity to get spruce branches or pine needles, they can be replaced with non-woven covering material.
In regions with snowless winters, even at slight subzero temperatures, the soil can crack to a considerable depth, tearing the root system of plants. In this regard, it is sometimes more important to protect not even the berry bushes themselves, but the aisles. A good layer of mulch will help prevent cracking of the soil in winter.
It is advisable to start warming garden strawberries and strawberries after the onset of frost, since hardened plants will have higher winter hardiness: a light frost will benefit the berry, providing the necessary pre-winter hardening. In addition, under the covering materials, the berry will be deprived of light, which will negatively affect its preparation for winter.
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