Cabbage, or Cabbage, or Cruciferous, or Brassic - a family that includes dicotyledonous herbaceous annuals and perennials, semi-shrubs and shrubs. In total, the family has about three hundred and eighty genera and about three thousand two hundred species. The closest relatives of cabbage plants are capers. In nature, crucifers can be most often found in the temperate climates of the northern hemisphere, in the Old World, but some grow in the tropics, and even in the southern hemisphere.
Representatives of the Cabbage family are of great importance in agriculture. Widely cultivated cabbage crops include various types of cabbage, turnip, horseradish, mustard, turnip, as well as some medicinal and ornamental plants.
Cereal family - description
By their structure, cruciferous crops are monotonous. Their root system is pivotal, although there are species with modified roots, such as turnip, radish, rutabaga and radish. The leaves of the representatives of crucifers are simple, alternate, without stipules. The flowers are bisexual, collected in a racemose inflorescence. Six stamens are arranged in two circles: two lateral ones are short, the middle ones are slightly longer. The flowers have four petals, and they are usually white or yellow, although there are purple, pink and even purple. Cabbage crops are pollinated independently or crosswise. Pollinators can be bees, flies or bumblebees. Cruciferous fruit is a pod or pod with opening or non-opening valves after ripening.
Fruit cabbage plants
The main role in the family belongs to cabbage, which began to be cultivated in prehistoric times. Almost all researchers believe that modern cabbage comes from the wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea), but some argue that the progenitor of all species of this crop is the forest cabbage (Brassica sylvestris). Cabbage is cultivated on all continents. Archaeologists have evidence that it was consumed in food already in the Stone and Bronze Age. Both the Egyptians and the Greeks grew cabbage, and the Romans already knew up to 10 varieties of the plant. In 1822, about 30 varieties were described, and today there are hundreds of them. Cabbage was selected by Pythagoras, who highly appreciated the medicinal properties of the plant, and Hippocrates used cabbage to treat certain diseases. In ancient Rome, cabbage was generally considered the first plant among vegetables. There is an assumption that the word "cabbage" comes from the Latin "caput", which means "head". Mark Porcius Cato, Pliny and Columella wrote about the cultivation of cabbage.
The southern Slavs learned about cabbage from the Greco-Roman colonists who lived in the Black Sea region. In Kievan Rus, by the 9th century, cabbage was cultivated quite widely and became a familiar everyday food product. Cornelius de Bruin, who visited Muscovy in 1702, noted in his notes that white cabbage grows here in abundance, and commoners eat it twice a day. In Russia there was even a tradition: immediately after the Exaltation, they began to harvest cabbage for the winter together. For two weeks, young people gathered at parties called skits, and chopped cabbage with jokes and songs. Cabbage in Russia was such a popular plant that in 1875 the gardener E.A. Grachev received a medal "For Progress" at the Vienna Agricultural Exhibition for his new varieties of cabbage.
Today, cabbage is an annual outdoor crop, but in temperate countries it is usually grown in seedlings. Cabbage has many varieties:
- white cabbage;
- Brussels, or nomadic;
- kohlrabi, or turnip;
- kale, or gruncol;
Precisely because all these varieties are not alike, we will not give you a general description of the culture. Our site contains articles about all varieties of cabbage, and you can get from them detailed descriptions of each subspecies, as well as information on how to grow them correctly and what are the benefits of them.
Turnip (Latin Brassica rapa) - a herbaceous plant, a species of the genus Cabbage, originating from Western Asia. Turnip is one of the oldest cultivated plants, which began to be cultivated about 40 centuries ago. Among the Egyptians and Greeks of the Ancient World, turnip was considered food for the poor and slaves, and in Ancient Rome, all classes ate baked turnip. Emperor Tiberius appreciated this vegetable so much that he demanded tribute from some provinces with the turnip harvest. The Romans achieved such art in the cultivation of this culture that some of its specimens reached a mass of 10 to 16 kg.
In Russia, for many centuries, turnip was one of the main food products, and only in the 18th century it was gradually replaced by potatoes. Sowing turnips was supposed to be women. And in Ukraine in the old days there were even “turnip spitters” - people who, when sowing in a special way, “spit out” small crop seeds into the prepared soil.
Everyone knows the tale about the turnip from childhood. By the way, the Chinese also have a story about turnips: a poor man who ate only this vegetable was left without food because his harvest was eaten by the rich man's pigs, but the unfortunate man managed to save the only sprout from which a huge turnip grew. The poor man gave a turnip to the emperor, for which he was generously rewarded with gold, jasper and pearls, which could not be sold on pain of death, and the poor man still had nothing to eat ... And the envious rich man, who desired the same precious gifts, gave the emperor as concubines his incredibly beautiful daughter, but in gratitude he received only a huge turnip of the poor man, which soon rotted away. Here is such an oriental parable about human greed and unreasonableness.
Turnip is a biennial plant. In the first year, a rosette is formed from basal leaves - long-petiolate, stiff-haired, lyre-pinnately-incised - and a fleshy root crop, and in the second year a long stem appears from the root with bare, sessile, toothed whole-edged leaves of an ovoid shape and golden yellow or dull pale yellow flowers, collected in a corymbose inflorescence, which later becomes paniculate. Turnip pods are knotty, erect, with elongated-conical noses. The reddish-brown seeds have an irregular spherical shape.
Turnip is considered an excellent remedy for cleaning the body of toxins. Raw vegetables contain sugars, vitamins B1, B2, B5, A, PP, as well as a large amount of vitamin C, sterol, easily digestible polysaccharides, copper, manganese, iron, zinc, iodine, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. Shown is the use of turnips in food for diabetes, bronchitis, tonsillitis, asthma, insomnia and heart palpitations.
Turnips are grown in loose soil, in areas where cucumbers, legumes, pumpkin seeds, carrots, tomatoes, strawberries or potatoes previously grew. Do not plant turnips in clay soil, as well as after other cruciferous crops. Two crops can be harvested in one season: summer turnips are sown in spring, in mid or late April, and autumn ones in July or early August. Of the early varieties of turnips, the most famous are Snow White, Rattle, Maiskaya Belaya, Presto, Snezhok, Dedka, Zhuchka, Lyra, Geisha, Sprinter, Snowball, Russian Fairy Tale, Pull-push, Granddaughter, Snegurochka. Among the mid-season varieties, Gribovskaya, Kormilitsa, Karelskaya belomyasaya, Kometa, White ball, White night, Lepeshka, Dunyasha are popular. The best late varieties include Pull-pull, Manchester Market and Green-top.
Horseradish ordinary or rustic (lat.Armoracia rusticana) - a species of the genus Horseradish of the Cabbage family. In nature, horseradish grows in damp places - along the banks of rivers and reservoirs - throughout Europe, excluding the Arctic regions, as well as in the Caucasus and Siberia.
Despite the fact that horseradish was introduced into the culture a long time ago, the first mentions of it in written sources date back to the 9th century. The Germans began to cultivate horseradish only in the 16th century, using it not only as a seasoning for dishes, but also adding it to beer and schnapps for spice. After 200 years, horseradish was tasted by French peasants, then it appeared in the Scandinavian countries. Later, all Europeans began to grow horseradish, the British, and they used it not only as a spice, but also for medical purposes. If at first horseradish was considered a rough seasoning for the common people, now it is grown in many countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, as well as in Canada, the United States and Greenland.
The root of horseradish is fleshy and thick, the root system is fibrous, covered with yellowish bark, with powerful lateral roots, on which many dormant buds are located in a spiral. In depth, the root can penetrate 2.5-5 m, but the main part of the roots is located at a depth of 25-30 cm, growing in width by 60 cm.The stem of horseradish is branched, straight, from 50 to 150 cm in height, with very large basal leaves - oblong-oval, crenate, and heart-shaped at the base. The lower leaves of horseradish are oblong-lanceolate, pinnately separate, and the upper ones are entire, linear. The flowers are white, with petals up to 6 mm long. Fruits are oblong-oval pods with mesh veins on the valves, in which there are 4 nests with seeds.
Horseradish root is rich in potassium, iron, manganese, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, sodium and calcium. It contains sugar, fiber, amino acids, vitamins E, C, group B and sinigrin, which, when broken down, forms mustard oil and the protein substance lysozyme, which destroys many harmful microbes. Horseradish leaves contain ascorbic acid and phytoncides. Grated horseradish rhizome is a spicy seasoning for meat and fish dishes, and the leaves are used for pickling and salting vegetables.
Horseradish is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but prefers fertile and moist loams and sandy loams. The site must be well lit. There are not so many varieties of horseradish. The most famous of them are Atlant, Valkovsky, Riga, Latvian, Tolpukhovsky, Suzdal and Jelgavsky.
Katran is a genus of annual and perennial plants of the Cabbage family, whose representatives grow naturally in Europe, east Africa and southeast Asia. There are some plant species in the foothills of the Crimea and on the Kerch Peninsula. Only three plant species are considered promising for cultivation in culture - steppe (or Tatar) katrana, sea and oriental.
Katran has large, whole, notched-lobed or pinnately-separated leaves, glabrous or pubescent. White or golden yellow small flowers open on peduncles reaching a height of 80 cm. Mature roots are dark brown in color, their flesh is white, juicy.
In summer cottages, katran can successfully replace horseradish, since it does not possess the aggressiveness inherent in horseradish, has a powerful root weighing up to 1 kg and reproduces by seed. In addition, the chemical composition of katran is richer than that of horseradish, and the taste is higher. Katran is unpretentious, tolerates heat and cold well, it does not need a lot of heat, but the plant needs light. Katran is sown in a sandy loam or loamy soil of a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction, since rhizomes in acidic soils are affected by fungal diseases. The groundwater at the site must be deep. The best predecessors for katran are nightshade crops.
Sowing radish, or garden (lat.Raphanus sativus) is an annual or biennial plant, a species of the Radish genus of the Cabbage family. Radish originates from Asia, but, in addition to Asian countries, it is cultivated in Europe, Australia and North America. Radish has been in culture for a very long time. It was cultivated in ancient Egypt to feed the slaves employed in the construction of the pyramids. The Greeks grew several varieties of the crop and ate it before lunch to stimulate their appetite and improve digestion. Hippocrates recommended to eat radish for dropsy and pulmonary diseases, and Dioscorides - to improve vision and cough. When making offerings to Apollo, the Greeks put carrots on a pewter dish, beets on silver, and radishes on gold. In Russia, this root vegetable has also been known since time immemorial - it was one of the ingredients of the ancient dish of the tyur.
The root of the radish is thickened, biennial, purple, white, pink or black. The leaves are lyre-pinnately incised or whole, the flower petals are white, pink or purple. The pods are somewhat swollen, wide, coarsely hairy or bare, after ripening they become soft.
Radish contains fiber, a large amount of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B5, B6, PP), organic acids, valuable essential oils and sulfur-containing substances. It contains potassium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, enzymes and enzymes.
Radish is sown in fertile, moist and rich soil - sandy loam or loam of neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. The best precursors for radish are peas, lentils, beans, soybeans, peanuts, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, pumpkin crops, corn, onions, dill, and lettuce, and the worst are cruciferous crops. The most popular varieties of radish are Winter round white, Winter round black, Sudarushka, Maiskaya, Gaivoronskaya, Elephant's fang, Green goddess.
Radish is a type of sowing radish. He comes from Central Asia. This vegetable has also been cultivated for a long time - it was grown in Ancient Egypt, Japan and Greece. In ancient Rome, winter plant varieties were eaten with honey, salt and vinegar. In Europe, radish has been actively cultivated since the 16th century. In those days, it had the shape of a carrot, and its peel was white. Peter I brought radishes to Russia from Amsterdam.
Radish is a plant with edible, rounded roots with a diameter of 1.5 cm to 3 cm, painted pink, pale pink or red. The sharp taste of root vegetables is due to the presence of mustard oil in them. Radish contains proteins, carbohydrates, potassium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, magnesium, calcium, fluorine, vitamins (E, A, C, B1, B2, B3, B6) and salicylic acid.
Radishes are grown in well-lit areas, in loose, light and moist soil of a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction, fertilized with humus. The best early radish varieties are Early Red, 18 Days, Rhodes, Corundum, Heat, French Breakfast, Ruby, Teplichny and Cardinal. Popular mid-season varieties include such as Saksa, Vera MS, Slavia, Krasny Giant, Octave, Helios and Rose-red with a white tip, and to the late ones - Red Giant, Würzburg and Ramposh.
Daikon, or Japanese radish, or chinese radish - root vegetable, a type of radish Unlike the main type, daikon does not contain mustard oils and has a much milder taste and aroma. There is an assumption that the Japanese got this product from loba - an Asian radish growing in China. Translated from Japanese, "daikon" means "big root". In Russian, it is sometimes called sweet radish or white radish.
Juicy daikon roots grow up to 60 cm or more in length, and their weight often exceeds 500 g. They contain a protein substance that can inhibit the growth of bacteria. Daikon is consumed not only in its raw form - it is salted, pickled and even boiled, and the unopened leaves are used as salad greens. Daikon roots retain their juiciness and do not acquire a bitter aftertaste even after shooting.As a medicine, daikon is used for colds, diseases of the bladder, kidneys, liver, to improve the functioning of the intestines and strengthen hair.
Daikon grows on almost any soil, but prefers light, loose and fertile soils with deep groundwater. On heavy clay soils, daikon varieties of the Shogoin and Sirogari groups grow well, on loams - varieties of the Tokinashi and Mayashige groups, and on sandy loam and sandy soils - Ninengo and Nerrima varieties. Of daikons with a round root, the Sasha variety is most often grown, and of the varieties with a long root, the most famous are Elephant Fang, Dubinushka and Dragon.
Turnips, or forage turnip (Latin Brassica rapa subsp. rapirera) is a biennial plant, a subspecies of the Turnip species of the Cabbage family. This plant is widespread only in culture - it is grown for livestock feed. The largest areas for turnips are allocated in Germany, Denmark, Great Britain, USA, Canada and Australia. There are also table varieties of turnips that amateur gardeners are happy to grow, especially since this culture is tasty, useful and unpretentious to care for.
The root of the turnip is cylindrical, spherical or oval in shape, and the rind is white, yellow or purple. The culture has all the advantages of a turnip, besides, it is distinguished by its early maturity and high yield. Turnips, like turnips, are used in folk medicine to treat scurvy, remove excess cholesterol from the body and improve digestion, as well as for insomnia.
Turnip does not like heat, is picky about moisture, so it is better to sow it in low-lying areas. The plant is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but prefers light soils - sod-podzolic or cultivated peatlands of a neutral reaction, although turnips can develop normally even at a pH of 4.5. The best crop precursors are beets, annual grasses and grain crops - spring and winter. Undesirable predecessors for turnips are cabbage crops.
Turnip varieties are divided into long, round and intermediate varieties according to the shape of the root, and according to the color of the pulp - into yellow-meat and white-meat. The best white meat varieties are Estersundomsky, Norfolk white round, Six-week, White ball and White round red-headed, and among the yellow meat varieties Long Bortfeld, Finnish-Bortfeld, Yellow Tankard, Yellow violet-headed and Greystone are better known.
There are a lot of types and varieties of mustard, therefore mustard crops are called the rainbow family. In culture, the following are most often grown:
- mustard white, or English (Latin Sinapis alba);
- mustard Sarepta, or Russian, or gray, or Sarepta cabbage (Latin Brassica juncea);
- mustard black, or French, or real (lat. Brassica nigra).
White mustard so called because of the color of the seeds. This plant comes from the Mediterranean, from where it spread throughout Europe, then white mustard came to America, India and Japan. Today, in the wild, this species grows in Southern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. In Ukraine, white mustard grows in the forest-steppe and regions of Polesie in the fields and along the roads, and in Russia it is found throughout the territory, with the exception of the northern regions.
It is an annual insect pollinated honey plant with a height of 25 to 100 cm with erect, branched in the upper part, stiff or bare stems. The lower leaves of white mustard are lyre-pinnately incised, with a broadly oval upper lobe divided into three lobes. The upper leaves are located on shorter petioles. The flowers are white or pale yellow, collected in a racemose inflorescence. The fruit of the plant is a pod with small, round, light yellow seeds. The seeds contain fatty oils, essential (mustard) oil, proteins, minerals, and the dark yellow oil contains mucus, sinalbin glycoside and acids - linolenic, linoleic, oleic, erucic, arachidic and palmitic.
White mustard is cultivated on an industrial scale for the valuable oil it contains. Young plants are fed to livestock. Mustard is also grown as a siderat in order to restore soil fertility with its help - the stems and leaves of mustard are dug up and left to rot in the ground. Honey from white mustard nectar has a peculiar taste and pleasant aroma. The plant is used in folk medicine as an antifebrile, antitussive and expectorant agent, as well as for pneumonia, neuralgia, hypochondria, jaundice, constipation, chronic rheumatism, gout and hemorrhoids. The taste of this mustard is not spicy at all.
Gray mustard, either Russian or Sarepta was brought from Asia to the Lower Volga region along with millet and flax seeds as a weed, but the local population quickly appreciated the advantages of the plant and began to actively cultivate it. Near the village of Sarepta, in which the German colonists lived, vast territories were sown with mustard, and in 1810 a mustard-oil mill was opened in Russia. The table mustard produced on it was highly appreciated in European countries, and at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries, two factories began to produce more than six hundred tons of mustard oil in Russia. Today Russian mustard is grown in Western Siberia, Stavropol Territory, Saratov, Rostov and Volgograd regions.
Russian mustard, or Sarepta - a herbaceous annual plant with a height of 50 to 150 cm with a taproot, penetrating into a depth of 2-3 m. The stem of the plant is erect, glabrous, branched at the base. The lower leaves are large, petiolate, sometimes whole or curly-pinnate, but usually lyre-pinnate-incised. The upper leaves are short petiolate or sessile, whole, the middle leaves are more similar in shape to the lower ones. Small, bisexual golden yellow flowers are collected in corymbose or racemose inflorescences. The fruit is a thin, oblong tuberous pod with a subulate nozzle and dark brown or reddish-brown seeds, which include essential oil and fatty mustard oil containing beogenic, palmitic, linoleic, linolenic, peanutic, oleic, erucic, lignoxysteric acids ... Sarepta mustard leaves contain carotene, ascorbic acid, calcium and iron.
Russian mustard oil is used in the bakery, confectionery, soap-making, pharmaceutical, textile and perfume industries. In the production of canned food, they are successfully replaced by Provencal oil. Table mustard is made from seed cake, which is served with meat and fish dishes. Young mustard leaves are used for making salads or as a side dish.
Black mustard or French is found wild in tropical and temperate regions of Asia, Africa and Europe. The homeland of this species is the Mediterranean. This is an ancient plant, from the peeled seeds of which the famous Dijon mustard is prepared. Today this type of mustard is cultivated in France and Italy.
French mustard - an annual herb with a naked, erect, branched stem, pubescent only in the lower part. The branches of the plant are thin, anthocyanin spots are formed in their axils. The leaves are green, petiolate: the lower ones are lyre-shaped, the upper ones are whole-edged, lanceolate. Pale or bright yellow flowers are collected in a racemose inflorescence. The fruits are erect tetrahedral pods with dark red-brown seeds pressed to the stem, from which the essential oil is obtained.
Rutabaga (Latin Brassica napobrassica) - biennial plant, species of the genus Cabbage. Presumably, the rutabaga originated from the accidental crossing of one of the forms of turnip with collard greens. In 1620, Kaspar Baugin insisted that the rutabaga originally grew in Sweden, but supporters of another theory of the origin of the rutabaga argue that it came from Siberia and came to the Scandinavian Peninsula from there. In addition to the Swedes, the Germans and Finns love rutabaga. Historians claim that it was Goethe's favorite vegetable. Today, rutabagas are most often grown not for food, but as feed for livestock, but fodder and table rutabagas are distinguished by color: yellow-meat varieties for food, and coarser white-meat varieties for food.
Rutabaga is a cold-resistant and unassuming plant. In the first year, only a rosette of leaves and a root crop are formed from its seeds, and a leafy stem, peduncles, flowers and seeds appear in the second year. Root crops, depending on the variety, can be round, round-flat, oval or cylindrical. Their flesh is white or different shades of yellow. The lower leaves are lyre-pinnatipartite, almost glabrous. Stem leaves are sessile, glabrous. Both the stem and the leaves of the swede are gray. Golden yellow rutabaga flowers form a racemose inflorescence. The fruit is a long pod with many dark brown, globular seeds.
The root crop of swede contains mustard oil, fiber, starch, pectins, nicotinic acid, potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, copper, calcium and iron salts, as well as vitamins A, B1, B2, P and C. Swede has a wound healing, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, mucolytic and anti-burn action.
The best soil for swede is light neutral or slightly acidic soils - loams, cultivated peat bogs or sandy loam. The main thing is that the soil allows moisture to pass through well. Clay, sandy soils, as well as areas with a high groundwater table are not suitable for the plant. Legumes, pumpkin and nightshade crops are suitable as precursors to rutabag, but after cruciferous crops it is better not to sow it. The most popular table varieties are the early Swedish swede, Dzeltene abolu, mid-season Kohalik sinine and Krasnoselskaya, as well as German and English varieties Ruby, Lizi and Kaya.
Rapeseed (lat. Brassica napus) - a type of herbaceous oil and forage plants that are widely grown in agriculture. Some researchers consider the cool European countries - Great Britain, Norway and Sweden - to be the birthplace of rapeseed, while others claim that it comes from the Mediterranean. One way or another, rape was one of the first cultivated plants - mentions of it can be found in the earliest written sources of Asian and European civilization, proving that rape was cultivated in India 4,000 years ago. Oil extracted from rapeseed was used for lighting as it did not smoke. In Europe, rapeseed became known in the 13th century, but it was not cultivated until four centuries later, first in Holland and Belgium, and then in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Russia and Poland. At this time, rapeseed oil was already used not only for lighting homes, but also for food. Modern plant varieties allow it to be cultivated in different climatic zones, and the demand for rapeseed oil is growing every year. In terms of production, rapeseed oil is second only to palm and soybean oil. Most of the rapeseed is grown in China, Canada, India, France, Denmark and the UK.
The root of rapeseed is pivotal, thickened in the upper part, fusiform and branched, penetrating to a depth of 3 m.However, the main part of the root system of the plant is located at a depth of 20 to 45 cm.The stem of rape is rounded, erect, branched, with a height of 60 to 190 cm, green, dark green or gray-green. From 12 to 25 branches of several orders are formed on it. The leaves of rape are petiolate, alternate, purple or blue-green, glabrous or slightly pubescent, with a waxy coating. In the lower part of the stem, the leaves are lyre-pinnately incised, forming a basal compact rosette. The middle leaves are elongated-lanceolate, and the upper ones are sessile, entire, oblong-lanceolate. Four-petal yellow flowers are collected in loose racemose inflorescences. The rapeseed fruit is a narrow pod, straight or slightly bent, with smooth or slightly lumpy valves and globular grayish-black, black-gray or dark brown seeds. Rape seeds contain fatty acids - stearic, palmitic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic, erucic and eicosanic, which reduce cholesterol levels, the risk of blood clots and play a large role in fat metabolism.
Canola is a natural hybrid between rape and cabbage. Rapeseed has winter and spring forms. Breeders develop rapeseed in three directions - food, feed and technical. As a fodder crop, rapeseed is unmatched as it gives green mass earlier than other fodder crops. Recently, the popularity of biofuel is growing, which is made from rapeseed with the addition of methyl alcohol and caustic soda. To obtain a ton of diesel fuel, one needs a ton of rapeseed oil, ten kilograms of soda and a little over a hundred liters of alcohol.
The disadvantage of rapeseed can be considered a low level of winter hardiness, therefore, it is better to grow a crop in areas with mild winters. The most valuable rape varieties are Yubileiny, Kievsky 18, Dublyansky, Mytnitsky 2, Nemerchansky 2268, Kubansky, East Siberian, Lvovsky and Vasilkovsky.
Ornamental cabbage plants
Alyssum (lat.Alyssum), or lobularia sea, or beetroot also belongs to the Cabbage family. Alyssum grows naturally in Asia, Europe and North Africa. Etymologically, the name of the plant is a Latinization of the Greek word "alisson" and means "canine rabies" in translation. In culture, the plant is not so long ago, but has already gained wide popularity due to its unpretentiousness to growing conditions.
Alyssum is a low-growing plant, reaching a height of no more than 40-50 cm. Its highly branching shoots become woody at the base. The leaves of alyssum are obovate, oblong, pubescent. Small white, yellow, red, lilac, pink or purple flowers, forming small racemose inflorescences, open in May and bloom until frost. The fruit of alyssum, like all cabbage crops, is a pod with seeds. Sea lobularia is a honey plant that attracts bees to the garden with a spicy aroma. Alyssum grows in open sunny areas. The plant prefers a well-drained, dry, fertile, neutral soil, but it can grow in slightly acidic or slightly alkaline soil.
The following types of alissum are grown in culture:
- alissum rocky. The best varieties: Citrinum, Compactum, Plenum, Golden Wave;
- alyssum sea. Varieties: Tiny Tim, Princess in Purple, Violet Konigin, Easter Bonnet Deep Rose.
In the gardens, you can also find mountain alissum, rough, Pyrenean, creeping and others.
Arabis (lat.Arabis), or rezuha is a genus of herbaceous plants of the Cabbage family, which are found in the mountains of tropical Africa and in the temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere. In culture, this plant is grown all over the world.
Arabis are annual or perennial ground cover plants with creeping stems that take root easily. The leaves of the razuha are whole, pubescent. White, pink, yellowish or purple flowers up to 1.5 cm in diameter are collected in small but dense racemose inflorescences. The Arabis fruit is a pod with flat seeds. Rezuha looks good in compositions with stones and along the contours of garden paths.
Arabis is unpretentious, drought-resistant, grows well in the sun and in partial shade. The plant prefers nutritious, permeable soil. Arabis should not be grown in lowlands where water stagnates. Varietal Arabis require shelter for the winter.
Most often, the following types of rezuh are grown in culture:
- Alpine. Interesting for flower growers are garden forms of the Schneehaube type with white flowers, rosea with pink inflorescences and flora-pleno - a terry variety of rezuha;
- arabis running out, the most decorative variety of which is Variegata;
- Caucasian, which has attractive varieties of Schneehaube, Flora Pleno, Variegata, and Rosabella, Atrorosea and Cochinea;
- ciliate arabis, represented by Route Sensei and Frulingsaube varieties.
Iberis (lat.Iberis), or candytuft, or wall-maker - a genus of herbaceous plants of the Cabbage family, found naturally in southern Europe and Asia Minor. In Ukraine, Iberis grows mainly in the Crimea, and in Russia - along the lower reaches of the Don. The name of the plant comes from the word Iberia (as Spain was previously called) and indicates the original area of its distribution. There are about forty species of annual and perennial plants in the genus.
Iberis leaves are simple, whole or pinnately-divided. The flowers are white, purple or pink, collected in umbrella-shaped clusters, which is rare for cabbage crops. The fruit of the plant is a round or oval bivalve pod with seeds.
Iberis is completely unpretentious and requires virtually no maintenance. It does not need to be covered for the winter, fertilized and watered often. It grows well on rocky soil, although it prefers light loam. The plant is light-requiring, but it also develops in partial shade. In culture, most often grown Iberis rocky, Crimean, Gibraltar (popular varieties Candytaft, Gibraltar Candytaft) and Iberis evergreen, the best varieties of which are Little Jam, Dana, Findel and Snowflake.
Levkoy, or mattiola (lat.Matthiola) - a genus of herbaceous annuals and perennials of the Cabbage family, common in the Mediterranean and southern Europe. Mattiola is an ornamental flowering plant with a wonderful scent that attracts bees. The Latin name was given to mattiola by Robert Brown in honor of Pietro Mattioli, an Italian botanist and physician. And the name "levkoy" in translation from Greek means "white violet". The genus has about 50 species.
Levkoy is a plant covered with tomentose, which forms woody bushes. Levkoy's stems are densely leafy, straight or slightly curved, leaves are lanceolate, serrated or whole. White, pink, purple or yellow flowers form spike-shaped panicles. Levkoy fruits are flat, dry and bumpy pods with seeds.
Not so long ago, Levka could be found in every garden. The plant feels best in well-lit areas, preferring a fertile sod-loamy or sod-sandy loam soil of a neutral reaction. The most popular species in culture is mattiola gray. Currently, more than 600 varieties of this species are known. Levkoy gray-haired varieties are divided into autumn, sown in March or April, and winter, which are sown in summer. Varieties differ by the height of the bush:
- bouquet - medium early dense double plants up to 35 cm high;
- gigantic bomb-shaped - late plants with densely double flowers, reaching 60 cm in height;
- quedlinburg - plants with double flowers of different ripening periods;
- Erfurt, or short-branched - plants up to 40 cm high with convex flowers;
- large gigantic tree-like - plants up to 1 m high with large double flowers;
- excelsior, or single-stem - plants in one stem from 50 to 80 cm in height with large densely double flowers;
- pyramidal, which are divided into:
- gigantic large-flowered - semi-tall (up to 50 cm) and tall (up to 80 cm) mid-early plants with large double flowers;
- dwarf - early plants up to 25 cm high with large flowers;
- semi-tall - medium early plants up to 45 cm high with compact inflorescences;
- spreading, which are divided into two subgroups:
- remontant, or Dresden - plants up to 60 cm high with large flowers;
- large-flowered late, or bismarck - late bushy plants up to 70 cm high with loose inflorescences of very large flowers.
Ornamental cabbage is a generic name that combines several forms of collard greens, a spectacular biennial plant that is used for ornamental purposes as an annual. The height of ornamental cabbage can be from 30 to 130 cm, and these plants can reach one meter in diameter. Decorativeness is achieved due to the shape and color of cabbage leaves. Leaf plates 10 to 30 cm long and 20 to 60 cm wide are ovoid, elliptical, obovate or truncated-elliptical in shape. Their edges can be single or multiple crenate- or serrated-incised, curly, which is why the plants themselves look delicate.
Depending on the degree of curliness of the leaves, cabbage forms are divided into mossy-curly, scalloped-coarse curly and scalloped-thin curly. The color palette of ornamental cabbage is diverse: the color of the leaves can be light green, bluish-green with lilac or pink spots, green with a white stripe, dark purple, gray-green, white, yellow or cream ...
All forms of ornamental cabbage are photophilous, but they also grow in partial shade, only the color in this case will not be so intense. Plants prefer the soil rich in humus and well-drained. Ornamental cabbage is grown both in flower beds and in pots or flowerpots. The most attractive plant varieties are:
- Tokyo series: Tokyo Pink, Tokyo Red, Tokyo White - undersized (up to 35 cm) plants with multi-colored openwork rosettes;
- Osaka series: Osaka Pink, Osaka Red, Osaka White - plants similar to the varieties of the Tokyo series;
- Nagoya series: Nagoya Rose, Nagoya White - large rosettes (up to 60 cm in height);
- Calais series - miniature decorative palms for flowerpots.
Properties of cabbage plants
Cabbage plants are dicotyledonous (two cotyledons per seed) and have a taproot system. Their leaves are most often alternate or form a basal rosette, and the venation is reticulate. The flowers are usually clustered in a racemose inflorescence, and the fruits are pods of different sizes with different numbers of seeds. The seeds of some cabbage species contain valuable oil. Most often, cruciferous crops are represented by herbaceous plants, although dwarf shrubs are also found among them. Crucifers are usually pollinated by insects, especially since the plants of this family have nectaries and are good honey plants. Cruciferous crops grow mainly in areas with a temperate and cool climate.
Cabbage plants - growing conditions
Each cabbage crop has its own soil requirements, but sandy loam and loamy soils of a neutral reaction are suitable for almost all of them. When choosing a site for a particular cruciferous crop, immediately abandon its cultivation in those places where other cabbages previously grew, since all members of the family have common pests and common diseases. For example, keela: it affects all cruciferous crops, and pathogenic microorganisms overwinter in the soil. Among insect pests, cabbage crops are most often damaged by aphids, cruciferous fleas, bedbugs, cabbage flies, moths and scoops, weevils, rape leaf beetles, sawflies and flower beetles. And cabbage, except for the keel, are ill with a black leg (during the seedling period), peronosporosis (downy mildew), fusarium, gray and white rot, mucous and vascular bacteriosis, punctate necrosis and phomosis (dry rot). Many harmful microorganisms that infect cabbage crops can exist only in an acidic environment, so you need to monitor the pH of the soil all the time - the indicator should not be lower than pH 6.
Cabbage plants are not very demanding, but they are all photophilous and moisture-loving, that is, they should be grown in an open, sunny place, and watering should be regular and sufficient.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Information about Garden Plants
Sections: Garden Plants Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Flowering Fruit Garden Plants
The cruciferous family: description of species, significance in nature and for humans
Representatives of the cruciferous plant family Cruciferae grow in the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth. Since ancient times, many varieties have been cultivated by humans, are used for food, go to feed pets, are used in medicine, both official and non-traditional. Some decorative varieties serve as a wonderful decoration for the home and yard. Their seeds contain a large amount of vegetable oils that have a beneficial effect on the body.
Diseases of cabbage and cruciferous roots
White cabbage, like other types of cabbage, is a biennial plant, it is affected by diseases in the first and second years of cultivation, as well as during storage.
With increased soil and air humidity and low temperatures, these diseases affect up to 80% of plants, a significant part of them die completely. The main disease of cabbage in the first year of cultivation is keela. On heavy and loamy soils, when crop rotation is disturbed, cabbage plants are affected by 80-100% of the keel, of which 60-70% die completely, and the rest give a very low yield.
Dangerous diseases of cabbage seed crops are alternariosis, phomosis, peronosporosis, vascular and mucous bacteriosis. Crop losses from these diseases reach 50–70% and more.
Only when using the correct, well-founded set of measures can you get high productivity of cabbage plants.
Keela - the most harmful disease of cabbage. It affects almost all cruciferous crops - white cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, rutabagas, radishes, turnips, etc. Keela also affects many weeds from the Cruciferous family (shepherd's purse, field mustard, rape, yarok, etc.), in the roots of which the parasite accumulates and overwinters.
For soil disinfection, 85% s is also used. p. thiazopa, it is introduced in a dose of 150 g pa 1m2 into a soil layer of 20-25 cm. The preparation is evenly distributed over the soil surface, which is preliminarily loosened and moistened, in this state the soil is maintained for 20 days. Sowing seeds or planting seedlings is carried out no earlier than 20 days.
In the fight against keel, agrotechnical measures are of great importance. The best predecessor of cabbage is the layer and turnover of the layer of perennial grasses, annual legumes and cereals, potatoes, carrots.
Nurseries should be located in an area that is not wedged.
In the fight against keela, resistant varieties are of great importance.
Mucous bacteriosis widespread on cabbage of the first year of cultivation, and is also the reason for the loss of testes of cabbage, turnip, turnip. Bacteria, causative agents of the disease, remain on post-harvest residues and on mother plants.
Control measures. Timely pest control should be carried out. All agrotechnical rules must be followed when growing mother plants and seed plants. Avoid applying high doses of nitrogen fertilizers. Avoid freezing of mother liquors during harvesting and during winter storage. When laying for storage and when planting testes, select only healthy plants, rejecting those stumps that are damaged by a cabbage fly or other pests.
Of great importance for the cultivation of seed plants is the observance of agricultural technology (possibly early planting dates, shelter with straw manure, timely removal of the shelter, loosening, feeding).
After the testes take root, the remnants of the petioles of old leaves must be removed from the stump and removed from the site.
Gray rot affects cabbage, carrots, parsley, beans and other crops, causing wet rot.
Cabbage can become infected with gray mold while still in the field.
White rust (leucorrhoea) affects various plants from the Cabbage family. Testes get sick more often. On the leaves, stems, pedicels and pods, white warts are formed with an even shiny surface, as if covered with white oil paint. In years with a cold, prolonged spring, the plants are completely covered with a white shiny bloom. Affected leaves dry out quickly. Stems and peduncles are bent. Affected testes usually do not form seeds, and if seeds do, they do not ripen.
Control measures. After harvest, destruction of all post-harvest residues.
Pinpoint necrosis affects cabbage at the end of the growing season in the field. This is a non-infectious disease that manifests itself on the leaves in the form of small black spots, which are located singly or in groups, sometimes along the veins.
It is known that the predisposition of cabbage to punctate necrosis can be inherited.
Control measures. When growing seedlings and adult plants, special attention should be paid to the use of nitrogen fertilizers. They should be applied during the first growing period. The introduction of potash fertilizers reduces the infestation of plants by point necrosis. Storage of cabbage under optimal storage conditions, do not allow the temperature to drop below 0 ° C.
Relatively resistant cabbage varieties to pinpoint necrosis: Zimovka 1474, Belorusskaya 455, Slava 1305, Amager 611.
Cauliflower head rot affects cauliflower.
Control measures. They consist in observing the alternation of crops in the fields of crop rotation. If head decay is detected, it is necessary to cut out the affected areas, while capturing part of the healthy tissue and not touching the diseased tissue with a knife.
Cauliflower mosaic is caused by a virus that infects all cultivated and wild plants from the Cabbage (Cruciferous) family, but causes the greatest harm to cauliflower. The veins of young leaves, starting from the base, brighten, become yellowish-white. On old leaves, yellowing of the veins, first the main ones and then the peripheral ones, is observed much later than on young leaves. Stripes of dark green color remain on large veins, and small veins on a green leaf blade look like yellowish streaks. The growth of the veins is suspended, as a result of which the leaf becomes wrinkled. Sometimes signs of a mosaic develop only on one half of the leaf.
The manifestation of mosaic signs is closely related to the air temperature. The optimum temperature for the development of the disease is 16-18 ° C.
Control measures. Alternation of cultures. Systematically remove weeds in and around the field. To fight aphids and leaf-eating pests.
Green fertilizer, or what is green manure? Green manure plants and their use
Any soils, whatever their composition, and whatever crops are grown on them, over time lose their mineral and organic components, becoming unsuitable for growing plants.
To restore the properties of the soil, its structure and the amount of humus, use organic fertilizers, which include green fertilizers.
Green manure, or green manure, is a plant that is grown to enrich a depleted substrate... Currently, about 400 species of plants from different families are referred to as green manure plants. These are mainly annual, less often biennial or perennial plants. When talking about green manure, they usually only say that the plants are embedded in the soil, after which, decomposing, their parts enrich the soil. But besides this, siderates perform dozens of different functions.
Functions and properties of siderates
Green manure plants have a variety of beneficial properties:
• Dense foliage that develops quickly creates shade, discouraging weed growth
• A branched root system, promotes loosening of the soil, this leads to an improvement in water permeability and aeration
• Thanks to the root system of green manure, the structure of heavy clay and loamy soils improves - they become more crumbly
• Sandy and loose substrates are additionally strengthened due to the roots of green manure
• Some species of green manure plants scare away or suppress the development of soil pests and pathogenic fungi (the sowing radish blocks the development of nematodes)
• Siderata from the legume family have nitrogen-fixing properties
• Many green manure plants are good honey plants, attracting pollinating insects, pollinating along the way and vegetable crops
• The roots of some green manure from the family of cereals secrete substances that block the germination of weed seeds
• The wide foliage of some green manure plants shelters the soil from hot sunlight and helps to preserve soil moisture.
The functions performed by green fertilizers largely depend on the chemical composition of green manure plants and their morphological characteristics. Leaf surface area, depth of root penetration, type of root system, growth rate, entomophilous flowers are the main morphological characteristics of green manure.
The morphological features also include the symbiosis of bacteria and roots of leguminous plants. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, settling inside the root system of certain plants, convert gaseous atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrogen, it accumulates in the soil and nourishes the plants.
The most important functions of green manure plants:
1.increase in organic matter and biomass in the soil
2.acceleration of humus formation
3.Improving the penetration of water and air into soil particles
4.reduction of soil erosion and weathering
5.regulation of soil acidity
6.retention of snow cover (winter green manure)
7.Extraction of useful components from deep soil layers
8.activate the growth of beneficial soil microorganisms
9. blocking the development of certain diseases and weeds.
Green manure plants can be grown during the entire growing season, from early spring to late autumn, or seasonally, during a specific period.
For depleted and poor soils, in order to restore them and increase fertility, green manure is sown in the fall. It can be mustard, or another member of the cruciferous family. These green fertilizers develop quickly, producing good biomass, which is embedded in the soil with the first frost or before frost. In spring, the site is sown with herbaceous representatives of the legume family (vetch, clover, alfalfa, rank). During the spring and summer, it is necessary to dig up the site 2-3 times, along with the plants on it. And sow again with legumes, which will enrich the soil with nitrogen.
For greater efficiency and a quick supply of nitrogen to the substrate, you need to use young plants - they decompose faster, because their tissues do not contain a lot of fibrous polysaccharides (cellulose). In addition, adult plants themselves consume many useful components contained in the soil, therefore, it is necessary to prevent the overgrowth of green fertilizers.
The most common types of green manure plants
The first place among green fertilizers is occupied by the legume family, many herbaceous representatives of which have the ability to fix nitrogen. At the same time, legumes convert the phosphate compounds in the soil into a form available to other plants and protect the soil from nematodes. Legumes can be used to restore soil or be planted alongside vegetable crops.
Siderat plants of the legume family:
• common peas
• annual lupine - in addition to nitrogen fixation, it deeply loosens the soil
• alfalfa - from the genus alfalfa, sowing, medicinal, annual species are used, in addition to fixing nitrogen, alfalfa activates the growth of soil bacteria
• sowing peas (vetch sowing)
• clover (different types, but the most commonly used clover)
• common lentils
• cultivated soybeans
• rank - how green fertilizers use the rank of sowing, meadow and chickpea, the rank can withstand even saline soils
• sainfoin - loosens the soil well to deep layers
• sweet clover white and medicinal
• galega, or goat's rue - all species of the genus perennial grasses.
Siderat plants of the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family:
Green fertilizers from the cruciferous family protect the soil from excessive mineralization and prevent nutrients from going into the deeper layers.
• mustard - gray and white - quickly gain biomass in the leaves and convert complex phosphate compounds into easily digestible forms, promote deep loosening of the substrate
• winter rape - contains saponins that repel pests
• oil radish - an annual with good biomass, loosens deep soil layers, protects against nematodes
• winter and spring rapeseed: with a short daylight hours, the green mass increases (recommended for early spring or autumn plantings).
Siderat plants of the Cereals family (Bluegrass)
Siderata from the family of cereals block the leaching of nutrients into the lower soil layers that are not accessible to plants, promote the assimilation of soil nitrogen and prevent mineralization of the substrate:
• winter rye
• winter wheat
• barley (spring)
• sorghum - mainly three types are used: grain, sugar and Sudanese (Sudanese grass)
• ryegrass - protects against soil nematodes
• gray wheatgrass - its rhizomes do not grow much
• timothy (Arzhanets) - rises early, suitable for preliminary spring embedding
• fescue, or fescue, is a dense shrub that withstands saline soils and strengthens sandy bulk substrates
• chumiza (Italian bristle or capitate millet)
• bent grass, or agrostis, - bush grass, withstands stagnant water in the ground, promotes the development of soil microflora.
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Other popular green fertilizers:
• Phacelia (Borage family) provides rich biomass and protects the soil from nematodes
• Buckwheat (Buckwheat family) - promotes loosening and aeration of deep soil layers, converts phosphates into easily soluble forms available for assimilation
• Sunflower (Asteraceae family) - good soil loosening and protection against nematodes
• Mallow (Malvaceae family) - a branched root system that penetrates into depth, promotes better penetration of air and water, protects the soil from the washing out of nutrients.
The types of green fertilizers and their planting depend on the goal that they are trying to achieve. And also on the climatic features and the type of substrate.
Siderata are planted:
• in autumn or early spring
• in a community with vegetable, ornamental or berry crops
• for a year or two to restore the soil
• in the period between the planting of other crops.
Members of the Cruciferous family
Cruciferous taxonomy is based primarily on the following characteristics:
- fruit shape
- corolla coloring
- the nature of pubescence (hairs are simple, glandular, 2-separate, branched or absent at all)
- embryo structure
- arrangement of nectaries
- anatomy of the pericarp.
There are many food, spice, oil, medicinal, fodder and ornamental plants among crucifers. Most of their species grows in the Northern Hemisphere outside the tropical zone, they prevail in the Mediterranean, Central and Western Asia, from where the culture of many famous garden plants came to us.
Genus Cabbage (Brassica)
These include garden cabbage, wild cabbage, Peking cabbage, etc., rutabagas, mustard, turnip. All types of herbaceous biennial plants with pod fruits with a well-defined cylindrical spout.
- Field cabbage (Brassica campestris), or "rape" - an annual herb, up to 100 cm high. With yellow flowers, collected in inflorescences - brushes. There are 4 non-accrete stamens in the flower. Formula: * Ч4 Л4Т4П1. In Russia, it is widespread in the wild. Rapeseed is a hard-to-remove weed, but it is used to create soaps, varnishes and paints, and the leaves are added to salads.
Field cabbage (Brassica campestris)
- Mediterranean or leafy cabbage (Brassica fruticulosa) is a perennial herb, up to 50 cm high. Presumable ancestor of cabbage. The structure of the flower is like a field cabbage, but the marginal flowers in the inflorescence are ligulate. Distributed in Southern Europe, North Africa, introduced to New Zealand, America. In Europe, it is grown as a fodder plant, since the content of digestible protein in it exceeds the amount in fodder roots. It is also bred as a vegetable plant, its leaves are eaten fresh in salads, soups and side dishes are cooked from them, stewed, cabbage rolls are made. In Russia, it is almost never grown.
- Sarepta mustard, or Sarepta cabbage, or Russian mustard (Brassica juncea) is an annual herb that grows wild in Central Asia, China, Mongolia and Siberia. The flowers are yellow, their formula is typical for the whole family: * Ч4 Л4 Т2 + 4 П1. In many countries, it is grown as an oilseed and spice plant. In Russia, since 1810, it has been cultivated in the Volga region, initially near the village of Sarepta. They also make a seasoning from it - Russian mustard. It can often be a weed.
Russian mustard (Brassica juncea) [/ caption
Fatty oils are also found in seeds and other members of the family that are specially cultivated as oilseeds, such as rapeseed (Brassica napus var. Oleifera) and camelina (Camelina). Vaida tinctoria (Isatis tinctoria) was formerly used as a dye plant.
- Mustard real, black, or French (Brassica nigra) is an annual herb. In the wild, common in tropical and temperate regions of Africa and Eurasia. It is used to make table mustard and butter. Almost never grown in Russia, it is found in the wild in the European part of the country.
- Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), including the following varieties: cabbage (white and red), cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, broccoli, Savoy, kale, Portuguese. This also includes ornamental cabbage varieties. The exact ancestor of cabbage has not been established, presumably it is a collard from the Mediterranean coast.
Peking cabbage belongs to a different genus of the Cruciferous family.
In cabbage, in the first year of life, the main shoot develops as a rosette one. By the middle of summer, a head of cabbage begins to form in it - a strongly expanding apical bud with a stem part - a stump. It is also used for food. In the second year of life, from the buds in the axils of the heads of cabbage, powerful lateral shoots are formed, up to 2 meters high, on which inflorescences-brushes are formed. After the formation of seeds, the plant dies.
The value of white cabbage is explained by the presence of bound ascorbic acid in it, which is considered the most stable. Moreover, sauerkraut contains more free vitamin C than fresh. Interestingly, on long voyages, sailors began to get less scurvy only when they began to take sauerkraut with them.
Experiments on the prevention of scurvy with the help of cabbage were carried out by James Cook. And he had to go to the trick. At first, the sailors refused to eat sauerkraut, then he defiantly served it only on the table of the ship's command staff. Then the sailors demanded "their share."
In lettuce red cabbage, the leaves are colored purple with anthocyanin. Cauliflower is very popular with us - a form with branched inflorescences and underdeveloped flowers. From the same species came the kohlrabi with a turnip stem, which contains especially a lot of vitamin C.
- Rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica) - came to Russia from the Mediterranean. There she probably appeared as a result of crossing collard greens and turnips. According to another version, she comes from Russian Siberia. Its root crop is formed in the first year of the plant's life. It is yellowish, a bit like a turnip, but surpasses it in nutritional value. Roots are used for food, root crops and leaves are used for fodder.
- Turnip, turnip (Brassica gara) - one of the very first food plants cultivated by man. Known only in culture. The homeland of the turnip is considered the Mediterranean and Asia (two centers of origin). It is customary to call a turnip a canteen - less productive, but sweeter varieties, turnips - fodder. A very cold-resistant crop that can be grown even in the Arctic Circle. Turnip roots reach a mass of 16 kg, they are very rich in water. Recently, an annual salad plant - Peking cabbage (B. pekinensis) - a type of turnip, has gained wide popularity (especially in winter). This cabbage has long (up to 60 cm) leaves collected in a loose head of cabbage. Another type of Chinese cabbage is bok-choy, or Chinese kale (Brassica rapa variety chinensis).
Genus Radish (Raphanus)
It includes sowing radish, which includes: black radish, radish, Japanese radish, or daikon, etc. Radish and radish belong to the same species, but the formation of their root crops is significantly different. If the entire edible part of a radish is a hypocotyl, then in a radish the bulk of the root crop is a root, and only the upper part can be attributed to a hypocotyl. Radish is prized as the earliest vegetable due to its minimal ripening period. In radish, not only root crops are edible, but also leaves.
Sowing radish was grown in Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. All its varieties grow only with a short day, so they need to be planted either in early spring (in March-April), or in the second half of summer. The root vegetable contains an unstable glycoside, which, breaking down on contact with air, forms essential oils that give the radish a burning taste.
Horseradish ordinary, or rustic (Armoracia rusticana)
It is one of the four species of the Horseradish genus. Easily wild plant with large oblong leaves. Its roots and leaves are used in medicine and cooking. Its flowers are white, and the fruits are pods. A widely cultivated plant around the world with a large amount of lysozyme in the root, which has antimicrobial properties.
They are very effective, look beautiful in tandem, where the beauty of each participant is emphasized, the outstretched and creeping views and forms. Despite their different origins, they are all from the same Cypress family (Cupressaceae).
Junipers in a sunny rockery on a slope
M. horizontal (Juniperus horizontalis) - an open coniferous shrub native to North America, up to 30 cm high, can grow indefinitely in width. Decorative forms:
- 'Wiltonii'- grows slowly, carpet-spreading, up to 19 cm high, subulate needles, silvery-blue
- 'Blue moon'- creeping, branches are whip-lying, shoots are grayish-blue, tender does not tolerate waterlogging
- 'Douglasii'- creeping, 2-3 m high and wide, needles are gray-green, with a bluish bloom, in autumn it acquires purple hues, and others.
M. inclined (J. procumbens) - originally from South Japan up to 75 cm high, up to 2 m wide. Decorative form:
- 'Nana'- creeping, growing slowly, at the age of 10 years, 20 cm high, 1-1.5 m wide, needles are green-blue.
M. Cossack (J. sabina) - in nature, distributed from Central Europe to Northern China, 2-5 m high, up to 6 m wide. Decorative forms:
- 'Tamariscifolia'- up to 1 m high, up to 2 m wide, prostrate, needle-shaped needles, sharp, bluish-green
- 'Variegata'- grows slowly, 1.5 m high, 1 m wide, branches are horizontal, with drooping ends, needles are white and variegated, and others.
M. squamous (J. squamata) - originally from the mountainous part of North-Eastern Afghanistan, the Himalayas, Western and Central China up to 10 m high and 1-8 m wide.Decorative forms:
- 'Blue carpet'- creeping, growing rapidly: at 10 years old, 60 cm high and 2-2.5 m wide, needles are silvery-blue
- 'Blue star'- grows slowly, at the age of 10 years, 40 cm high, 50 cm wide, prickly needles, silver-blue.
All junipers, in this case bushy species and forms, develop better on loose, slightly acidic loams and sandy loam soils.
Juniper chinese 'Old gold' in rockery
They grow well with regular watering (in the first 3 years after planting), and then - as the topsoil dries up. Junipers tolerate formative pruning well, so branches are removed in the spring or shortened when they "fall out" of the desired contour. In early spring, they need shading to prevent sunburn. At least at the beginning of growth, it is advisable to apply fertilizer annually (according to the instructions): full mineral or specialized for conifers.
You can find a wide range of different fertilizers for conifers in our catalog, which combines offers from various garden online stores. View a selection of fertilizers for conifers.
Outdoor cabbage care
On the one hand, there is nothing super complicated in the requirements for growing cabbage, but, on the other hand, failure to comply with at least one of them will necessarily negatively affect the harvest. You just need to not break the rules - and everything will work out.
Requirements for soil and crop rotation
Cabbage can grow on different soils, except for very light sandy and gravelly, which do not retain moisture well. The ideal soil for cabbage is fertile loam with a light structure and low-lying peatlands. Such soils are capable of retaining moisture and at the same time being well permeable to air. The optimum acidity is pH6.4-7.0. Acidic soils need to be limed every 5–6 years. To do this, in the fall, together with digging, dolomite flour or fluff lime is introduced in an amount of 5 kg / 10 m 2.
Cabbage cannot be re-grown in one place, and also not be planted after other cruciferous plants earlier than after 3-4 years. Failure to comply with crop rotation and growing related crops next to cabbage leads to the spread of diseases inherent in this type of plant. Cabbage grows best after haze, lily, nightshade and legumes, and it is also its best neighbors.
Light and temperature
Cabbage is demanding on light and does not tolerate the slightest shade. The place for its cultivation must be completely open. With a lack of light, leaves begin to grow intensively, and heads of cabbage may not form at all. For the best plant development, the length of daylight hours should be 16-18 hours.
The place for planting cabbage is chosen open and well-lit
Cabbage is known as a cold hardy plant. The degree of its resistance to low temperatures depends on the variety and stage of plant development. Seed germination begins at 2–3 ° C. The optimum temperature for quick emergence is 18–20 ° C. Seedlings grow best at 12-15 ° C. Hardened and well-rooted seedlings in the open field can withstand temperatures as low as –7 ° C during short-term frosts. For mature plants, temperatures between 15-18 and 25 ° C are best suited for good growth. In the south of Russia, non-heat-resistant at high temperatures wither. Ripe standing heads can withstand temperatures ranging from -2 ° C to -8 ° C, depending on the variety.
Moisture requirements, watering and hilling
The optimum soil moisture for growing cabbage is 80%, air is 50–75%. If cabbage is grown for long-term winter storage, then the relative humidity of the soil in the second half of the growing season should be 70–75%. With a lack of moisture, cabbage develops poorly and heads of cabbage do not form.
Table: terms and norms of watering white cabbage
|Watering time||Watering frequency||Irrigation rates|
|After transplanting within two weeks||1 time in 3-4 days (in a drought every other day)||1-1.5 l per plant|
|Two weeks after planting the seedlings, before the period of the beginning of growth of heads of cabbage||1 time in 4-7 days (more often in drought)||8-10 l per 1 m 2|
|Since the beginning of the growth of heads of cabbage||In one day||15–20 l per 1 m 2|
|2 weeks before harvest |
4 weeks before harvesting cabbage for long winter storage
|Watering is stopped|
The frequency and rate of irrigation is adjusted depending on the amount of precipitation. It is recommended to maintain the soil in such a state that a lump of earth taken in your hands, if rolled between your fingers, sticks together into a ball. If the soil is crumbling, it needs to be watered. Despite the demand for moisture, cabbage does not like waterlogging. Excess moisture can lead to the spread of fungal diseases and cracking of heads.
To get a good harvest, cabbage is regularly watered
After watering, the soil must be loosened, it is especially important to do this on heavy soils. Loosening is usually combined with hilling. The first hilling of early varieties is carried out 2 weeks after transplanting. Late cabbage begins to spud a little later - after 3 weeks. Then they continue to huddle every 2 weeks and do this until the leaves close.
Cabbage takes out a lot of nutrients from the soil, therefore it needs additional fertilizing, their amount depends on the growing season, and for early varieties it is reduced.
Table: terms and norms for feeding white cabbage
If complex fertilizers were applied during planting, then it is better not to do the first top dressing. An excess of nitrogen fertilizers accumulates in the heads of cabbage in the form of nitrates and degrades the quality of products.
Video: growing white cabbage in the open field
Medicinal properties and use in medicine
Traditional healers use the plant with healing properties in the treatment of various diseases. Iberis-based medicines help to improve the patient's condition in case of impaired blood circulation in the human body, diseases of the digestive tract, gynecological and urological problems. The drugs alleviate the suffering of patients with diseases of the respiratory system, accompanied by an inflammatory process. Compresses from the extract of the plant are used for various skin diseases and non-healing wounds. Iberis tincture is taken for inflammatory liver diseases, diseases of joints and tissues.
Stennik combines useful properties and the ability to negatively affect the human body, therefore, before using drugs based on this plant, it is necessary to consult a doctor, observe the dosage of drugs. In case of an overdose of Stennik extracts, headache, weakness, even a sudden and complete cessation of the effective activity of the heart may occur.
Drugs are contraindicated for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children.
Iberis can be called an unpretentious jewel of any garden. The plant is used to decorate flower beds, flower beds, alpine hills. Flowers are beautiful cut, florists make wonderful wedding bouquets from them.