Renewable energies - Use of renewable energies

Renewable energies - Use of renewable energies

Climate change requires cutting emissions and adopting ethical choices

Nazzareno Gottardi

International Conference "CHOOSE RENEWABLE", Montecatini April 16-18, 2010

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1. Introduction

Here I am again at this Ecomobility appointment to bring my modest contribution to the movement for the promotion of the use of renewable energy, to stop the process of degradation of the planet and find the final solution for the energy needs of humanity.

It will not be a highly technical seminar; it will rather be an outlet against a group of a few who continue to destroy our environment by burning fossil fuel and against the indifference with which most of humanity turns to renewable.

It is not the case here to indulge in many philosophical and humanistic considerations but I allow myself once again to make a small, small one:

Energy is the foundation of our universe and we exist because of it. Life is developed thanks to the action of energy on matter. Energy is life.

  • In particular, on this planet, life has been generated by the energy sent to us by our Sun which, by fueling the evolutionary transformations, has also allowed the development of Humanity.
  • I also like to think, poetically but very little scientifically, that by working patiently for many hundreds of millions of years on other forms of organic life, he has prepared an enormous wealth of very precious resources, such as oil.
  • He prepared them to facilitate the technological development of man when he had become mature enough to use them wisely together with his abundant direct maradiation: solar energy precisely.
  • With it Brother Sun is willing to feed us and provide us with noble forms of energy, such as eg. the electrical and the mechanical, for a few billion more years as long as we know how to use intelligently and sparingly the other natural resources that it has given us.
  • The poetic vision ends abruptly because we know that certain members of humanity think that the solar energy to use is precisely the fossilized one and that, just as happened, it is an excellent source of wealth and power and ..... that the rest of the mondosi arrangi, if ..... and how can.

Normally in the past I have turned to the exploiters of fossil energy congentility trying to convince them that direct or deferred solar energy in the form of wind or water is the primary solution to the energy problem of humanity.

Now I think we must tell these people frankly that their good faith can no longer be believed: they know very well that renewable energy is great, it is a lot, and it is simply everything and only what humanity needs for a happy life for each of its members, without discrimination of gender, race or religious belief.

Someone will say: "not all resources", only energy resources. No: all resources including oil which is not an energy resource. Due to its versatility it is in fact the most precious of the raw materials available to humanity. they are natural heritages, minerals, metals, fertile lands, forests, faunal heritage, etc. Its appropriation and annihilation as a simple fuel is a crime against humanity.

I used the word "moral", almost a taboo in our age of selfishness and unbridled hedonism and the abuse of religions by certain disruptive elements of social structures to protect the material interests of groups such as those of the energy cartel. fossil.

Having touched on this taboo I must therefore, in order not to scare those who are disappointed by non-believing religions and who no longer like to hear about ethics, morals, duties, etc. I will give here the definition of "morality" that I normally use in this type of seminars. It is a definition that should be suitable for all those who, be they religious, agnostic or atheist, believe in Humanity and its future development:

"Any action taken in the interest of the Human Community is moral. Any action carried out in the interest of individuals or groups of individuals to the detriment of the welfare of humanity is immoral ".

In the light of this "postulate" we can say that the waste of a precious raw material such as oil as a source of energy is immoral.

And it is certainly even more immoral due to the fact that, while it is increasingly evident that there is an enormous availability of clean energy, the thermal and chemical pollution of the environment continues, even if it is, through the reckless use of fossil energy.

It is immoral because the consequences of this action fall on the whole of humanity while the benefit is destined for a few political-financial power groups.

Despite this very negative premise and other similar considerations that I will present below, I predict that I will end with a thread of optimism by showing that, thanks to the action of pioneers of renewable energy, there are clear signs of a promising future even if still distant.

A clarification: although here, speaking of emissions, I will emphasize greenhouse gases, it is clear that the moral duty to avoid or reduce emissions extends to everything that "is emitted" during industrial processes, therefore including all chemicals and nuclear power plants that pollute the environment in which we live.

I would also like to point out that, although by spontaneous inclination I speak often of solar and wind energy, my consideration also applies to every form of renewable energy: geothermal, water, tidal, wave, etc.

2. "The situation is serious"

Who says that? The Secretary General of the United Nations, in his speech at the Third World Climate Conference in Geneva. He then warned the international community: "We are heading towards the abyss at high speed". Ban Ki Moon pointed out that “We cannot afford the luxury of limited progress. We need rapid progress to face the new problems that are attributable to climate change ”.1

Finally we begin to accept that the cry of many scientists is not a catastrophist attitude but a reality. The continuous organization of international meetings, such as the one that led to the Kyoto Protocol, and which showed the interest and participation in their conclusions of almost all the nations of the world, confirms this new attitude. Even the latest meeting in chronological order, the one in Copenhagen, although at first glance it seemed a failure, showed how climate is becoming a universal concern. It was in Copenhagen that rich and poor sat at the same table and as many as 90 of them presented the promise to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions (hereinafter briefly referred to as GHG by the English Greenhouse Gases). that of the United States where the oil and industry lobby is holding back the praiseworthy initiatives of this government.

But even among the extremists, despite the vehemence of their media campaigns towards renewable energy, it seems that an awareness is on the way.

Note that the following statement comes from the IEA (International Energy Agency) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) "3:" The energy prospects of today's world are simply unsustainable. Despite all the talk about climate change, demand for energy has continued to rise in recent years and with it global CO2 emissions At the same time, importing countries are increasingly concerned about their energy security just as oil, gas and coal prices hit record highs. ".

If the IEA, which I have always suspected of being a fossil energy lobby, makes such a statement it is because the situation is really serious.

Another indirect confirmation that the situation is serious comes from the fossil cartels: while they continue a huge disinformation propaganda against environmentalists and against renewable to maintain the use of their energy sources, they have set to work with conviction to capture and CO2 sequestration. They do this even though they know that this leads to an increase in their production costs.

Their propaganda against the theory of global warming due to greenhouse gases, however, does not stop despite the evidence of the phenomenon. They take advantage of every occasion to discredit it. For example, they play on the misunderstanding and rely on the fact that the mass of laymen find it hard to see beyond a short-term phenomenon (such as the recent period of intense cold) the real long-term situation (average global warming increasingly measurable ). Their tactics are subtle and once they have found a foothold they turn it into a crusade.

Last summer, for example, Professor Mojib Latif, a very important collaborator of the IPCC (Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change ), in a symposium on climate damage4 announced that, although global warming of the climate continues to increase due to anthropogenic causes in an evident manner, periods in which the temperature may also decrease due to periodic climatic phenomena cannot be excluded. In particular, he cited as an example that of the ten-year oscillation of the North Atlantic and showed the transparency in figure 1.

The expression "drop in temperature" so excited the critics of climate warming that they immediately unleashed a huge press campaign on supposedly lied to by the IPCC. The thing ended however soon: in their excitement they had not tried to look carefully at the graph mentioned, where the mediasal temperature inexorably rises.

The reaction was even more dramatic when a claim about the disappearance of Himalayan glaciers by 2035 inadvertently slipped into the 2007 IPCC report without being scrutinized. In fact, there are still no systematic studies on the true extent of the retreat of these glaciers in relation to global warming.

Ghaham Cogley of Ontario's Trent University. For example, he says the correct number should be 350 years while others, such as Swiss glaciologist Michael Zemp of the World Glacier Monitoring Service in Zurich, simply say that he doesn't seem to have seen a report confirming the disappearance of the Himalayan glaciers before the end. of this century5.

The accusation of "cheating" attributed to this oversight went around the world in media controlled by the fossil cartels, generating a series of doubts about the veracity of all the content of the meticulous work of the IPCC, confusing the true meaning of the message.

How many have realized that if the glaciers of the Himalayas, which had been nesting there for two million years, were to really disappear, if not in tens but also in a few hundred years, it would in itself be the true confirmation of the catastrophe?

How can these media outlets put the accent on this kind of errors, which if anything push humanity towards the protection of the environment, when they themselves ignored the "error" of the existence of weapons of mass destruction that justified the war of 'Iraq with the aftermath of death and destruction that we all know today? Unless you want to see oil as the weapon of mass destruction ... considering the global effects on the whole environment in which we live.

I cannot dwell here on the series of false accusations such as, for example, those linked to the malign interpretation of scientific jargon expressed in emails stolen from a British meteorological research center. I'm just saying it's sad to see the immoral use of the media, the most efficient power tool of our information age, to gain a grip on the general public.

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Note

  1. "The world towards the abyss http": //www.rainews24.it/it/news.php? Newsid = 130869; 03. 09. 2009
  2. International Herald Tribune. February 23, 2010
  3. Energy Technology Perspectives 2008; Scenarios & Strategies to 2050. In support of the G8 Plan of Action. OECD / IEA, Paris, France; 2008
  4. Mojib Latif: “Advancing Climate Prediction Science - Decadal Prediction”; WorlClimate Conference WCC-3, Geneva, 31 Aug-4 Sep 2009
  5. Pallava Bagla in Delhi: “Himalayan Glaciers melting dead line" a mistake "”. BBC News. 5 December 2009

Renewable energies in Italy: legislation, incentives, sources and advantages

Last modified: December 4th, 2020
Index of topics [hide] [show]
  1. Renewable energies: definition
  2. Renewable energies: reference legislation
  3. Incentives for renewable energy in Italy
  4. Renewable sources: types and advantages
  5. Hydroelectric power: what it is and how it works
  6. Geothermal energy: what it is and how it works
  7. Solar and photovoltaic energy: how it works and the advantages
  8. Wind energy: what it is and how it works
  9. Biomass: what they are and how they work
  10. Hydrogen, a key technology for the future of renewable sources
  11. The growth of renewable energy in Italy in the first half of 2020
  12. Production of renewable energy in Italy
  13. How and why to invest in renewable energy
  14. Digital technologies and smart grids for a better use of renewable energy
  15. Repowering or Revamping to upgrade renewable energy plants

The polluting sources

Pollutant sources are currently more used, but they are already showing their disadvantages. First of all, non-renewable sources have high costs, which they depend on the work being done to produce these forms of energy and from transport.

Non-renewable sources also cost more because they do not regenerate: over time, reserves are reduced and the remaining sources become more and more expensive due to the principle of scarcity.

Polluting sources cause damage to the environment. This increases the land used for the storage of waste substances and, consequently, the risks linked to health also increase.


Renewable energies

In recent years we have been witnessing unusual climatic phenomena with obvious consequences.
What man does not know is that, rather than being the cause of such phenomena, he can strive to become the solution.

In recent years we have been witnessing climatic phenomena unusual with obvious consequences.
What man does not know is that, rather than being the cause of such phenomena, he can strive to become the solution.

How? With the renewable energies, a cornerstone of modernity ecology.

There are many industrialized countries that are trying to reverse the trend by relying on new sources of power. Let's see what they are and how they are exploited.

When it comes to Sustainable Development the first thing that comes to mind are the renewable energies. Companies around the world have made and continue to make extensive use of energy sources non-renewable and highly polluting, such as i fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas) and uranium. Non-renewable energy sources cause various problems for the environment, both in the research phase and in the use phase, as well as weighing heavily on the economies of countries. Furthermore, and not secondary, the fossil sources are destined toexhaustion in more or less long periods.

Non-renewable energy sources
The Petroleum, despite being a liquid fossil fuel, it has a formation process of tens of millions of years. Being exploitation by man very fast, is to be considered on a par with non-renewable energy sources.

Another highly polluted and highly polluted fossil fuel is coal. The gas, with combustion, it does not release harmful elements into the atmosphere. However the difficulty of extraction and the energy expenditure for the construction of complex networks of pipelines useful for transport make it an expensive energy source to manage.

L'uranium finally, it represents a highly polluting and dangerous material. THE radioactive waste deriving from its processing are difficult to dispose of and at very high costs and, moreover, are highly harmful both for man and the environment.

The energy sources of the future
The hope of much of humanity is that, soon, non-renewable energy sources will come completely replaced from renewable energy sources.

L'International Energy Agency he defined three generations of renewable energy technologies:
• Technologies of first generation: hydroelectric, biomass and geothermal
• Technologies of second generation: solar, wind and bioenergy energy.
• Technologies of third generation (still under development): biomass gasification, biorefining technologies, concentrated solar thermodynamic and ocean energy

There are many countries in the world that, in recent years, have begun to promote environmental policies interesting, with the construction of central to solar, wind, geothermal and hydroelectric energy at the forefront of its territory able to start a real energy revolution and change the green culture of the population. These implants allow you to create electricity and heat, useful for basic human activities, without generating greenhouse gases and environmental pollution.

Renewable energies are ad zero emissions, allow a long-term production of clean energy, do not cause alterations to the various ecosystems present on Earth, aim to improve the living conditions of future generations preserving climate and environment and are totally free. In addition, they are in a continuous cycle, they guarantee infinite energy, thus eliminating, and in one fell swoop, the dependence of the poorest states on the richer ones for the supply of resources, the concern for the exhaustion of fossil energy sources and air pollution, which generates serious dangers for human health and contributes to increasing the risk of a profound climate crisis.

There are many countries in Europe and around the world that are understanding the royals advantages of renewable sources. They propose incentives, adapt the current legislation by renewing it and encouraging the population to change, by virtue of a dramatic climatic and environmental situation that no longer admits errors. The energy requirements of the world population has become too large. The natural capital (fauna, forests and land) is running out. For this reason, the exploitation of renewable energies is no longer an option, but a obligation. Let's see specifically what they are.

Solar energy
The best known renewable energy source e Note is thesolar power, radiated from the Sun to the Earth constantly. Solar energy generates thermal energy (heat) or electric, useful to man for his activities. Every second the Sun emits 1367 watts of energy per square meter to the Earth. Her overall power, calculated by multiplying the irradiation by each available square meter, is equivalent to 50 million Gw. Put simply, the "resource" Sun provides man with about ten thousand times the amount of energy necessary for his activities.

For convert solar energy into useful energy there is a need for technologies specifications, which in recent years have reached very high levels allowing everyone to be able to save, optimizing consumption and helping the environment by doing the same things as before.

The most widespread and known technology of conversion of solar energy in useful energy is that of solar panels, with which you can easily obtain hot water, heating and electricity in homes, with unbeatable energy savings. There are two types of solar panels:
solar thermal: they are based on collectors to guarantee hot water and heating in homes
photovoltaic: through photovoltaic panels the sun's rays are converted directly into electricity

The benefits of solar energy are obvious, but less so disadvantages. Being linked to atmospheric conditions and the day-night cycle, this renewable energy source can be unpredictable. On rainy days or during the night, the yield is quite low. For this reason, solar energy is often not a viable alternative replace completely traditional electricity sources.

However, technological innovation has led to the birth of storage devices, storage units coupled with solar thermal heat pumps, capable of "capturing" and to preserve solar energy available during the day and release it at night or when it rains.

Wind energy
Me too'wind energy it is widely used as a renewable energy source. There wind turbine is the technology used to capture and transform the force of the wind into energy to generate electricity. This is the technological evolution of windmills, consisting of a supporting pole, a rotor and wind turbines.

The wind turbines have a particular aerodynamic shape to catch as much wind as possible. The very high poles serve as support and to "throw" the blades as high as possible, where the presence of wind is greater and more constant. The rotor connects the blades to the dynamo, which transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. Wind power can also be small, but in the same way as the large one, it comes positioned almost always in elevated places (hills) or in open spaces where there are no obstacles for the wind. A further evolution of wind technology is that of the project off-shore. The blades are mounted on poles fixed to the seabed. Place this technology in sea provides a double benefit. First of all, the presence of the wind is greater than in other places because it is almost constant. Then, being positioned far from the coasts, they do not impact heavily on the landscape.

Biomass
You don't hear much about it biomassbut it is an extremely practical and important renewable energy source. By biomass we mean those materials of origin organic, such as vegetables, agricultural, livestock or wood industry waste, reused and processed to specifications thermal power plants to obtain electricity e biofuels, ie organic fuels capable of replacing gasoline and diesel.

Reforestation projects have been started in abandoned semi-desert areas precisely to guarantee material useful for thermal power stations. Naturally, thermal power plants are also powered by energy produced from biomass.

A good way to create renewable energy sources and clean up the atmosphere with so many new trees planted in a continuous cycle. In fact, the "new" plants also have the important task of acting as the green lung of the planet, eliminating excess carbon dioxide and producing oxygen.

Geothermal
There Land itself can be considered a renewable energy source. How? With his heat. As you go deeper into the earth's crust, the temperature rises. We are talking about 3 ° C every 100 meters. In some areas, where volcanic or tectonic phenomena are present, the temperature is even higher than the average and the heat generated can also be recovered in higher areas, therefore more simply. It is up to the geothermal obtain the heat from these areas and reuse it, without polluting, for other activities.

The heat generated by the Earth appears in the form of steam and is directed towards turbines details for the production of electricity. Heat conveyed in piping systems can also be reused for heating, greenhouse cultivation and thermalism.

Hydraulic energyto
Man, since ancient times, has understood that the masses of water they are extraordinary carriers of energy. River water has always been an extraordinary renewable energy source. Just think of the mills of the past, which channeled the energy of water into mechanical energy for the milling of flour or for other activities related to agriculture.

Since the 19th century there has been further progress in the use of hydraulic energy. Man started to produce electricity directly from the power of the water and thus energy was born hydro-electric. The techniques became more and more sophisticated and gods were created over the years artificial reservoirs, real hydro-electric plants, to create paths and piloted waterfalls.

In addition to rivers, man uses the efficiency of sea currents, waves and tides to create electricity.


Renewable energies, other investment funds in Italy and around the world

Siemens Gamesa is a provider of wind energy solutions to customers around the world. An innovative player in the renewable energy sector with over 107 GW in 75 countries. Siemens Gamesa offers one of the broadest product portfolios in the industry, with both offshore and onshore technology as well as industry service solutions.

The company was created in 2017 by merger of Siemens Wind Power and Gamesa. Siemens Gamesa and is a listed company on the Madrid, Barcelona, ​​Valencia and Bilbao stock exchanges and a member of the Ibex 35 index.

SolarEdge invented an intelligent inverter solution that changed the way energy is collected and managed in a solar photovoltaic system. The SolarEdge DC optimized inverter system maximizes power generation at the single PV module level by reducing the cost of energy produced by the solar PV system.

Since the start of commercial shipments in 2010, SolarEdge has shipped over 21.0 Gigawatts of its DC optimized inverter systems and products have been installed in solar photovoltaic systems in 133 countries.

Vestas, a global manufacturer of wind turbines, has launched a venture capital unit to fuel the energy transition. Vestas Ventures will focus on four areas: long-life storage and other technologies for grid flexibility power-to-X technologies to use renewable electricity to produce zero-emission fuels wind and sustainability technologies and advanced materials.

Vestas has invested 10 million euros in the Swedish startup manufacturer of Northvolt batteries in December 2017, when the company was just one year old. It is now set to open a 4 gigawatt-hour Northvolt Ett gigafactory next year, the first phase of a facility with the potential to scale to 40 GWh.


Video: Renewable Energy 101: How Does Hydroelectricity Work?