How to properly carry out winter sowing of vegetables and green crops for an early harvest

How to properly carry out winter sowing of vegetables and green crops for an early harvest

Sowing in autumn - harvesting in spring and summer

Such agricultural practice as sowing vegetables before winter, has its pluses and, unfortunately, also its minuses.

Pros and cons of such sowing

It is clear that pluses with this method of growing vegetable crops, there are: more free time in the spring, since in the fall we have already planted or sown some of the plants; getting an early harvest, which can be enjoyed at a time when it has just begun to form among neighbors.

It is also an opportunity to grow several crops on the same plot, because after the early harvest is removed, the plot will be freed up, and plants with short daylight hours and fast growth, for example, radishes or salads, can be planted again. Or you can occupy an empty vegetable garden with green manure crops, which you can simply dig up later in the fall, thereby providing the plants with additional nutrition next year.

However, minuses this method is quite serious. For example, it is very difficult to guess with the weather, and, therefore, with the time of winter sowing. Indeed, until now, even forecasters, alas, cannot say for sure what the next 4-6 days will be waiting for us. Autumn may drag on, or snow may fall and fall on wet soil, which will lead to compaction of the substrate surface and, as a result, to difficulty in seed germination.

Sowing in winter can be confusing for some plants. For example, beets, radishes, carrots, and onions may not form a root vegetable, but begin to form an arrow and form seeds. The disadvantage lies in the longevity of storage of the crop, more precisely, in its timing, because, as you know, the harvests obtained from podzimnogo sowing are not stored at all.

When sowing in winter, it is often very difficult for gardeners, especially for beginners, to determine the optimal timing. In the same region, winter can come in completely different ways, and what exactly it will be, it is also impossible to understand - normal, cold or critically cold. The last years and the length of winter are questionable, as well as the answer to the question for gardeners is very important: will there be provocative thaws in the middle of winter or, much worse, at the very end?

There are often years when a sharp rise in temperature was observed in late February - early March, which could well have provoked seed germination, and after that the temperature usually drops sharply, which leads to the death of both seedlings and seedlings.

Sometimes winter does not come for a long time, an excessively warm autumn is observed, which also provokes seeds to germinate, and they will inevitably die in winter. Warm autumn can also provoke seeds to change biological orientation: seedlings will not form a root crop, but will form flower stalks and give seeds. This is often seen during the warm autumn season in crops such as lettuce, carrots, radishes, onions, and beets.

However, most of the disadvantages and problems that a gardener may encounter using winter crops can be leveled or completely eliminated. It happens that a simple shelter of the beds with spruce branches saves the situation and allows you to get early and tangible harvests of vegetable crops. Therefore, I think that you do not need to be afraid of winter crops, but if you are still afraid, then for the sake of experiment, you can sow only part of the seeds, occupying a certain area in the garden, and allocate the rest of it for traditional crops and planting in your zone.

Now let's go directly to winter sowing rules... And let's start with a list of crops intended for this. This list is not very long, but still there is plenty to choose from.For example, for winter sowing, the following are ideal: parsnips, carrots, celery, beets, dill, parsley, caraway seeds, sorrel and lettuce, as well as black onion and onion sets.

Seeds of crops such as leek, spinach, fennel, sage and radish are also quite suitable for sowing before winter. Sometimes, before winter, some of the roots of horseradish or tarragon are planted.

I would also like to say a few words about potatoes. Everyone who grew it on their site saw plants that vegetated well, although they sprout from those tubers that you inadvertently forgot in the fall. I want to note that this potato, unless it falls under return frosts, will certainly give an early harvest.

Moreover, my observations show that such plants are less susceptible to damage by the Colorado potato beetle. Given this fact, you can experiment with podzimny sowing of potatoes in this way. Of course, in a small area. And it is desirable to mulch the planting.

Terms of winter sowing

When to do winter crops? The most optimal time is immediately after the onset of a stable cold period, sometimes accompanied by the first frost. In most regions of Russia, this period coincides on the calendar with the end of September, or the beginning or middle of November.

In the southern regions, where winter comes later, the sowing dates are accordingly shifted - to mid-November - early December. In cooler regions, on the contrary, winter comes earlier, therefore, seeds should also be sown earlier - in mid-August - early September. Usually, in the most favorable period for sowing, the temperature is kept at around + 3 ... + 5 ° С.

The sowing site should be chosen as well lit in the summer and warmed up quickly in the spring. This should be an area where neither melt nor rain water stagnates. It will be good if the garden bed is protected from the cold north wind, for example, by the wall of a house, by a section of a fence or by the crown of a tree located on the north side. The slopes are also suitable, but only with a southern orientation.

In low areas or where the groundwater level is close to the soil surface, the beds should be made slightly raised (by about 20-25 cm). Higher beds (up to half a meter) are also allowed, for example, on soils that can be flooded with melt water. The ideal option is the beds 15-20 cm high, formed from light and sufficiently fertile soil.

Preparing the beds

Areas intended for winter sowing must be prepared in advance. In the center of Russia, soil preparation should begin in September. To begin with, the soil is dug up onto a full bayonet of a shovel, then loosened and leveled with a rake until a homogeneous composition is obtained, without large clods. You can add humus or compost for digging.

If you have not done this before starting to dig the soil, then you can add organic matter before loosening. After the soil is leveled, you should shed the bed well. This will give a signal to the weeds to germinate, and they can be carefully removed by pulling out with a root. Then you will not waste time on this at the beginning of spring and calmly skip one or two weeding.

After everything is ready, your soil is clean, moist and even, you should start sowing. First, form the grooves. They need to be done with a depth of no more than five centimeters, of course, this value depends on the type of seeds of the sown crop.

After the grooves are made, a seed mixture must be prepared. Most often it is the fertile soil of the upper layer or compost well rotted to a homogeneous mass.

Sitting down before the winter

And now we start sowing. We do not soak the seeds (!) - this is important, since now we absolutely do not need their speedy germination. Seeds of better quality should be chosen, without damage or signs of disease. The sowing itself, as already noted, is carried out at different depths, which depends on the type of culture.For example, for carrots and lettuce, the groove depth is 1-1.5 cm, for table beets - 2-2.5 cm, for black onions and dill for greens - 1.5-2 cm, for parsley - 2-2, 5 cm, for spinach 2.5-3.5 cm.

If you are going to plant onion onion bulbs, the diameter of which is up to 1.5 cm, then they should be sealed to a depth of about 4-4.5 cm.

Separately, it should be said about leeks. It is sown in the fall in grooves 9-10 cm deep, but sprinkled only 1.5-2 cm, and then covered with a layer of mulch. Mulch is needed for additional thermal insulation. However, in the spring, with the arrival of heat, it must be removed, this will allow the soil to warm up faster. Then, as the onion plants develop, you just need to add nutrient soil to the groove, leveling it with the soil level on the site.

I would like to draw your attention to one more culture - celery. Its seeds are very small, so you should not cover them with soil too much. In general, it is better not to use the soil for these purposes, but sprinkle the seeds with compost or peat. In warmer regions, the soil is not taken at all, but the seeds are covered with snow. Remember that deeply buried celery seeds are unlikely to sprout at all.

Radish - it is sown both in strict rows in grooves, and is simply scattered over the surface of the loosened soil and a little compost or nutritious soil is thrown on top. Radish can also be sown where you decided to plant potatoes before winter. Such a simple agricultural technique will allow you to first harvest radish, and then early potatoes.

In cool regions with harsh winters, after sowing the beds, you can additionally cover with spruce branches... It will help accumulate more snow in this area and will prevent the soil from freezing to a greater depth. After the snow melts, spruce branches are removed, and as soon as friendly shoots appear, the soil between the rows is loosened.

In the event that the snow has melted, and after that cold or even frosty weather has established, the beds can be covered with an ordinary greenhouse film. By the way, covering the beds with foil or spunbond in the spring allows the seeds to grow more amicably.

Nikolay Khromov,
Researcher, Candidate of Science
GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin Russian Agricultural Academy,
Scientific Secretary of ANIRR

Photo by Olga Rubtsova and E. Valentinov


When to sow and how to do it right

Sowing time is perhaps the most important issue. But no one will tell you the exact date, you will have to choose yourself. Here you need to catch the moment when persistent cold weather is about to come: a thaw after winter sowing is extremely undesirable, since the seeds can germinate and die with the arrival of frost.

You can start sowing at 0 ° C, but if there is a possibility of a rise in temperature, it is better to wait. The main criterion is the freezing topsoil. Even if yesterday it was + 5 ° С, and today it was -5 ° С at once, you can safely sow.

It is also important to arrange the garden correctly. For her, you need a place higher, where, with the arrival of spring, the soil dries out faster and warms up well. Areas where snow does not melt for a long time in spring and water stagnates are not suitable for winter crops.

Please note: a bed for winter crops is prepared in advance. The soil is dug up, fertilizers are applied. Which ones - it's up to you, here the opinions of gardeners differ. Some people prefer to apply compost or humus, others - phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. The main thing is that the soil for podwinter sowing is fertile and light - heavy soils are strongly compacted during the winter.


Garden bed preparation

On the bed, grooves are made with a depth of 3-5 cm, cover it with a covering material so that precipitation does not blur the grooves, and weed seeds do not get into them. Dry soil and mulching material are harvested in advance. Completely dry seeds are sown in grooves (for winter crops, seed consumption is increased by 1.5-2 times!), Sprinkled with dry soil by 1.5-2 cm on top, then with a layer of mulching material 2-3 cm.In spring, mulch will prevent the appearance of a crust on the soil surface and protect the root system from sudden temperature changes.Then the bed is covered with spruce branches or dry leaf litter (lay small branches on top so that it is not blown away by the wind). The thickness of this shelter is 15-20 cm. There is no need to water the crops in winter!


Planting vegetables and herbs before winter in October 2019 according to the lunar sowing calendar

In October, it is high time to carry out podzimny planting of garlic, onions and other vegetable crops. As always, the lunar sowing calendar for October 2019 will come to your aid and tell you the most favorable days for planting.

(What recommendations did the Lunar sowing calendar for gardeners, gardeners, florists give about planting and other work in the garden and vegetable garden for september 2019 of the year You can take a look at this link.)

Moon phases in october 2019
  • The moon grows from October 1 to October 13
  • Full Moon - October 14
  • Moon decreases from 15 to 27 October
  • New Moon - October 28
  • The moon is growing again from October 29 to October 31
Favorable landing days in October 2019

The table shows the most favorable days for sowing seeds.

Culture Favorable days for sowing seeds

  • Cucumbers 1, 2, 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 21
  • Garlic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 30, 31
  • Bow 1, 2, 5, 6, 15, 16, 20, 21, 26
  • Carrots 1, 2, 5, 6, 15, 16, 20, 21, 26
  • Tomatoes 1, 2, 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 21
  • Radish, radish 5, 6, 15, 16, 20, 21, 26
  • Different greens 1, 2, 10, 11, 20, 21
  • Cabbage 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 21

Unfavorable days for planting and sowing seeds

Attention! The table shows the most favorable days for planting and sowing seeds, but this does not mean at all that on other days it is impossible to plant. You should not plant anything only on prohibited days.

Lunar planting calendar for October 2019 for gardeners

The table shows the phases of the moon, its position in the signs of the zodiac and the recommended work for gardeners for each day of the month.

October 1, 2019 Tuesday, October 2, 2019 Wednesday
Growing Moon in Scorpio

Scorpio - fertile zodiac sign (Days of the Leaf)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

  • Planting cauliflower seedlings,
  • Transplanting cauliflower, head lettuce from the garden bed for growing.
  • Planting for forcing greens of onion-batun, chives, onions.

October 3, 2019 Thursday, October 4, 2019 Friday
Growing Moon in Sagittarius

Sagittarius - infertile zodiac sign (Days of the Fetus)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

  • planting winter garlic.

  • Sowing cauliflower, parsley, celery.
  • Planting for forcing greens of onions, tsikorny salad.

October 5, 2019 Saturday October 6, 2019 Sunday
Growing Moon in Capricorn

Capricorn - Zodiac sign of average fertility (Root Days)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

  • winter sowing of parsley, sorrel, planting onions, garlic.

  • sowing spinach, watercress,
  • for distillation - planting parsley, beetroot, Swiss chard.
  • Growing cauliflower in a dark room.

October 7, 2019 Monday, October 8, 2019 Tuesday, October 9, 2019 Wednesday
Growing Moon in Aquarius

Aquarius - barren zodiac sign (Days of the Flower)

Not recommended - sowing, planting and transplanting of most plants, as well as watering and feeding.

October 10, 2019 Thursday, October 11, 2019 Friday
Growing Moon in Pisces

Fish - fertile zodiac sign (Days of the Leaf)

The gardener's calendar recommends:

  • Sowing sorrel.
  • In a dark room, growing cauliflower, forcing cykoric lettuce.

  • sowing mustard, spinach,
  • planting for forcing root parsley.

October 12, 2019 Saturday, October 13, 2019 Sunday
The growing moon in Aries

Aries - infertile zodiac sign (Days of the Fetus)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

In the garden, greenhouse:

  • sowing Chinese cabbage, lettuce, spinach, dill, planting onions and root vegetables for forcing greens.

October 14, 2019 Monday
Full moon
Moon in Aries

The lunar calendar of gardeners, gardeners, flower growers does not recommend working with plants on a full moon

October 15, 2019 Tuesday, October 16, 2019 Wednesday
Waning Moon in Taurus

calf - fertile zodiac sign (Root Days)

The sowing calendar for October 2019 recommends:

  • Forcing parsley, beets, chard.
  • Disembarkation of bows.
  • Sowing mustard, early maturing spinach.

  • Winter crops,
  • Planting garlic, onions.

October 17, 2019 Thursday, October 18, 2019 Friday, October 19, 2019 Saturday
Waning Moon in Gemini

Twins - infertile zodiac sign (Days of the Flower)

Not recommended - picking

October 20, 2019 Sunday, October 21, 2019 Monday
Waning Moon in Cancer

Cancer - fertile zodiac sign (Days of the Leaf)

The gardener's lunar calendar recommends:

  • Sowing winter-hardy beets, carrots, radishes before winter.

October 22, 2019 Tuesday, October 23, 2019 Wednesday
Waning Moon in Leo

a lion - infertile zodiac sign (Days of the Fetus)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

  • sowing lettuce, dill, rhubarb, cilantro, caraway seeds.
  • Planting perennial bows for greenery.

October 24, 2019 Thursday, October 25, 2019 Friday
Waning Moon in Virgo

Virgo - Zodiac sign of average fertility (Root Days)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

  • Plant transplant, picking.

October 26, 2019 Saturday
Waning Moon in Libra

Libra - Zodiac sign of average fertility (Flower Days)

The sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners recommends:

  • Planting root crops for forcing greens.
  • Sowing lettuce, watercress, mustard leaves for vitamin seedlings.

October 27, 2019 Sunday, October 28, 2019 Monday, October 29, 2019 Tuesday
New moon
Moon in Libra

On the new moon, all plants become extremely vulnerable, therefore the Lunar sowing calendar of gardeners and gardeners for October 2019 does not recommend disturbing them during these 3 days.

October 30, 2019 Wednesday, October 31, 2019 Thursday
Growing Moon in Sagittarius

Sagittarius - unproductive zodiac sign (Days of the Fetus)

The gardeners' lunar planting calendar recommends:

  • Planting for forcing greens of onion-batuna, chives, shallots, onions.
  • In a dark room - distillation of cyclic salad.
  • On the windowsill - forcing parsley and celery.

  • Planting winter garlic. ...

Autumn planting in October - what plants can you plant in October?

With the onset of late autumn, all work in the garden seems to end. But, there is an opportunity to extend the season at least a little before parting with their beds until spring. This is a winter sowing of vegetables and greens for an early harvest next spring.

What vegetables can you plant in October?

What to plant in October from vegetables? Below is a list of plants recommended for winter sowing:

  • Carrot. The most popular are high-yielding varieties with an early and medium ripening period: Nantskaya 4, Vitaminnaya 6, NIIOH 336, Shantane-2461, Nesravnaya, Moskovskaya Zimnyaya A-545. Planting takes place in the last days of October.
  • Beet. It is recommended to choose varieties of mid-season, winter-hardy, resistant to the formation of peduncles. For example, "Cold-resistant 19", "Polar flat K-249", "Winter A-474", "Egyptian flat". Sowing is also done at the end of October.
  • Radish. The most popular variety is "Zarya", which ripens well even in low light conditions, and "Heat", which allows you to get a harvest in 3 weeks after the appearance of seedlings.
  • Celery. This is a cold-resistant plant, so the choice of variety does not affect germination.
  • Winter garlic. Shooting varieties: "Gribovsky jubilee", "Otradnensky", "Gribovsky 80" and others. Non-shooting varieties: "Doctor", "Novosibirsk", "Danilovsky local".
  • Onion sets. To obtain a green feather in spring. Sorts: "Arzamasskiy", "Bessonovskiy", "Danilovskiy" and others.
  • Greens. What to plant in October from herbs? Dill, parsley, cilantro, sorrel, rhubarb.

Benefits of winter sowing of vegetables and greens
  • the possibility of obtaining a crop 2-3 weeks earlier than with spring sowing, and covering the crops with a film gives an acceleration of up to 10 days
  • full use by crops of spring moisture from melting snow, i.e. the risk of "dry spring" is eliminated
  • the passage of the seeds of the hardening process under the conditions of natural selection: the weak died, the strong will give strong and healthy shoots
  • obtaining resistant to frost, diseases of seedlings and plants, and the absence of pests at this time will give additional strength for development in the initial stage of development
  • getting a certain amount of free time to use it for other spring work, since part of the work on preparing the beds and sowing has already been done in the fall
  • the opportunity to provide your family with early vitamin vegetables and herbs, as well as useful additional income from their sale
  • the opportunity to occupy the vacated beds for summer planting of vegetables and herbs or for green manure.
Possible risks of winter sowing of vegetables and greens
  • the complexity of determining the timing of sowing: if you do not guess with the timing of sowing, the seeds will hatch in the fall and freeze in the winter cold
  • the danger of early thaws: if the seeds begin to hatch from temporary warming, then the return of severe frosts will also lead to their freezing
  • possible flowering and shooting of some crops: various salads, radishes, carrots, beets and onions.

Important! These risks are not so dangerous and great as to refuse an early vitamin harvest.

Timing of winter sowing of vegetables and greens

Sowing of vegetables and greens in winter can be started only after the onset of a stable, stable cold snap and frost.

  • In many regions, this is late October - early to mid November.
  • To start sowing, the soil should freeze to 2-4 degrees, the air should not be higher than 0 degrees during the day.
  • If there is a possibility of a rise in temperature, then you should not rush with crops, because thaw after sowing is extremely contraindicated.
  • Here the main indicator is the frozen topsoil.

Preparation of beds for winter sowing of vegetables and herbs

The most important thing here is the right choice of a place for crops.

  • It will be correct to choose a sunny, sheltered from cold winds, well warmed up and drying out, not flooded in spring place, on the southern slopes and hillocks.
  • With a low-lying site and surface groundwater, the beds are made raised (15-20 cm high), or high (30-40 cm high).
  • It is advisable to prepare the beds in advance, the best time for this is September.
  • The soil must be dug up and fertilized: basically, it is compost or humus, in some cases - phosphorus - potassium fertilizers.
  • The soil should be light and fertilesince the heavy one manages to thicken strongly during the winter.
  • Next, grooves are made in the garden with a depth of 3-5 cm (depending on what we are going to plant), but the depth of the groove for leeks is as much as 10-12 cm.
  • The grooved beds are covered with foil to keep the soil dry so that autumn rains and weed seeds do not get into the grooves.
  • You also need to take care of the preparation of dry soil and mulch (sand, compost) in advance, put it in a dry place before sowing the seeds.

Seed preparation and subwinter sowing

Seeds do not need to be prepared before sowing:

  • They should lie in the soil dry so that they do not have time to germinate in the fall.

Only dry, non-germinated seeds can successfully overwinter and start growing with the onset of spring heat.

  • So, completely dry seeds are sown in grooves, sprinkled with a previously prepared dry soil with a layer of 1.5-2 cm, on top with an additional mulching layer of 2-3 cm.
  • Mulch is used to prevent crusting on the soil surface and to maintain freezing temperatures in the soil during occasional autumn warming and early spring thaws.
  • And this factor is very important and must be observed, otherwise if the seeds begin to hatch from temporary warming, then the return of severe frosts will lead to their freezing.

Sowing depth of seeds:

  • salads and carrots - 1-1.5 cm
  • beets, dill, parsley, black onion - 1.5-2.5 cm
  • spinach - 2.5-3 cm
  • onion sets (up to 1 cm in diameter) - up to 4 cm
  • leeks - grooves are made up to 10-12 cm, but sprinkle with dry soil only 2 cm and cover with mulching material
  • celery - its seeds are very small, so they should only be tamed with dry soil or mulch
  • radishes are sown randomly or in rows, throwing dry soil on top.

Seed consumption at winter sowing vegetables and greens increases by 30-50%.

  • Seeds should be chosen larger and full-bodied, with good germination.
  • Purchased quality seeds are best suited for winter sowing, and even better if they are pelleted: this is additional protection that reduces the risks mentioned above in this article.

There is no need to water the crops of vegetables and greens in winter!

If you cover the crops with foil in early spring, the seeds will begin to revive much earlier, therefore, the vitamin crop will also reach your table earlier!

Video: Winter sowing. Carrots, radishes, beets, parsley, celery. Flower crops

Winter sowing. Carrots, radishes, beets, parsley, celery. Flower crops


Growing potatoes: cardboard beds and under cardboard

Growing potatoes using cardboard greatly simplifies not only the growing process, but also the process of preparing the soil for planting. You no longer have to dig up the entire area so that it is looser and more fertile (growing under cardboard has a great effect on the soil), break it up into paths and think about how to deal with weed infestation. Also, the use of cardboard in the beds when growing potatoes will help you protect your potatoes from light frost.

And most importantly: for this procedure you only need one thing - a large amount of cardboard. But you can get it in any nearest store, they will gladly give you a bunch of unnecessary cardboard boxes.

Cardboard beds

Autumn preparation. Leave the tops and all sorts of green tails from the previous harvest on the site (this green mass will serve you as an organic fertilizer). Then cover the soil with cardboard on top. It would be best to fix the cardboard or press something to the ground so that it is not carried away by a gust of wind. The tops, which are under the cardboard, will rot, and will also serve as an excellent food for earthworms, which will loosen the soil and make it more fertile. Cardboard will protect the ground from severe freezing, and also prevent weeds from germinating (they will not have enough sunlight and space under the cardboard).

Spring. In the spring, the used cardboard must be removed from the site. The soil under it will be soft and rather loose (and this despite the fact that it has not been digged or loosened).

Planting potatoes. Shovel trenches in the middle of your future beds. Trench proportions: Dig to the depth of the shovel bayonet and the same width as the shovel bayonet. Then take the cardboard that you had on the site for the winter and line it with trenches (do not be alarmed that it is half-decomposed). Put a layer of humus on top of the cardboard, then a layer of grass (for example, green manure), which is not completely rewound. And only after that, planting material can be put into the resulting bed. The potatoes should be arranged in one row, leaving a minimum distance between the tubers. Backfill the trench, creating earthen ridges above the bed. Such high beds will protect potatoes well from repeated frost, so they are usually used when planting early potato varieties and if potatoes are grown in rather cold climates. Make beds 60-70 cm apart. In this case, the cardboard will again prevent weeds from sprouting, and the rest of the filling of the beds will serve as a good fertilizer. As you already understood, the sprouting of potatoes under the cardboard is organized like warm beds. You can also cover the places that you have marked for the paths with cardboard.

Care. Weeds in areas covered with cardboard will not grow.If one or two weeds come out, you will immediately notice them and can easily remove them. Water the beds as needed. For example, in dry weather from morning to evening.

Harvesting. It is easier to dig out potatoes that grew in "cardboard" beds than with conventional cultivation, since the cardboard prevents the excessive deepening of the roots.

Beds under cardboard

Landing. Cover the ground with cardboard in the spring before planting. The most important thing is that the land is completely covered along the width and length of the bed. The rest of the site can be covered at will. Punch X-shaped holes in the cardboard with a knife. Make them about 30 cm apart. Under each hole in the cardboard make holes about 15 cm in the ground. Place a potato in each hole, sprinkle the holes with earth.

Care. As soon as weeds appear in the hole in the cardboard, remove them immediately. Potatoes should be watered exclusively during dry times. Watering is necessary only under each potato bush.

Pros. Cardboard acts as a mulch. It prevents weeds from germinating and also prevents moisture from evaporating too quickly.

Harvest. It does not take much effort to dig up the roots of potatoes planted in this way, since the potatoes were not planted very deeply.


What then to plant in the beds table

Crop rotation is one of the most important agrotechnical rules, which is an indispensable condition for a good harvest. The alternation of crops in the garden should be carried out taking into account the predecessor, the condition of the soil (acidity, level of fertility, moisture capacity, etc.) and the phytosanitary situation (whether outbreaks of fungal diseases or mass distribution of pests were observed). To improve the health and condition of the soil, it is recommended to include green manures in the crop rotation.

Competent crop rotation significantly reduces the risk of damage to plants by various diseases, the process of accumulation of pests in the soil, and in addition increases soil fertility and provides a more complete use of nutrients in the soil by plants.

When vegetables are planted in the same places in a row for several years, soil infections accumulate in the soils with a gradual depletion of the soil.

The task of changing planting sites is for the previous crops to prepare the land for the next. This takes into account the economic and economic components. For example, it is rational, after early vegetables that vacate the site at the end of summer, to plant winter garlic or rye, like green manure. Conversely, it is physically impossible to carry out early spring sowing on the garden bed after late harvest crops.

It is also important to take into account the peculiarities of soil cultivation for each crop (in particular, the depth of digging) and the structure of the root system. Garden crops with a deeply penetrating tap root system are planted after crops with superficial fibrous roots.


Terms of repeated sowing of vegetable crops

In July sowing of early ripening green plants is possible: watercress, onions on the greens, radish, lettuce, dill, spinach, cabbage or romaine lettuce... After harvesting green vegetables in July, they sow peas and beans... Also sown in July legumes in the garden, in order to mow them at the end of summer and use them as siderates. In place of the chosen kohlrabi and summer radish sow dill.

For a continuous supply of greenery in the vacated area after onions continue to sow in August mustard, Beijing cabbage, watercress, dill, spinach.

In September before frosts, winter crops of green plants are made (spinach, katrana, cucumber herb) and winter crops for greens in early spring. To do this, at the beginning of October they plant bulb onionsso that it takes root in the fall, winter varieties of garlic, sorrel, tarragon and etc.plants by dividing the bushes of old plants, and spinach sowing seeds in the ground.

In November do winter crops radish, Peking cabbage, carrots, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, dill, spinach, lettuceas well as landing tarragon, rhubarb, sorrel, marjoram, peppermint, horseradish and other perennial plants by dividing the bushes.


Favorable and unfavorable landing days in March 2021

The new garden season will begin soon and we all want to grow a rich harvest of vegetables and fruits this summer. Seeds, fertilizers and all kinds of means for combating pests and plant diseases have already been purchased. Now it remains to find out which days in March are the most favorable for sowing seeds for seedlings. For this, the Lunar sowing calendar of gardeners, gardeners and flower growers for March 2021 was created, which provides all the necessary recommendations.

(What recommendations did the Lunar sowing calendar for gardeners, gardeners, florists give about planting and other work in the garden and vegetable garden for February 2021 of the year You can take a look at this link.)

Moon phases and favorable days in March 2021

Moon phases in March 2021

  • Moon decreases from March 1 to March 12
  • New Moon March 13
  • The moon grows from March 14 to March 27
  • Full Moon March 28

Favorable landing days in March 2021

The table shows the most favorable days for sowing seeds in March for seedlings:

Crop Seed-friendly days in March

  • Cucumbers 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 30, 31
  • Eggplant, pepper 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 30, 31
  • Garlic 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 17, 18, 30, 31
  • Tomatoes 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 30, 31
  • Root vegetables 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 17, 18, 29, 30, 31
  • Different greens 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 30, 31
  • Cabbage 1, 2, 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 29, 30, 31

Auspicious days for sowing and planting flowers in March
Annual flowers 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 26, 27, 30, 31
Biennial and perennial flowers1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 29, 30, 31
Bulbous and tuberous flowers1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 29, 30, 31
Unfavorable days for planting in March
Auspicious days in March 2021 for planting seedlings, vaccinations
culturefavorable days for planting seedlingsgraft
fruit trees29, 30, 313, 4, 7, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 30, 31
gooseberries, currants29, 30, 31
raspberries, blackberries
Strawberry wild-strawberry

Attention! The table shows the most favorable days for planting and sowing seeds, but this does not mean at all that on other days it is impossible to plant. You should not plant anything only on prohibited days.

Lunar sowing calendar for the month of March 2021 of the gardener, gardener, florist (table)

The table shows the phases of the moon, its position in the signs of the zodiac and recommended work for gardeners, gardeners, florists for each day of the month.

The phases of the moon, its position in the signs of the zodiac

And recommended works

March 1, 2
Monday Tuesday

Waning Moon in Libra

Libra - Zodiac sign of average fertility

  • In the greenhouse - sowing for seedlings of white cabbage, cauliflower for open ground. Sowing root crops: early radish, beets, carrots, parsnips, aromatic herbs, asparagus, leeks - for the greenhouse and windowsill. Planting sweet pepper seedlings (with 5-7 leaves). Seedling picking. Watering is moderate.
  • In the garden—Rejuvenating pruning of trees and shrubs. Get early spring vaccinations.
  • In the southern regions, it is possible to plant early varieties of potatoes and fast-growing green crops in open ground.
  • We water all plants in greenhouses, on the windowsill and in the greenhouse.

March 3, 4
Wednesday Thursday

Waning Moon in Scorpio

Scorpio - fertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - favorable days for sowing low-growing tomatoes, peppers, early cabbage (white and cauliflower), root celery, broccoli, bell peppers, eggplant, late tomatoes for seedlings. Picking seedlings of late tomatoes, celery root and petiole, white cabbage. Sowing radishes, carrots, parsnips, parsley and celery root. Layout of potato tubers for germination. Organic feeding, weeding.
  • Not recommended - watering, loosening the earth - the roots are very sensitive to wounds.
  • In the garden - grafting and re-grafting, application of organic fertilizers, cuttings.
  • Sowing green crops in closed ground: onions on a feather, dill, parsley, celery. Landing on high ridges.
  • Verification of own planting material, rejection, control of storage periods, purchase of missing seeds.

5, 6 March
Friday Saturday

Waning Moon in Sagittarius

Sagittarius - Zodiac sign of average fertility

  • In the greenhouse - forcing greens of onions, weeds, diseases, pests. Sowing radishes, onions for turnips, root crops. For seedlings - sowing tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, leeks, root parsley, dill.
  • Not recommended - transplant plants, germinate seeds, huddle, dive, water.
  • You can apply organic fertilizers, loosen dry soil. Plants react painfully to any mechanical damage.
  • In the garden - spraying them against pests and diseases (at plus 4-5 degrees).
  • Planting in indoor and outdoor ground of onions, radishes, garlic, horseradish will be relevant today. Early spring vaccinations.
  • Preparing soil for re-planting in the greenhouse. Favorable time for planting tuberous crops.

7, 8 March
Sunday Monday

Waning Moon in Capricorn

Capricorn - Zodiac sign of average fertility

  • Congratulations on the holiday to our beloved women!
  • We work with seeds: stratification, germination testing.
  • In the greenhouse - favorable days for sowing seedlings - early white cabbage, sweet pepper, eggplant, late low-growing tomatoes. Sowing radish, celery root and petiole, broccoli. An excellent time for picking vegetable seedlings. Sowing onions on turnips, root parsley, root crops. Watering, loosening, organic feeding of root crops, weeding. Laying out potatoes for germination.
  • In the garden - application of organic fertilizers, disease and pest control, formative pruning, grafting.
  • Great landing period! You can sow and plant in the greenhouse and open ground the seeds of zucchini, pumpkin, squash.

9, 10, 11 March
Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Waning Moon in Aquarius

Aquarius - infertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - for sowing, planting, transplanting unfavorable days. Better these days to do weeding, thinning seedlings, loosening the soil, fighting pests and diseases.
  • In the garden - sanitary pruning of trees and shrubs, cutting out overgrowth. Pouring hot water over currants and gooseberries. Removing shelters, loosening trees, loosening dry land, cutting out overgrowth.
  • Unfavorable day for planting, replanting and sowing. Let's take up the fight against ground and underground pests.
  • Repair and mending inventory, tools, devices for summer cottage work. Checking the state of vegetable stores.
  • An excellent time for work related to trauma to roots and branches - pruning, grafting, transplanting into open ground.

12, 13, 14 March
Friday Saturday Sunday

NEW MOON

On the new moon, all plants are extremely vulnerable, therefore, according to the lunar sowing calendar, it is not recommended to work with them on these days.

  • It is advisable not to transplant flower crops and not to plant rare, new varieties of vegetable plants.
  • Unfavorable period for working with plants and soil. Relax, be engaged in creativity, cooking, handicrafts.
  • The optimal period for pruning trees, early spring grafting, cutting down old stumps and removing dead bushes.
March 15, 16
Monday Tuesday

The growing moon in Aries

Aries - infertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - sowing seedlings of tomatoes, sweet peppers, hot peppers. Sowing parsley, spinach, lettuce, radish, celery, dill, Peking cabbage, cauliflower in a greenhouse. Thinning of seedlings, loosening of the earth. On the growing moon under the sign of Aries, pest and disease control gives good results.
  • Not recommended germinate seeds, water, replant plants, dive.
  • In the garden - cutting dry branches.
  • It is not recommended to replant plants, as it is better not to disturb the roots on this day. Landing planning.
  • Sowing and planting vegetable crops of early and middle ripening periods. Breakdown of high ridges, sowing under film.

March 17, 18
Wednesday Thursday

The growing moon in Corpuscle

calf - fertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - favorable time for sowing seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, early and late white cabbage, cauliflower. Forcing onions, parsley, celery, sorrel. The picking of seedlings, pinching, watering, and mineral feeding are going well. Laying out potatoes for germination.
  • In the garden - whitewashing of trunks, preparation of cuttings.
  • In open and closed ground we sow greens and leafy vegetables of a quick ripening period. Planning and laying out lawns.
  • A good day for sowing seedlings of large-fruited varieties of tomatoes and sweet peppers. Planting sorrel, asparagus, dill.

19, 20, 21 March
Friday Saturday Sunday

The growing moon in Gemini

Twins - infertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - sowing leeks, Chinese cabbage, radishes, watercress, dill. Pest and disease control, weeding, loosening.
  • Not recommended - germinate seeds by sowing seeds for seedlings.
  • In the garden - pouring boiling water over berry bushes of currants, gooseberries, sanitary pruning
  • Planting, transplanting, caring for climbing vegetables and flowers, depending on the region and weather.
  • Planting in open ground under a film of fast-growing plants: radish, early varieties of cabbage, green crops.
  • An excellent time for rooting cuttings, breaking out flower beds, sowing and planting cold-resistant flowers and vegetables.
March 22, 23
Monday Tuesday

The growing moon in Cancer

Cancer - the most fertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - favorable days for sowing early and late white cabbage, cauliflower, Savoy, broccoli, kohlrabi, leek, root celery for seedlings. Sowing early ripening hybrids of cucumbers for the greenhouse. It is recommended to pick seedlings of pepper, eggplant, tomatoes. Planting cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse. Forcing greens of onions, parsley, sorrel, celery, beets, Swiss chard. Watering, mineral dressing. Laying out potatoes for germination.
  • In the garden - grafting in split, pruning trees and shrubs in frost-free weather.
  • We work with the soil: digging, marking areas for planting. Don't forget about plant compatibility and crop rotation.
  • Planting annuals. Today is a good day to plant most vegetable crops outdoors and indoors.

March 24, 25
Wednesday Thursday

The growing moon in Leo

a lion - infertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - sowing of asparagus and bush beans, basil, fennel, cucumbers, lettuce, scorzonera. Loosening of dry soil, weeding, preparation of beds.
  • Not recommended water, feed plants, germinate seeds, dive seedlings, pinch, transplant.
  • Do not do it pruning trees: wounds on plants do not heal for a long time.
  • We deal with seeds: culling, sorting, stratification, soaking. Pay attention to the expiration dates of the seeds.
  • Mulching of early plantings and crops, pest control in the soil, site cleaning. Checking tree boles.

March 26, 27
Friday Saturday

The growing moon in Virgo

Virgo - Zodiac sign of average fertility (Root Days)

  • In the greenhouse - you can sow root crops for seeds, green (grow quickly): dill, ‘fennel, artichoke, valerian, except for salad. You can thin out seedlings, fight weeds, pests and diseases, cultivate the land, replant plants. Phosphorus feeding is well absorbed. The aerial part of the plants is vulnerable — leave them alone.
  • In the garden - pruning is not recommended, the wounds inflicted will heal for a long time.
  • It's time to buy fertilizers, seeds of flowers and vegetables, complex additives for feeding indoor and potted flowers.
  • Layout of flower beds, flower beds, rockeries, alpine hills. Preparation of stones and additional design elements.
28 march
Sunday

FULL MOON

According to the lunar sowing calendar of gardeners and gardeners for March 2021, it is not recommended to work with plants on a full moon.

  • A barren day, it is not recommended to disturb the soil and plants. We are cleaning the site and removing old stumps.
March 29
Monday

Waning Moon in Libra

Libra - Zodiac sign of average fertility

  • In the greenhouse - sowing for seedlings of white cabbage, cauliflower for open ground. Sowing root crops: early radish, beets, carrots, parsnips, aromatic herbs, asparagus, leeks - for the greenhouse and windowsill. Planting sweet pepper seedlings (with 5-7 leaves). Seedling picking. Watering is moderate.
  • In the garden—Rejuvenating pruning of trees and shrubs. Sanitary and formative pruning in the garden.
  • Today it is possible to sow and plant all types of early and mid-early vegetables.

March 30, 31
Tuesday Wednesday

Waning Moon in Scorpio

Scorpio - fertile zodiac sign

  • In the greenhouse - favorable days for sowing low-growing tomatoes, peppers, early cabbage (white and cauliflower), root celery, broccoli, bell peppers, eggplant, late tomatoes for seedlings. Picking seedlings of late tomatoes, celery root and petiole, white cabbage. Sowing radishes, carrots, parsnips, parsley and celery root. Layout of potato tubers for germination. Organic feeding, weeding.
  • Not recommended - watering, loosening the earth - the roots are very sensitive to wounds.
  • In the garden - grafting and re-grafting, application of organic fertilizers, cuttings. Planting and transplanting berry bushes, fruit trees. Spring vaccinations. Processing of tree trunks.
  • Auspicious day for construction work at the summer cottage, the construction of gazebos, benches, recreation areas.

Gardening and gardening in March

This article describes in detail the work that summer residents expect in March. For the convenience of readers, we will deal with the concerns of gardeners, gardeners and florists separately.

  1. Gardeners' work in March
  2. Gardeners' work in March
  3. Florists work in March.

The first March visit to the dacha begins, of course, with a close inspection of the garden: how the trees and shrubs wintered.

  • To control, cut off a few branches (if you have not done this before), keep them in the cold for two days. Then put it in a container of water and place it in a warm room.
  • Watch the buds open. If you cut a kidney lengthwise and notice a light green tissue, then everything is fine.

What works are carried out in the garden in March

A cut of an old branch will tell you the degree of wood freezing: the darker, the more the tree has suffered.

Do a March pruning
  • Get ready to prune trees. Sharpen secateurs, knives, hacksaws, check the ladder, stock up on garden pitch. Start pruning trees when the temperature is at least 5 degrees.
  • Cover the slices with a thin, even layer of var. Don't leave stumps. Do not make large wounds on the same level. Cut large branches piece by piece.
  • If a hollow has formed on the trunk, clean it from dust, clean it with a chisel, fill it with crushed brick and fill it with cement mortar.
  • Wounds on the trunk and skeletal branches (damage from frost, black cancer, etc.) clean with a knife to healthy tissue, disinfect with a solution of copper sulfate (30 g per 1 liter of water), cover with garden varnish or ranet paste, which includes heteroauxin - wound healing agent.
  • If the ends of the branches are frozen, cut them back to healthy wood. Cut out heavily frozen branches to an annular bead at the base.
  • With severe freezing, do not rush to pruning, wait until the buds fully open and the shoots begin to grow. Sometimes this work is postponed to the beginning of next summer.
  • Perform sanitary pruning: remove broken, dry, diseased branches to healthy wood. Cover the wounds with garden varnish or ranet paste. Wounds less than 2 cm in diameter can be left without coating.

Prune young, strong trees systematically: lower the crown, thin it out, remove any loose branches.

Treat the bark of trees
  • If the bark of young trees (up to 5 years old) is damaged by rodents, treat them. Cover large wounds with garden varnish without cleaning the edges.
  • Later in April, you can determine if the cambium (the greenish layer between bark and wood) is still intact by making a small T-shaped cut in the damaged area. If the rest of the bark easily falls off the wood, everything is in order, the wound will heal. Wrap it with plastic on top, but make sure that it does not cut into the bark.
  • Large wounds with dead cambium or circular wounds are very dangerous for the tree. It can be saved only by grafting with a bridge, when active sap flow begins. But in March, cut up healthy, winter-hardy annual branches and store them cold until grafting.

Small, superficial lesions of the cortex can be left untreated: they will heal due to the preserved cambium.

Conduct shrub propagation work
  • You can cut the currant cuttings, place them in a vessel with water (the tap must be allowed to settle). When roots form, plant the cuttings in a container of fertile soil. When the ground in the garden warms up, transplant them to a permanent place. A good bush will grow by autumn.
  • Bring the seeds of berries, laid for stratification, into a cool room (temperature plus 10 degrees). After 3-4 weeks, put them in a school in the garden.
  • In the shed, in the garden house, lay out poisoned mouse baits. They can be bought at the store or made yourself from one part cement, one part sugar and two parts flour. Pour the mixture into saucers, add a few drops of unrefined (aromatic) sunflower oil.

Clean and renovate old bird houses and hang new ones by the arrival of the feathered defenders of the garden.

March treatment of the garden from pests
  • At the end of the month, at an average daily temperature of at least plus 5 degrees, early spring spraying of trees and berry bushes with N30 (respectively 500 and 200 g per 10 liters of water) can be carried out to destroy the wintering stages of pests.
  • This drug is used every 2-3 years. At intervals, you can spray the plants with iron sulfate (500 g), or urea (500 g), or the first spraying can be carried out later, in the "green cone" phase.
  • When trees freeze, the bark is severely affected cytosporosis: thin branches dry out, wounds or red-brown dents are formed on the boles. The bark is crushed, black bumps appear on it (with spores inside). When warm, spores scatter and infect weakened trees.
  • Cut and clean thin twigs, clean the wounds, disinfect, cover with garden varnish or a mixture of clay and mullein (1: 1) and bandage with a soft cloth.
Don't forget about bushes
  • At the end of March, before the buds swell on currants and gooseberries rake and destroy fallen leaves, cut out dry branches and shoots damaged by diseases and pests, destroy them. Remove swollen buds on currants infested with mites. If there are many such buds, remove the branches completely.
  • Before the strawberry leaves grow back after the snow melts, clean the plantation from dry leaves and other plant residues, burn them. To destroy fungal infection (powdery mildew, gray rot, etc.) in warm weather (not lower than plus 5 degrees), spray the area with N30 (200 g per 10 l of water) or Bordeaux mixture (300 g of copper sulfate + 400 g of quicklime per 10 liters of water).

What work do gardeners do in March

Even forecasters cannot predict with a guarantee whether the spring will be early or the belated heat will bring. But it is necessary to prepare for the spring in March without delay. Those who are already leaving for the country, at positive temperatures, can disinfect glass greenhouses with a 10% solution of caustic soda.

There are already things to do in the beds

In March, it is already possible to cover the beds with winter crops, the beds on which we are going to sow early vegetables

  • salad
  • spinach
  • radish
  • Chinese cabbage
  • carrot
  • dill, etc.

If possible, you can prepare a warmer area for planting potatoes in the same way. You can also cover the beds with perennial onions, asparagus, rhubarb, so that the soil warms up faster, vegetables give an earlier harvest of the first vitamins.

Make a seedling greenhouse
  • In March, many summer residents arrange greenhouses on solar heating for growing seedlings, so that they fiddle with it less on the windowsills. In a sunny place, we make a wooden box, in which the northern wall is 15 cm higher than the southern one, cover the top with glass or tighten it with film.
  • The slope is needed for better solar heating of the greenhouse and for water drainage. To build a greenhouse, you can use an old window frame by making a wooden frame to fit it. On the lower lintel of the frame, several grooves are made to a depth of glass - for water drainage.
  • If the spring is early, you can sow tomatoes with dry seeds in such a greenhouse already in late March - early April. At first, such a greenhouse is additionally covered with a second layer of film or nonwoven material. In case of a sharp cold snap, you need to have a warm shelter in stock (an old blanket, for example).
The main work is done on the windowsill

And yet, in March, the main garden work is focused on the windowsill. The yield of the beds largely depends on what our seedlings will be at the time of planting in open ground.

Prepare seedling soil in advance

For sowing seedlings, you can use soil mixtures prepared with your own hands from turf, leaf, humus soil, peat, sand. If you are used to growing seedlings on purchased soil, there is nothing wrong with that either. But it is better to buy soils already tested in previous years.

Take care of the seedling boxes
  • It is also difficult to advise which seedling containers to use. These can be specially knocked together wooden boxes (in which the roots of seedlings do not overheat and do not cool down unnecessarily), plastic containers, cassette blocks.
  • Some summer residents have got used to sowing vegetables in peat tablets, others use plastic cups. The choice depends on the desire (or unwillingness) to engage in picking later, on the "usable area" of the window sills and the number of grown seedlings.
  • The more seedlings are planned to grow and the fewer well-lit windowsills in the apartment, the more compactly you will have to place the seedling containers.
  • If there is not enough space for the first time, it is better to grow seedlings in boxes or small cassettes. Later, part of the seedlings (for example, cabbage) can be transported to the dacha: cut into the soil of the greenhouse or into cups.
Preparation for sowing seeds

If we are going to grow vegetables in open beds, we sow eggplants, peppers for seedlings in the middle, and tomatoes at the end of March. For unheated greenhouses we start work two weeks earlier.

  • All containers that were used last year are washed with soap. Wooden boxes, ceramic pots can be poured over with boiling water and then dried. Pour a drainage layer (1-2 cm) at the bottom of the seedling containers.
  • In seedling boxes, it can be just a layer of sand, and in cups - expanded clay, shards of pots, pieces of coal... Then add the potting soil. To make it settle down better (without voids), shake the containers, and then compact the soil along the walls and corners of the containers with our hands.
  • After compaction and watering, the soil surface should be 1.5 cm below the edge of the container. We install seedling containers near radiators or on a sunny windowsill in order to sow seeds in warm soil.

Very helpful articles:

We start sowing
  • The planting depth of the seeds depends on their size. The larger the seeds, the deeper they are embedded and vice versa. Pepper seeds are covered by 1.5 cm, and tomato and eggplant seeds - by 1 cm.
  • Sow seeds into moist soil, after sowing, the soil surface is slightly compacted, covered with glass or film and kept in a warm place until shoots appear: 23-25 ​​degrees - for tomatoes, 26-28 - for peppers and eggplants.

Recommended articles:

Seedling care in March

As soon as the loops of the first shoots appear, the seedling containers are transferred to the brightest place so that the seedlings do not stretch out, and for 4-7 days reduce the temperature to 12-15 degrees for tomatoes and up to 18 degrees for peppers and eggplants.

  • This can be done by opening the window, but so that the cold air does not fall directly on the plants. Especially cold drafts are dangerous for eggplants.
  • A cool microclimate is essential for a good root system. Later, the temperature in the range of 20-25 degrees is considered optimal for seedlings of nightshade crops.
  • There is no way to create the microclimate it needs on the windowsill for each culture. The main thing is that the seedlings are well lit, not watered unnecessarily, but also not to allow the soil to dry out. The night temperature for seedlings should be several degrees lower than the daytime.
  • If there are no radiators under the windowsill on which the seedlings grow, then without our help it will be colder at the window at night than during the day. But more often the radiators are located just under the windows. Then it is better to hang the batteries tightly at night or rearrange the seedling boxes on the floor.
  • At the stage of three to four true leaves, seedlings of nightshade crops, which are grown without picking, are fed (1 g of urea and potassium sulfate, 10 g of superphosphate per liter of water).
  • Can be used for feeding and complex fertilizers with a predominance of phosphorus. We begin to feed the rest of the seedlings no earlier than two weeks after the pick..

Read more:

Expanding the assortment of greens

In early March, it is not too late to sow early varieties of cabbage (white cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Beijing, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi), root and petiole celery, black onions, potato seeds (to get seed tubers for the next season).

To speed up the development of cabbage seedlings, we will grow it without picking:

  1. Fill the cups with a mixture of turf, humus earth and sand, pour and sow seeds to a depth of 1 cm.
  2. Place the cups in a tray, cover with foil and put them in a warm place (18-20 degrees) until shoots appear.
  3. The first shoots are a signal for us: the cups need to find a cool (8-10 degrees) place.
  4. After a week, we create a warmer (but not hot!) Microclimate for the seedlings: during the day about 15 degrees, at night, naturally, five degrees lower.
  5. To protect the seedlings from the black leg, pour the soil with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
  6. 45 days after sowing (mid-April), the seedlings will be ready for planting in the beds.

We dive the seedlings sown in February
  • Cabbage seedlings of the February sowing dive in March in separate cups at the stage of one true leaflet, deepening when planting to the cotyledonous leaves.
  • At the stage of one or two true leaves, we dissect the root and petiolate celery sown in February. It is better to provide each plant with a separate living space - a small glass or cassette.

If there is no time to pick, be sure to thin out the seedlings:

  • Already in the seedling period, the plants are "programmed" for the harvest and the constrained conditions do not stimulate them for high productivity.
  • In addition, thickened plants very often die from fungal diseases.

We advise you to familiarize yourself with this topic:

It will not be superfluous to sow parsley in March

Find some cups or cassettes to sow parsley seeds.

  • In March it is not yet clear how the parsley survived the winter cold.
  • In addition, the parsley could get wet, it could be "sharpened" by mice. And without parsley, it was somehow sad in the spring at the dacha.
  • Having sown parsley for seedlings in March, at the end of April we can plant it after hardening in open ground and soon we will pick off green leaves.

In the same way and for the same purpose, you can grow some seedlings of leaf celery. Root and petiole, the seedlings of which are already turning green on the windowsill, will be presented with a harvest only in late autumn, and the leafy one will add taste and aroma to country dishes all summer.

What other greens are sown in March

In March, you can sow on seedlings and other greens:

  • marjoram,
  • oregano,
  • tarragon,
  • thyme,
  • lemon balm,
  • peppermint.

Let's not rush to sow our beloved basil:

  • during the seedling period, it often dies from fungal diseases or stretches out.
  • We will sow it in a bowl in April or immediately in the garden, but already in May.

Seedling salad will also delight with early greens:

  • In cassettes and cups on the windowsill, it looks somewhat "disheveled", but when planted in a garden bed, it quickly transforms.
  • By May, when the lettuce sown directly into the garden is still envied, the seedlings can already be cut off.
  • It is both juicy and tasty, because it grows in cool weather.

What to do if the seedlings start to stretch?

Let's start with an analysis of our farming techniques and conditions in the room.

Plants grow "ankle-footed" when there is a lack of light and excess heat:

  1. We will try to reduce the temperature by more frequent airings, cover the heating batteries.
  2. It is not necessary to install phytolamps to increase the light intensity. It is often enough to wash the window panes, install reflective screens at the back of the seedling boxes (glue or wrap the cardboard with foil), open up the seedlings more spaciously, or simply arrange the cups with seedlings.
  3. And we will also water the seedlings more moderately: only after the topsoil has dried.

Additional material:

After March 10, we begin to germinate potato seed tubers for April planting
  • We lay out carefully selected (without any spots) tubers in a cool, light room: in such a microclimate, the eyes grow strong, do not stretch. The tubers themselves are healed in the light, acquiring resistance to disease.
  • Regularly checking potatoes, we reject tubers with thin sprouts: it is highly likely that they are infected with viruses.

Florist works in March

The beginning of the calendar spring does not always bring the long-awaited warmth, but most flower growers meet the first morning of March in high spirits: "Wait!"

What works await florists in March

And even though spring is only in our thoughts, we hurry to the store in a different mood to choose seeds and bulbs. More enthusiastically, we encourage the elongated February flower seedlings: be patient, they say, a little more, soon you will show off in flower beds.

In March, I can't wait to visit the garden to make sure that all the plants have successfully overwintered. I would like to quickly get rid of the winter disorder in flower beds, remove shelter from perennials, loosen the soil, feed the plants.

I miss my hands on the ground, eyes for colors, I want to work. And in order for the garden to meet the spring cozy, tidy, you will have to work hard.

It's worth pruning in March
  • But the desire to do everything as quickly as possible should be reasonable. You should not cut off the stems of herbaceous perennials remaining from autumn, crawling on thawed soggy soil: we will do more harm to the garden than good.
  • At the beginning of March, there will still be days with subzero temperatures when you can start trimming ornamental shrubs: cut dry, broken, growing inward crowns and thickening shoots.
  • Giving shape to shrubs, do not forget about what year they bloom on the shoots. Shrubs that bloom on last year's shoots, such as forsythia, cannot be shortened: you can cut off the entire flowering part. But we will not stand on ceremony with hedges: the stronger the pruning, the more magnificent, more voluminous the "green fence" will be in the spring.
Leaves must also be rowed wisely
  • We do not try to shovel leaves, mulch warming the soil all over the garden at once. First of all, we will free the root zone of coniferous trees so that the soil under the crowns warms up faster and the roots begin to work.
  • Frozen soil can even be spilled with warm water. "Cold" in the root zone threatens with spring burns of needles. Having warmed up in the sun, the conifers come to life, but, not receiving nutrition, water from non-working cold roots, they die.
  • In March, the leaves can also be raked off from the area where tulips, daffodils, hyacinths are planted. The faster the soil warms up, the earlier the bulbous flowers will bloom. The cool weather of mid-spring is favorable for their flowering.

When the soil warms up, the mulching material can be returned to the flower beds, protecting the bulbs and roots from overheating.

  • We do not keep roses under cover for a long time: short-term moderate March frosts are not as terrible for them as excessive humidity under cover. Gradually removing the "winter clothes" from the bushes, we will protect the roses from the sun with a non-woven material.
First crops in March

As soon as the soil allows, start sowing cold-resistant annuals:

  • annual asters,
  • Snapdragon,
  • eschsholzia,
  • calendula,
  • cornflowers.

These flowers do best when sown in early spring.

  • And there is nothing strange in this, because they are sown even before winter.
  • After sowing, it is advisable to cover the flower garden with a film or non-woven material, not so much to increase the temperature in the seeding zone, but to maintain the moisture necessary for their germination.
  • It is especially important to cover crops on sandy soils, which quickly lose moisture even in early spring.
  • For the same reason, seeds are planted deeper on light soils than on heavy ones.

We will sow more heat-loving annuals (zinnias, balsam, morning glory, etc.) in April-May.

An early, March sowing of annuals in the garden will save us from the abundance of seedlings of annuals on the windowsill. Although we will not give up completely from growing our favorite flowers in the room.

  • tagetes
  • Snapdragon
  • lobelia
  • Iberis

starting their life on the windowsill, they will bloom earlier than their soil relatives, the peak of their decorative effect will come later.

In March we sow annuals and on the windowsill

We will sow annuals at home, if only because the March sun makes it possible to do without additional illumination when growing seedlings, which greatly facilitates our work.

We will not add humus to the soil mixture so as not to provoke the development of a black leg on the seedlings. And we will rarely sow for the same reason.

The seeding depth of seeds depends on their size: the larger the seeds, the deeper the sowing:

  • Small seeds of ageratum, snapdragon, lobelia, petunia, fragrant tobacco are simply scattered over the wet soil surface or lightly sprinkled with calcined sand, covered with foil.
  • The seeds of sweet peas, nasturtium, so that they germinate faster, are soaked in water (+25 +30 degrees) for a day, and then kept in a damp cloth until pecking.
  • Ageratum, lobelia, godetia, sweet peas, snapdragons, annual aster grow better in a cool place (12-15 degrees). Accordingly, the seedlings of these plants will feel better in a cool microclimate.

For seed germination of most annuals, the optimum temperature is 18-20 degrees.

When growing seedlings, we take into account other features of plants:

  • Sown dahlias, sweet peas, lobelia do not like dry soil and air. We not only water them regularly, preventing the soil from drying out, but also spray them.
  • Tagetes, ageratum, annual asters, carnations, petunias, phloxes, chrysanthemums are watered only after the soil surface has dried.

How to care for flower seedlings

  • We feed the flower seedlings with complex mineral fertilizers dissolved in water (1-2 g per liter of water).
  • After feeding, be sure to water the plants, wash their leaves to wash off the fertilizers and avoid burns.

  • We plant dense shoots of ornamental plants already at the stage of one true leaf. If this is not done, the plants will stretch out in search of light; poor ventilation can cause the development of fungal diseases.
  • Rare seedlings can be cut at the stage of 2-3 true leaves. But sweet peas, matthiola, nasturtium, so as not to disturb the transplant (they do not like it), we will immediately sow it into separate cups, pots, cassettes.
  • Seedlings sown with our own seeds (we always collect a lot of them) can simply be thinned by increasing the distance between plants to 4-5 cm. Later, you can thin out again by removing weak plants.

Experiments:

  • Experimental lovers can try the cooling method.
  • Seedlings of zinnia, petunia, tagetes in the stage of 2-4 true leaves are kept for two weeks at low above-zero temperatures (take out to the loggia) so that they bloom faster.

We are updating the assortment:

  • So that the garden in the coming season does not look like last year's, you can update the assortment of annuals by buying the seeds of new annuals for us in the store.
  • And it doesn't have to be new plant species.
  • It is enough to expand the range of flowers that we have learned to grow.
  • Tagetes rejected to add thin-leaved, to tall varieties of snapdragon add more miniature ones, which can create a picturesque border blooming until late autumn in summer.
  • Instead of traditional zinnias, sow Japanese ones: they look sleeker, more accurate and bloom more abundantly than the more familiar “majors”.
We do not forget about pets when working in the garden

When working with flower beds in the garden, let's not forget about indoor flowers:

  • During the winter, many of them are stretched out, do not look as lush and neat as in summer.
  • Cut the long branches, pinch the growth points of the rest to cause the growth of lateral shoots.
  • Plants that "grew out of their pots" will definitely be transplanted.

It's time to transplant flowers in March

The fact that the flower needs to be urgently transplanted is suggested by the roots that appear in the drainage holes, the rapidly drying soil lump (you have to water almost every day), the general condition of the plants (yellowing and falling leaves, drying out shoots, etc.).

  • After shaking out the root ball from the pot, cut off the dead roots, gently loosen the ball with a stick. If the roots, crown of the transplanted flower are not strongly cut off, then the new pot for it should be 2-4 cm wider than the previous one.
  • For a heavily pruned plant, do not increase the volume of the pot. In this way, highly growing plants can be kept within "certain limits".

Each pot must have drainage. In a small container, it is enough to close the drainage hole with a shard, but the larger the pot, the more thorough the drainage layer: a layer of clay shards or expanded clay, coarse sand, pieces of charcoal.

If the flower's roots are healthy and we want it to continue to grow actively, we can do with transshipment. Shake the plant out of the pot and, without disturbing the root ball, transfer it into a more spacious pot. Fill the space between the root ball and the walls of the pot with fresh potting soil, sealing it with a stick. Then we water the overloaded plant abundantly.

Young flowers need to be transplanted annually. Old overgrown plants are not transplanted every year, but the topsoil is replaced in tubs.

For some time, we shade the transplanted and reloaded flowers, water them very moderately. We start feeding after the plants resume growth.In order for the flowers to receive everything they need, it is better to use complex fertilizers (1 g per liter of water).

In March, you can already engage in rejuvenation, plant reproduction. The shoots remaining after pruning will fit into cuttings, which we rooted in water or in clean sand, covered with a film or some kind of transparent "cap". The cuttings need light, but we still protect them from direct sunlight.

As you can see, in March, flower growers have no time to get bored, and in April there will be even more work.

In the lunar sowing calendar of the gardener and gardener for March 2021, various events have a certain effect on planting, transplanting or caring for plants. By choosing favorable days for work in the garden and garden, you will maintain your positive strength and attitude, save the plants from all dangers, and find harmony with your garden and garden.


Watch the video: 6 Cool Weather Crops You Should Avoid Planting In Spring