Nutria farming is an interesting and profitable family business

 Nutria farming is an interesting and profitable family business

Nutria breeding is an exciting and profitable activity. Animals are unpretentious in food, easily tamed and grow quickly.

Nutria - what kind of animal is it?

The weight of an adult animal is 4.5-8 kilograms

Nutria is believed to be a marsh beaver. Quite a large waterfowl with thick hair and a long tail without hair. All external organs of the animal are adapted to life in water - the ears are covered with thick fur, the structure of the nose and lips allows the nutria to hold its breath for a long time and feed under water. A distinctive external feature of the animal is the large, bright orange incisors. Moreover, by the color of the teeth, one can judge the state of health of the animal - the lighter and paler the tone of the teeth, the less healthy the nutria.

The weight of an adult animal is 4.5-8 kilograms, but through genetic selection, the weight of nutria can reach up to 12 kg. In natural conditions, nutria are nocturnal. In conditions of cage keeping animals are active during the day. Despite the southern origin, animals prefer an average air temperature of up to +20 degrees. The heat of the nutria is tolerated with the obligatory presence of water, otherwise the nutria may die from heatstroke.

Nutria breeding tips video

Where to start breeding?

To begin with, the farmer needs to decide for what purpose he is going to breed nutria: for meat, fur, or as a pet (nutria are well tamed, get used to a person, respond to a nickname). When purchasing animals for breeding, you should choose nutria of the same skin color. In the future, when selling skins, it is more profitable to sell them if there are more than 10. The molt of animals ends at the end of autumn. Winter nutria fur is considered the most valuable.

Nutria - care and breeding should be organized taking into account summer and winter maintenance. The cages should be protected from the sun in summer and frost in winter. In the cold season, the tails and legs of the nutria are frostbitten. The cages, insulated with hay and located in enclosed spaces, are sheltered enough shelter for the wintering of nutria.

Since nutria are aquatic animals, the presence of water in their life is important. It is not necessary to arrange large swimming pools with running water. In order for the animal's skin to be in good condition, it will be enough to install a container with 100-200 liters of water.

Since nutria are aquatic animals, the presence of water in their life is important

Features of the life of nutria

Nutria are different in character, mostly quite good-natured animals. They get used to people well, distinguish the intonation with which people speak. There is an opinion that nutria are aggressive and bite. In fact, an animal can only bite in case of self-defense. Hearing of nutria is very well developed, so they are easily frightened by sharp and loud sounds.

Nutria show aggressiveness to each other most often with improper maintenance and insufficient feeding. Animals from different families (cells in which they grew together) should not be combined. Nutria should be free in the cells - lack of space can also cause aggression. You need to pick up nutria by the tail - the animals fiercely protect the back and any touch on the back is regarded as an attack.

Nutria are very clean animals, they practically do not have a specific smell characteristic of other representatives of rodents, they take care of their fur. Nutria are rodents, this must be taken into account when equipping cages. Animals will easily destroy wooden structures.

Nutria are very clean animals, they practically do not have a specific smell

Nutria feeding is an important care element

Nutria are herbivorous rodents, so the diet should consist of herbs, vegetables, and twigs. According to experts, the animals eat wet food, the so-called mash, better. Grain concentrates, grass, vegetables are kneaded into one mass. Compound feeds, like potatoes, need to be steamed or boiled. In the mash, the ratio of concentrates and juicy feed should be 1: 4.

Rodents must gnaw something, so nutria should be given tree branches several times a week, preferably with young shoots. Also nutria love algae, they need to be added to the daily diet of animals. Grass in the summer months should also be included in the daily menu of the animals. It is important that the animal does not eat poisonous plants such as celandine or hemlock. Before feeding, the grass must be moistened abundantly.

Rodents must gnaw something, so nutria need to be given tree branches several times a week

Nutria should be fed twice a day at the same time. Vitamins should be added to food - meat and bone meal, a little table salt. Vegetables, before giving the animal, must be washed from dirt and cleaned of rot.

It is important to ensure that the cells always have clean drinking water. In winter, the water can be replaced with snow. Experienced farmers note that nutria are unpretentious in food, so there are no problems with feeding animals.

Reproduction of nutria at home

How to breed nutria - there is a lot of information about this in the special literature. Puberty in young nutria occurs at 4-5 months, but it is desirable to have them at the age of no earlier than 6-7 months. The female bears cubs for about 4.5 months. In nutria, pregnancy is calm, but at this time the female is very vulnerable. She becomes shy, so the animal should be separated from other relatives, care for a pregnant female should be done carefully. In case of fright, the female may miscarry.

Puberty in young nutria occurs at 4-5 months

For a pregnant female, you need to arrange a pool so that she can move more. A few days before giving birth, nutria stops eating. During childbirth, it is better not to approach the nutria - she will lick the cubs herself. Small animals are born sighted, with teeth, they can walk and swim. And yet, in the early days, the cubs need to be monitored. If the animals are inactive and lethargic, then they do not have enough mother's milk. The cubs also need water - otherwise they can get sick.

Nutria milk is very nutritious, so babies gain weight quickly. The female feeds the babies for two months. Already on the third day after birth, they begin to eat adult food. Cubs are born weighing up to 250 g, with proper care after half a month, their weight doubles. For a year, the animal increases in weight 20 times.

How to monitor the health of nutria

Nutria are believed to be disease resistant, but sometimes animals can get sick if not properly maintained. Nutria can develop bronchitis from drafts. To avoid illness, it is necessary to insulate the floor of the cage in winter and eliminate drafts.

Nutria breeding video

With a lack of sunlight and water, animals can get ringworm. This disease spoils the fur - hair falls out, bald patches form on the skin. To eliminate the disease, you need to provide nutria with water and the sun - the disease will disappear by itself. Young animals can be sick with salmonellosis, Escherichia coli - treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian, it usually comes down to the appointment of antibiotics. If the diet of nutria is saturated with vitamins, then their immunity copes with all ailments.

With proper care for animals such as nutria, breeding and keeping them does not cause difficulties even for novice breeders.


Muscovy duck breeding and keeping at home

Indoor women come in different breeds. Today, several species have been bred for home cultivation in private farmsteads. They differ from each other in the color of their feathers.

  • with white feathers completely
  • with red or red-brown feathers
  • in brown plumage
  • with black and white, randomly spaced feathers

Black and white Indo-duck with ducklings

All breeds of Indo-Ducks have common features.

  1. Fat accumulation in meat is insignificant.
  2. Plumage of increased rigidity, no fluff.
  3. Indo-women prefer plant food to any animal food.
  4. They have a good instinct for flying, which has to be extinguished by cutting off the wings.
  5. Indo-ducks carefully raise ducklings until they gain independence, with the onset of adulthood.
  6. They have a medium-sized head, a thickened neck, and not a long elliptical body.
  7. There are coral-like growths on the upper part of the beak. Males have a bump-shaped growth at the base of the beak.
  8. It is enough to grow an indoor meat for 60-65 days. At this age, subject to all conditions of detention, the weight of a bird carcass is 2.4-2.5 kg.
  9. For laying eggs, Indo-ducks are grown from 10 months. At this age, egg production is up to one hundred and twenty or more eggs per year, with a yellowish-white shell, weighing about 80 g each.
  10. This bird has a fairly stable immune system. It is the least susceptible of other poultry to infections and other diseases.

The optimal feeding time for Indo-Ducks for meat is 60 days. It is impractical to feed them for more than 70 days, since the cost of feed exceeds the return on weight gain. In addition, at the age of 2.5 months, Indo-women begin to shed. When moulting, birds lose weight, no matter how hard they are fed. The old feather falls off, and new hemp-like short feathers form on the skin, which are very difficult to remove when processing a bird carcass.

The owners need to think about preparing the nest, and it is advisable to do this even before the onset of April.

  1. For the nest, an ordinary box made of thick cardboard is quite suitable, the bottom of which is covered with burlap (you cannot use any natural fabric - you cannot use synthetic).

Duck Nest Box

The birds, which are called musky ducks, first originated in Latin America. Years later, this species began to spread: first they were brought to Africa, then Europe, and from there the individuals spread throughout the world. Indoor women appeared in Russia recently, in the 80s of the last century. Due to the fact that they were obtained after crossing a duck and a turkey, this type of meat has unique properties that are very useful for humans.

Unlike its turkey ancestor, the Indoor is smaller. Her paws are shorter. The meat of this variety is low in fat, although it has not lost its positive qualities in taste and resembles a mixture of goose meat and duck. Among European residents, such a bird is famous for its fatty liver, which is appreciated by restaurants and is served under the name "foie gras".

Do not think that the Indoor is one species. This breed is divided into groups that differ from each other in body structure, quality characteristics, plumage color. The individual can have the following color:

  • white
  • light brown
  • burgundy
  • mix of white and black plumage
  • a mixture of three colors (white, brown, black).

The peculiarity of Indo-Ducks is that they fly well. Therefore, the first thing a breeder should take care of is wing clipping. This should be done after each molt, because, having changed the plumage, the birds can again stand on the wing.

Some farmers use a more radical method - the extreme wing segment is removed from young animals. However, such an operation is fraught with difficulties. The fact is that young ducklings, at the sight of blood, become wild and begin to peck.

Therefore, there are those farmers who do not cut the wings of ducks at all - but feed them so that they cannot fly away. This is based on the weight of the bird. Drakes are on average 2 times larger than ducks and weigh about 5-6 kg. Ducks, in turn, are rarely more than 3 kg.

Because of their weight, males in general can rarely rise into the air, and well-fed ducks master to make a couple of circles over the farm.


Growing oyster mushrooms at home - Business technology

Oyster mushroom is a saprophytic mushroom that prefers to form colonies on rotten trees, tall stumps, on dead wood. The mycelium forms a "family", therefore oyster mushroom is considered a productive species. On one tree affected by mycelium, you can collect up to 5 kg of mushrooms at the same time, and during the season some more.

Young oyster mushroom has a pleasant taste, firm pulp, and an unexpressed mushroom smell. As they age, the fungi become fibrous and tough, especially at the stem. These mushrooms are considered a delicacy, they taste good and do not require any special pre-processing. These mushrooms are not only tasty, but also extremely useful for our body. Therefore, in the countries of East Asia, Europe and America, oyster mushroom is the standard for the use of mushroom products.

The technology of growing mushrooms at home is simple, observing some requirements of agricultural technology, you can grow a good harvest even in your bathroom. Following the recommendations and instructions, you can collect up to 3 kilograms of mushrooms from 1 kilogram of mycelium. Growing oyster mushrooms at home is the best place to start. Therefore, if you are thinking about your own business, this mushroom is for you.

What does it take to grow an oyster mushroom?

To organize a business for the production of oyster mushrooms, you need to provide several conditions. These conditions are the availability of a suitable room, high-quality mycelium and substrate.

A room for growing oyster mushrooms must meet some requirements:

1. The room temperature should be between 15 and 20 degrees

2. Humidity must be maintained between 80 and 95%

3. The room must have ventilation and electricity.

In some notes, you can find the statement that oyster mushrooms can be grown in greenhouses. In this regard, it should be noted that above 25 degrees oyster mushrooms already bear fruit poorly, so the use of greenhouses for cultivation is possible only in the spring and autumn seasons.

An ideal place for growing mushrooms can be called basement or semi-basement premises of industrial enterprises, vegetable stores, former poultry houses and cowsheds. They are suitable in size, i.e. large enough to support production. You will have to hang or install bags filled with substrate and mycelium, and this requires space.

If you want to harvest all year round, any room where you can maintain an even temperature and humidity all year round will do. The required humidity in the room is from 80%, the optimum temperature is 19-25 degrees. When growing mushrooms, the temperature will have to be controlled in order to prevent sudden changes. They inhibit the growth of mycelium. It is not necessary to buy ultra-expensive equipment; to determine and control the temperature in a room, you can do with ordinary household thermometers and hygrometers.

When the fruit bodies of the fungus germinate, it is necessary to moisten the bag with the mycelium, preventing them from drying out. Therefore, the room must have water and a drip irrigation device. You can also take any household gardening sprayer and use it for irrigation, this is an option for small production.

For lighting, fluorescent lamps are used. Growing oyster mushrooms at home requires lighting and ventilation.

The room is pretreated to kill molds and dry well. Usually bleach is used (from 1 to 5%). In addition, the walls and floor are whitewashed with slaked lime.

It is better if there are two separate rooms for the germination of the mycelium and the cultivation of mushrooms. It is easier to maintain the required temperature in separate rooms.In industrial cultivation of oyster mushrooms, up to 200 kilograms of substrate are placed on one square meter of the floor. On average, each room is taken with an area of ​​50m2. The total average area for opening an oyster mushroom production facility is 150 m2.

If you grow oyster mushrooms only for your family and relatives, then you can do everything in one room.

Mycelium growth medium or what is a substrate?

In nature, mycelium grows on rotten, rotted wood. On an industrial scale, it is grown on waste from agricultural or woodworking industries. These are hulls of sunflower seeds, straw, sawdust, stalks and cobs of corn, paper, cane, etc. Mycelium will grow on any substrate that contains cellulose.

To summarize, any clean and dry material that contains cellulose, holds water well and allows air to pass can become a substrate.

Mycelium

The mycelium must be of high quality and sterile. Now mycelium is sold by numerous mushroom farms, as a rule, these are transparent containers or bags filled with a white, creamy, yellowish compacted substance with a mushroom smell. The mycelium should be free of mildew-like, green or black spots. This means the mycelium is not suitable for laying. The main costs always fall on the purchase of high-quality mycelium (about 40% of all production costs). You cannot save on this. Your further harvest depends on the quality of the mycelium.

The successful cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home is the result of the acquisition of high-quality planting material.

Growing technology

So, the cultivation of mushrooms at home takes place according to the following technology.

Formation of mushroom blocks

To grow oyster mushroom at home, you need to prepare the substrate. The technology of growing mushrooms at home allows the use of any material of natural origin, containing cellulose.

It is crushed and thermally processed. Sawdust, husk, straw, etc. steamed with boiling water and left to cool to room temperature. This is how extraneous spores of fungi, bacterial rot and so on are killed. The substrate is in water for about three hours, then the mass is allowed to drain, if possible, squeezed out. It should be damp, but not wet. If squeezed with your hands, no liquid should come out: the mixture is now ready to be bagged. The substrate temperature at this moment should be 20-26 degrees.

To increase the yield, various mycelium growth stimulants are added. The liquid additive is added to the substrate immediately before packing it into the bags, the powder additive is added at the stage of cooling the hot water (about 40 degrees).

High-quality mycelium can be stored at home for up to 3 months, in the refrigerator at +4 degrees. For laying in the substrate, the mycelium is crushed directly in the bag in which it is located. If you took the mycelium out of the refrigerator, before laying it, it is necessary that it is heated to the temperature at which the process will take place. Otherwise, the temperature difference will negatively affect the growth of the mycelium. The bookmark is made with gloves, tools that have undergone preliminary heat treatment. It is in your best interest to prevent various parasites from entering the planting material.

Add mycelium to the bags at the rate of 150-180 grams of mycelium per 7-8 kilograms of substrate. The mixture is stirred, resulting in one mushroom block. You can make as many such blocks as your room and the availability of material allow.

Plastic bags are ideal for growing mushrooms. They are inexpensive, spoiled, easy to replace and do not mind throwing away. Growing mushrooms in bags at home is the easiest and most affordable option. According to recent observations, the harvest is more abundant in dark bags. By the way, some people use black garbage bags for these purposes, only in two or three layers.

The bags with the mixture are tied and left indoors for a day. After about a day, cuts or cross-shaped notches are made in the walls of the bag at a distance of 20 cm from each other. Through them the fruiting body of an oyster mushroom will germinate.

The bags with the infested mycelium are placed or suspended vertically. The first reason - the mycelium needs to be provided with moisture, air and light; the second - a large surface of the mushroom bed - a large yield of mushrooms; the third - the collector must have access to the bag.

It is advisable not to touch the mushroom bed during fruiting, any mechanical damage will delay the process. Therefore, you will have to think over a system for placing and fixing bags in a convenient order for you. Mandatory conditions - the bags must be fixed and not placed directly on the floor, leaving a distance of 20-30 cm. During the period of intensive growth, carbon dioxide accumulates at the floor, which interferes with the development of the mycelium.

Growing oyster mushrooms: incubation and cultivation period

Development (incubation)

The next stage is the germination of the mycelium.

  1. The temperature at the time of germination is optimal - 21-22 degrees. Inside the mycelium, the temperature is always 2-3 degrees higher. This is the best temperature for accelerated mycelium growth.
  2. No lighting required.
  3. It is not recommended to ventilate the room, unless there are sudden temperature jumps.
  4. It is not necessary to moisten the blocks during this period. It is necessary to coordinate the overall humidity of the room at the level of 65-85%. This can be done with a household humidifier.

Complete overgrowth of the substrate occurs from 14 to 20 days. During this time, you will only have to control the temperature and humidity, avoiding sudden changes.

The completely overgrown block begins to bear fruit. A pimpled growth is shown from the notches. This is the body of the mushroom. The unit care mode changes:

  1. Humidification - maintain constant humidity, blocks with mycelium are sprayed daily with water. At the time of fruiting, the humidity should not fall below 80%, otherwise the mycelium will begin to dry out, an increase in humidity up to 100% will lead to the accelerated development of molds. Make sure that no water accumulates at the bottom of the bag, pierce additional holes, mold cannot be allowed to develop.
  2. Ventilation - the growing fruit body needs fresh air. The room will have to be intensively ventilated to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide.
  3. Lighting - fluorescent lamps. Lighting rate 1 lamp per 20 square meters, 8 hours a day. Lighting is necessary for the correct formation of fruit bodies, with a lack of light, they will stretch out. If there are windows in the room, you will have to paint over or close some of them, imitating a forest shadow.
  4. Temperature - 19-20 degrees. Ideal temperature for crop formation. Temperature jumps in any direction lead to a decrease in fruiting.

It takes about two weeks from the time of germination of the fruiting body into the opening of the bag to cutting. It is better not to cut the mushrooms, but to twist, since the slices are a breeding ground for the development of mold. A prerequisite during this period is that the harvester must work in clean protective clothing, a mask or respirator, and rubber boots to protect the mycelium from infection and to protect against a powerful allergen - fungal spores.

The main crop is harvested in the first stage of fruiting, this is approximately 60% of the total crop, which will give your block. After it, the blocks are examined, the mold-affected and suspicious ones are removed. The next harvest wave is in about two weeks. It accounts for about 20% of the harvest. The third wave - in another two weeks.

If you are growing oyster mushrooms for sale, at this stage all blocks will have to be replaced with fresh ones, otherwise production will become unprofitable.

For household needs, the block can bear fruit for up to six months.

Before starting your own business, try to grow oyster mushrooms at home, optimize care, by trial and error you will come to your own technology, how to grow oyster mushrooms at home in bags.

How to grow oyster mushrooms on stumps

Another way to breed oyster mushrooms at home on a personal plot is to imitate a rotten tree infected with mycelium by collecting it from special cuts. This method is only suitable for seasonal fruiting and requires less effort in agricultural technology than indoor cultivation.

Preparing cuts for mycelium

Only hardwood is suitable for planting mycelium. Lumps of 35-45 cm in height and 20-30 cm in diameter are sawn from it.

Soak the wood in water for about 3-5 days. It is advisable not to use old and rotten cuts.

In addition to soaking, the wood steaming method is used. The cuts are poured over with hot water and left to cool under a lid. The procedure is repeated every other day.

Adding mycelium

In the lower part or sides of the saw cut, holes are drilled, wide enough, 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter, up to 5 cm deep, into which the mycelium is then introduced. The holes are plugged with moss or damp cotton wool, foam rubber. Wrap the cuts with a damp cloth or place a plastic bag. Leave in a humid room for mycelium to germinate. This method of introducing mycelium is suitable in early spring or late winter. The saw cut is overgrown with mycelium for about 2-3 months, during which time it is necessary to moisten the wood.

Transfer to the garden

After the saw cut is covered with a white bloom, it is taken out into the garden and buried in a shady place in a hole 12-16 cm deep. The saw cut is irrigated before fruiting.

You can germinate mycelium directly in the garden. The saw cut, with the introduced mycelium, is immediately dropped into the fossa, without an incubation period. Then the development of the mycelium and fruiting will be somewhat delayed, but in general, this method is no worse than the previous one.

To feed the mycelium before it masters dense wood, 150 grams of welded wheat is poured onto the bottom of the hole per saw cut. Wheat is preliminarily doused with boiling water and dried.

The cuts can be placed on top of each other, fastening them with wire or nails, but then it is necessary to bring the mycelium between the cuts, and also cover the joints of the cuts with a damp rag before the mycelium germinates.

How to get a good harvest?

First of all, you need to follow some simple rules for growing mushrooms:

  1. High quality mycelium is the basis of the harvest.
  2. Compliance with the norms and rules of hygiene in the room when laying the mycelium in the substrate.
  3. Strict adherence to the temperature regime during the incubation and cultivation period.
  4. Optimal balance of humidity and temperature conditions.
  5. Optimal ventilation mode.
  6. Proper hydration. Do not allow the mycelium to dry out and overflow.

Some common mistakes and how to fix them

  1. Spots of black or green mold, yellow fluffiness and softening of mature mushrooms, or grayish muslin on maturing mushrooms. This is a defeat by various types of fungi. There are several reasons: the substrate is stale, infected with mycelium, insufficient heat treatment of the unsanitary substrate during the introduction of the mycelium into the substrate; a sharp and prolonged drop in temperature during the germination of the mycelium. The affected blocks will have to be isolated and destroyed.
  2. Excess water at the bottom of the bag, as consequences - germination of various types of mushrooms, acidification of the mycelium, bad odor. A problem that often accompanies attempts to grow oyster mushrooms at home. It is necessary to increase the number of holes in the bottom of the block, to more actively ventilate the room.
  3. Elongated fruiting bodies of mushrooms, overweight towards the stem - lack of lighting and access to fresh air.
  4. Drying edges of fruit bodies, small mushrooms - the balance between moisture and temperature is disturbed. Too little moisture, too high temperature.
  5. Active reproduction of mushroom mosquitoes and fruit flies. You will have to attach a thick mesh to the ventilation holes, hang adhesive tapes.
  6. Weak overgrowth of the block with mycelium. The temperature regime is violated. Mycelium growth stops if the temperature is very high or low.

Why is the advantage of growing oyster mushrooms

It is very easy to grow oyster mushrooms at home, it is available to everyone. Growing oyster mushrooms is a great idea for a beginner to start your own business.

This mushroom is good fried, pickled, rich in protein and can easily replace meat. But meat, as you know, is an expensive product, while mushrooms are not. The consumption market is increasing every year.

For its cultivation, no special costs are required, agricultural technology is relatively uncomplicated. Especially if you first master the cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home. Through trial and error, you will come to the optimization of agricultural technology and master the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, and you will also be able to produce mushrooms on an industrial scale.

Oyster mushroom production is almost a waste-free business. The spent substrate is an excellent food for poultry and fertilizer for the garden. Quality mycelium is a constant source of income.


What can be grown in the basement

One of the many options for using a basement or cellar - growing mushrooms and plants - is successfully practiced by many owners and, moreover, can turn into a source of additional income if you go beyond your own needs. In this article, we will talk about what you can generally grow in a basement. Separate materials have been prepared on our website about the peculiarities of the cultivation of certain types of mushrooms and plants.

What to grow?

Let's list the common options. In the basement, cultivation is practiced:

    Mushrooms. Most often these are champignons and oyster mushrooms. Less commonly, shiitake and porcini mushrooms.

Hydroponics: a nutrient solution is supplied from below to the plant roots.

How to grow?

In fact, the success of the entire event depends on how accurately we can recreate the conditions required to grow the products that we need. That is, a number of key points should be taken into account:

  1. Ventilation. Good ventilation is the most important factor in the successful cultivation of mushrooms and plants in a cellar or basement. We also recommend covering the ventilation openings with a fine mesh so that insects and pests cannot get through them. Plants and mushrooms love fresh air.
  2. Disinfection. Carry out the necessary actions related to the disinfection of the premises. This can be, for example, whitewashing the walls with lime. Mold in our underground garden is useless.
  3. Lighting. Some mushrooms (we are talking about champignons) do not need lighting. But in the case of growing plants, you will have to take care of this, since vegetables and herbs need to provide normal daylight hours for proper growth and development. This is a very impressive item of expenses, since you will have to attend to not only the selection and purchase of suitable equipment (lamps), but also to plan an increase in electricity bills.
  4. Substrate and hydroponics. The use of exclusively land mixture (substrate) is now increasingly being replaced by hydroponics - a convenient and technologically advanced method that implies plant nutrition from a supplied aqueous solution. In this case, the roots of plants can receive the necessary substances both directly from the solution and through the substrate moistened with nutrient fluid. You will need to choose the appropriate method. For example, mushrooms are grown on a substrate; it is permissible for plants to use hydroponics.

How a hydroponic system works.

Further, we will designate some of the main features that characterize the process of growing mushrooms, plants and animals in a basement or cellar.

Note that this material contains only general overview data that will help you present the big picture. We will consider the cultivation of certain types of products (for example, champignons) in separate detailed articles.

Mushrooms

Growing mushrooms in a basement or cellar is perhaps the most common and highly demanded option, and it is also not particularly expensive. If you take care of effective basement ventilation during construction, optimal temperature and humidity conditions will most likely be met by default.

However, speaking about the observance of the temperature regime, seasonal restrictions can be identified. To maintain the desired temperature in winter (of course, if you do not live in warm countries), you will need an additional heating and heating system. And, therefore, here we will talk about increasing costs.

In the summer, this issue is resolved by itself, so if you want to avoid additional heating costs, grow oyster mushrooms or mushrooms in the summer - you will have time to harvest an excellent harvest.

Champignons do not need additional lighting.

Let us once again mention the advantage of champignons - these mushrooms do not need lighting.

Growing mushrooms in a basement will require the following raw materials: a specially prepared substrate (you can buy or do it yourself) and, in fact, mycelium. Mushrooms can be grown on shelves equipped for this purpose in the basement.

Plants

This paragraph will focus on vegetables (tomatoes and cucumbers), herbs (dill, parsley, green onions), strawberries and flowers. Let's make a reservation right away that it will be a little more difficult to organize the cultivation of plants than mushrooms. Which will certainly affect the costs - this is a more expensive pleasure.

As mentioned above, in the case of plants, you will have to implement a suitable lighting system, choose a growing method and how to organize hydroponics. You will also need to carefully study the rules of care (feeding, pollination, etc.) for the plant you decide to breed.

Rack for forcing green onions.

The main task of lighting is to maintain a daylight regime suitable for a particular plant.

For lighting, special phytolamps are best suited. It is ineffective to use only the usual incandescent lamps. To fully ensure photosynthesis (if phytolamps could not be obtained), use them in combination with other types of lamps (for example, fluorescent). Also remember that incandescent bulbs heat the air, that is, they affect the temperature.

In terms of convenience, hydroponics wins significantly. At a minimum, you do not have to deliver the required amount of soil to the basement and monitor regular watering. The composition of a hydroponic nutrient solution varies from plant to plant, as different species require a different set of minerals.

Onions can be grown in the basement all year round.

Speaking about the rules of care, one cannot fail to note the need for timely pollination. Be sure to find out if you need to pollinate your plants yourself (this simple operation can be done with a brush).

Fish and crayfish

Let's just mention that in the basement, you can grow various types of fish (for example: sturgeon, carp, crucian carp and carp), as well as crayfish. This will require a lot of additional equipment, including to ensure the proper water quality - a parameter of paramount importance for successful cultivation.

Growing sturgeon is not an easy task, but nothing is impossible.

In order to grow fish or crayfish, you need to install special tanks in the room, establish a closed water supply system, install filters, water heaters and compressors.

Of course, you will also need to thoroughly study the housing rules that support the normal functioning of the animals.

What else is important to know?

If you grow vegetables in your basement, we recommend choosing varieties for which the growing season (plant development time) is minimal.

Growing mushrooms in the basement is the option we recommend to start with if you just want to try to get your own “underground” crop at home. Moreover, it is not difficult to grow such mushrooms as champignons or oyster mushrooms.

Be sure to think about the financial side of the issue. Plan the costs required for both project implementation (building racks in the basement, purchasing raw materials, etc.) and maintaining it (for example, energy costs and plant maintenance). And if the predicted result justifies the investment, get to work!

So, now you know a few more options for using a cellar or basement. We wish you a great harvest and more delicious dishes from home-grown mushrooms and vegetables!


In a greenhouse, on a windowsill, in an apartment - what kind, is it possible, video, reviews, breeding technology

The beauty of garden strawberries depends on the introduction of biological technologies that create all the conditions for the cultivation of healthy, environmentally friendly berries all year round. How to grow strawberries all year round? The question is very relevant for industrial and amateur gardening. Thanks to biological products and new biotechnologies, you can get healthy, environmentally friendly berries. What is the difference between the experience of growing berries throughout the year from the technology familiar to gardeners?

Scheme of a film greenhouse (greenhouse) for strawberries.

Any gardener can easily master the techniques for growing wonderful berries at home. It is not necessary to have a greenhouse or a heated greenhouse to work successfully. Real profit can be gained by learning how to grow strawberries all year round in an ordinary flowerpot on the windowsill.

Growing strawberries is a very lucrative home business. The profitability of such economic activity is 100%.

Technology used for growing strawberries all year round

Diagram of vertical cultivation of strawberries.

To grow strawberries at home, Dutch technology is used, used by gardeners and large farms. The method is simple, and with proper care, about 150 kg of fresh berries are obtained from one bush.

The technique ensures the cultivation of berries all year round. There is no need to use soil, fertilizers, machinery, special equipment. There is no crop pest control. Product demand is very high product will grow to be environmentally friendly, free of chemicals. It is also important that, having mastered this technique, the owner becomes the owner of super-profit.

Correct selection of strawberry seedlings

For propagation of garden strawberries, you can purchase ready-made seedlings or grow them yourself from seeds.

Seeds are subject to long-term storage. They are taken from the middle of ripe berries. Cut off one layer, place on paper and dry. Before the time of planting, they are placed in an environment with a low temperature of + 2 + 4 ° C. Then moisten and mix.

To prepare planting material, you can grow seedlings yourself from seeds or choose a ready-made material.

There are several ways to harvest seedlings. To grow strawberries, young rosettes are cultivated on uterine plantations. Rooted whiskers are dug up in the fall on the main plantations. Seedlings are stored at temperatures from 0 to 2 ° C.

Most often, cassette seedlings are used for growing. She has a well-formed root system. Receive it after 35 days. The finished cooled outlets are placed in plastic containers. After 3 days, the length of the roots will be 3-4 cm, on the 10th day, the root system is formed. After 5 weeks, the cell is completely filled with roots.

List of strawberry varieties for cultivation in a greenhouse

Planting scheme for strawberry seedlings.

Starting his highly profitable business, the gardener selects strawberry varieties that have a neutral daylight hours. To grow strawberries all year round, choose the strawberry variety in which inflorescences, ovaries and berries are continuously formed. The ovary is formed with a long daylight hours. Longline cultivation involves the use of varieties "Pineapple", "Brighton", "Elizabeth" and others. In practice, the varieties "Selva", "Elizabeth II" yield crops throughout the year.

Strawberry varieties are divided according to their purpose: for indoor and outdoor soil. Indoor cultivars require uniform air temperature, constant humidity and light. The crop ripens all year round. In June, the first berries are obtained: the fruits are large, resistant to powdery mildew, wilt.

The cold method of storing seedlings is the basis of a full harvest

Growing a full harvest of garden strawberries involves the use of seedlings stored in a refrigerator or cellar. It is prepared for long-term storage in advance. They stop the growth of bushes by stopping watering them. The plant is constantly monitored: after 10-15 days, it is watered again, it is not allowed to overgrow. In the fall, the rosettes are dug out, sorted, and stored. The thickness of the root collar of the seedlings should be 6 mm, the rosettes have 3-4 leaves, the length of the roots is 5 cm.

Bunches of seedlings are placed in boxes, put them in a cellar. It has a shelf life of 1.5 to 10 months. Plant it as needed. Storage temperature +6 + 2 ° С, humidity - 90%, СО₂ content - 5%, oxygen - 2.5%. A sharp change in the microclimate must not be allowed.

Equipment of premises, preparation of plants for planting

The room for growing berries is prepared in advance. It can be a non-residential room, garage, shed. It is necessary to prepare bags of strawberry seedlings. They are installed vertically along the entire room. In the row spacing, the distance is 90 cm, between the bags - 15-30 cm. In the first and second rows, the bags are slightly displaced in relation to each other. Density of distribution of bags - 2-3 per 1m².

  • solution container
  • adapter
  • plastic pipe
  • injectors
  • clamps-retainers
  • fluorescent lamps
  • metal corners
  • foil
  • dropper tubes
  • bag.

The container for the nutrient solution is attached to the bracket. Using adapters, branching is created for the pipeline. Clamps are attached to it, which support the bag in an upright state. Strawberry bags can be placed in 2 tiers with a distance of 30 cm between them. Install the lighting system by mounting fluorescent lamps. To grow strawberries all year round, lamps must illuminate the entire planting area. Foil is placed on the walls, which serves as a reflector.

Growing strawberries vertically

Growing strawberries vertically allows you to get a large harvest of berries. Vertical planting is done to save space, collecting environmentally friendly berries.

To equip a vertical bed for strawberries, you will need the following tools:

  • bit
  • drill
  • plastic pipe
  • plug
  • twine
  • sackcloth.

The required pipe length is measured. Holes are drilled at the top. The pipe is covered with burlap, covered with twine. In the larger pipe, 3-4 holes are drilled in each row. A total of 4 rows are formed. A plug is placed on the lower hole. The workpiece is attached to a fence or mesh. A narrow pipe is placed in the main pipe and covered with a 10 cm thick layer of gravel.

Strawberries are planted in the windows on the main pipe. A second landing option is possible - through the pyramids. To create them, you need a similar set of tools. Space saving design. They take 3-4 old tires, in each they make a hole with a diameter of 10-20 cm. Lay them in a hill in the form of a pyramid, cover it with soil. Before planting, the soil is fertilized with humus.

Growing strawberries using a drip irrigation system

To grow berries you need to prepare:

  • dropper for solution
  • opaque film
  • pallet
  • plastic bags
  • water pumps
  • tank
  • nutrient solution.

The strawberries are placed on the substrate. Using droppers, they adjust the supply of the nutrient mixture to the root part of the plants. The substrate is peat mixtures or mineral wool. All substrates are placed in a film and placed in a tray. An excess of the nutrient mixture accumulates in it, which is supplied under pressure from a dropper. For this, water pumps are connected or a tank with a solution is placed above the required irrigation level.

In order to grow strawberries according to the nutrient layer system, they are harvested:

  • plastic box
  • hoses
  • pipes
  • tank
  • water pump
  • cups for planting plants.

With this method, strawberries are fed from a solution in plastic boxes. In them, the solution is pumped by a pump through hoses or pipes from the main tank. Plants are placed in cups. Their bottom is raised, does not touch the nutrient mixture.

In a grown plant, the roots are in a nutrient medium. The universal solution contains all the necessary micro and macro elements.

Strawberries need to be bred, observing a certain temperature regime. The temperature should be + 18 ° C at night, + 25 ° C during the day.

With a drip irrigation system, the water consumption per 1 m of the length of the container will be 3 liters of water per day. The drip irrigation system is adjusted by increasing the number of holes in the hose.

Formation of mother plantation and strawberry crop rotation

How to grow strawberries all year round using the technological term of berry ripening? Average indicators of this period are determined from September to May. The mother plantation is laid in mid-April. Strawberry seeds are sown in boxes filled with soil, covering with a small layer of earth. Seed germination depends on bright lighting and soil moisture. Indoor lighting is produced using sodium lamps. High soil moisture is provided by spraying water on it.

The first picking of seedlings is done after the emergence of seedlings. After 45 days, a second pick is carried out. Seedlings are planted according to the 10x10 cm scheme. By the end of July, 100 strawberry bushes are formed on 1m² of racks. All strawberry beds are renewed annually.

Growing strawberries at home

In the apartment, strawberries can be grown on a windowsill. Breeding strawberries means distilling them. A constant planting of new seedlings is carried out, after fruiting it is usually removed. Seedlings for year-round use are stored for 7-10 months. A sufficient number of strawberry bushes are harvested. In winter, remontant varieties are planted: "Geneva", "Queen Elizabeth II", "F - SSh1".

A bush of a remontant strawberry variety is placed in a container, covered with earth, and placed in the basement for 14 days. After a dormant period, the bushes are planted in pots with soil.

3 sockets are planted in a large pot. The central bud is located on top of the ground. The composition of the soil includes 5 parts of humus, 3 parts of deciduous soil, drainage is laid on the bottom. Charcoal and river sand are used as drainage. Watering is done through a pallet.

Install additional lighting. The lamp burns for no more than 10 hours. Fertilize strawberries with humus only before flowering. During flowering, a plant disease is possible: strawberries are affected by gray rot. In this case, it is necessary to treat the infected areas with warm water. Spraying with garlic tincture gives good results.

You can grow strawberries from seeds on a windowsill. The best variety is "Supreme", with a berry mass of 5-7 g. Strawberry seedlings may have long whiskers during active growth. They are tied to special trellises.

Cultivating strawberry cultivation at home all year round, any person will provide himself with vitamins not only in the berry season, but will also be able to open his own business and earn a lot of money.


The origin of ducks

Indoor is difficult to confuse with other birds, even in the photo. It is a large bird with strong wings, broad chest and short legs. The drake weighs an average of 6 kg, and the female muscovy duck weighs a little less: about 3.5 kg.

The duck has many qualities that poultry farmers appreciate:

  1. Ducks behave calmly and patiently. They are not prone to fighting (unless for the sake of a serious matter, for example, to protect their nest from another female) and do not like to make noise. Indo-duck are called mute, because they do not shout, but hiss.
  2. Birds eat any food, but their unpretentiousness in the area of ​​food is so great that it creates problems. Birds can taste a piece of glass, wire, or other orphaned items, causing serious injury.
  3. Ducks are very hardy creatures: they are immune to many diseases. If you keep them correctly, in comfortable conditions, then they will be completely bypassed about the disease. If the symptoms of the disease are noticed at an early stage, it will not be necessary to invest a lot of time and effort in treating the bird.
  4. Indo-ducks cannot be called truly waterfowl, because they can go without swimming for a long time without any special health problems.
  5. The egg production of females is high, and they are not bad mothers: they will sit on eggs until all the chicks hatch.

There are some features that a farmer should consider when keeping musky ducks:

  1. The bird grows for a long time.
  2. The duck does not like to live in dampness and cramped conditions, because of this it rushes badly.

The characteristic of the birds is tempting as it means that the duck is easy to care for. However, it is worth considering the fact that if the content is not satisfactory, the bird will not rush. The reason she doesn't sit on eggs is the same. The content must fully comply with the requirements of musky domestic ducks.

The homeland of musk ducks is South America, where you can still find wild representatives of this species. Wild birds are much smaller than their domesticated counterparts. The wild musky drake barely weighs 3 kg, while the wild female reaches 1.3 kg. The first muscovy ducks were domesticated by local residents, first of all they were kept by the Aztecs. For this reason, this species of birds is often called Indo-duck, which means "Indian duck".

Centuries after domestication, the first Europeans arrived in America. Immigrants from Europe gave the bird the name "musk duck", or "nutmeg", under which it acquired worldwide fame. She got the name thanks to the fleshy growth on the head, which distinguishes the bird from other ducks. According to the views of Europeans, the growth has a musky smell that can spoil the meat, therefore poultry houses in the old days advised that when sending birds for slaughter, the first thing to do was to chop off their heads.

According to another version, the duck got its name from the word "muiska" - that was the name of one of the Indian tribes in Colombia.

Wherever the name comes from, the muscovy duck quickly gained popularity in the poultry industry. In 1514, she appeared in Spain, from where she came to other European countries. In 1550, the Indo-woman was brought to Africa, probably by former slaves. In Africa, she was given new names: "Guinean" and "Barbary" duck. The bird first came to the USSR in 1981, then it was brought back in 1988.

The quality of food and feeding rules are also from the category of questions - how to care for Indo-women at home. The health of ducklings, adult ducks and, consequently, the growth of the livestock depends on this.

It is advisable to enrich the diet with eggshells, limestone, sand, chalk and small quantities of shell rock. The compound feed must always be dry. The quantity in the feeding container must always be constant. The bird is so omnivorous that it can feed on grass, leaves, weeds, fruits, worms, insects, fish and meat waste.

Indo-women need wet food. This is one of the conditions for the comfortable keeping of tree ducks. You should also feed the ducks with aquatic vegetation such as duckweed. Ducks are very fond of eating corn, beets, rutabagas, turnips and barley, which requires preliminary soaking and is served with water. A separate gravel-filled trough is required near the feeding area.

For one adult, 1 liter of water and 0.35 kg of feed are needed per day. If the bird is in an open area with abundant grass throughout the day, a reduction in feed volume of about 50% is possible. If ducks pluck their feathers, then the diet is poor in nutrients. Therefore, enrich it with herbs and vitamin supplements.

The diet for an adult by seasons is shown in the table below.


Guest post - Storage of potted plants in the garage - Cottage Herb

Anyone who grows delicate tropical plants or potted succulents often uses a garage for storage during the winter months. Here's a good article on how to make your garage a more plant-friendly place.

Many of us grow potted plants on our patios or garden, and every winter we face the same problem. How to protect plants in cold winter? Potted plants are difficult to maintain in areas where extreme cold is common. In winter or autumn, potted plants require special attention and love. Most plants do not take root well in winter, so your precious potted plants should be kept indoors throughout the winter season.

You can move potted plants to an unheated garage, but make sure the temperature stays above freezing. You can also use your garage to grow plants away from inclement weather, and then, if you like, you can also move them outside again.

A source: unsplash.com

Why Grow Garage Plants?

A typical question that arises after reading the title of this article: why a garage, and why not somewhere else? Almost everyone has access to a garage, an extra space that can be easily converted into a gardening hobby. It is close to your home, making it affordable for keeping potted plants and taking care of them. The garage has enough cover to keep your plants safe from inclement weather. In addition, all of our gardening equipment, shovels, pots, gloves, etc. can almost always be found here.

Garage planning and preparation

Before we start storing our indoor plants in the garage, we need to decide which plants to store and where they should be placed in the garage. Some plants may require sunlight and others may not.

To prepare a garage for plants, you need a place. The first step is to create space for your potted plants by clearing out all the clutter. Arrange the things you have by neatly placing them on shelves, storage cabinets, etc. The next step is to make sure that light is shining on before installing pots and plant trays. You can place them on any table or shelf in your garage.

A source: unsplash.com

Some precautions to take

Indoor plants work well for your garage if they are insulated. If this is not the case, you may need to take additional precautions. One precaution is to make sure you place something between the pots and the floor, otherwise the plants will cool off as the sun goes down, being in direct contact with the concrete floor. If your garage doesn't have many windows, you can install artificial lighting to support the healthy growth of your plants.

Another precaution is to avoid over-watering your plants. Watering is necessary, but not too much and not too often. Watering is necessary taking into account the size and type of plant. Excess water can rot plant roots.

Storing plants in a garage becomes tricky as the winters come to a close, and as the days get longer, plants begin to wake up from dormancy. It is important to make sure that the plants do not immediately enter the outside world, as this can cause sunburn.

A source: unsplash.com

Benefits of storing potted plants in a garage

The main reason for storing potted plants in a garage is to protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Garage temperatures typically range between 40 and 50 throughout the winter. For this reason, plants remain dormant, but never freeze.

In addition, a garage is made up of shelves and storage areas that can be useful in storing and organizing all of your garden tools. This contributes to effective maintenance of potted plants. This way, even when the weather gets colder, you can garden in your garage all year round.

Here are some ways you can use the extra space in your garage to keep your potted plants out of adverse weather conditions and continue to care for them long after the planting season is over.


Watch the video: How to Start a Farm From Scratch Beginners Guide to Growing Vegetables for Profit