Autumn is a good time to plant apples, pears and other pome crops. In order for the seedlings to take root well and give the first harvest as soon as possible, you need to know all the intricacies of this procedure.
What trees to plant in October
October is ideal for planting fruit trees. There is only one condition - crops must be pome seeds. These include apple, pear, quince, black chokeberry, irga. The seedlings of these trees are distinguished by the fact that in the autumn they are in an active state and, after planting, quickly form suction roots. Thanks to them, the plants receive the necessary moisture and have time to take root before frost.
Stone fruits are in a state of deep dormancy in autumn, so they cannot provide themselves with water.
Due to the lack of moisture, the shoots of young trees will freeze from the cold or dry out from the bright rays of the winter sun. For this reason, plums, cherries, apricots and other trees and shrubs with drupes are planted in spring.
What is the time frame for landing
For a tree to take root well, it must take root before the first frost. Therefore, before landing, you need to carefully read the weather report.Some gardeners are guided by the fall of leaves from fruit trees and begin planting work immediately after the end of the fall.
Landing times also depend on the region. The further north the area is located, the earlier you need to start the procedure.
In the north, planting is best done in September, in the middle lane - from mid-September to mid-October, in the south, work is done in October and November.
What are the subtleties of landing
It is very important to prepare the planting pit. This is done a month or at least 2 weeks before the procedure. Its depth depends on the size of the seedling and the state of its root system. If the roots are open, the hole is dug a little deeper. The average diameter of the dug hole is 1-1.2 m, the depth is 50-70 cm.
In the process of digging, the upper fertile and subsequent layers of soil must not be mixed.
The fertile layer is deposited separately, and then mixed with 1 bucket of humus, 1 kg of superphosphate or nitroammophoska and 800 g of ash. With this composition, the pit is filled by 2/3 and left until planting. Before pouring the nutrient mixture, you need to drive a stake into the bottom of the pit, to which the seedling will be tied.
The stake should be 120 cm long.
When the time comes for planting, the roots of the seedling should be carefully spread out on a mound of a mixture of soil and nutrients, and then covered with the remaining mixture, carefully trampling it. It is important to avoid the formation of voids between the roots. The root collar should be 5 cm above the soil surface, since the soil will still shrink, after which this part of the tree will be just above the top layer of the earth.
After planting under a seedling, you need to pour out 1-2 buckets of water and mulch the soil around it with peat, sawdust or humus.
Then the trunk must be tied to a dug-in peg, after which the stake is sawn at a height just below the first branch of the culture. A young tree planted in autumn will completely take root by spring, and in due time will please with a good harvest.
Before laying an orchard, it is recommended to make at least an approximate tree planting plan. By sketching on paper, you can personally imagine what the site will look like in general terms.
There are two types of layout: landscape and regular.
Adherents of geometric clarity and orderliness of forms will love the garden in regular style... In it, trees and berry bushes are planted in even rows at equal intervals. Garden beds are divided in the form of regular rectangles and squares, separated by straight paths laid in straight lines. With such an arrangement, you always know what and where is, and it is easier to care for the plantings.
An approximate plan of a summer cottage with an area of 6 acres: 1 - house 2 - garage 3 - household. yard 4 - resting place (gazebo) 5 - lawn, flower bed 6 - front garden 7 - strawberry planting 8 - vegetable garden 9 - garden
Landscape, or free layout, close to the natural style. Plants are planted according to a pre-planned scheme, but they are not arranged in a strict order, but in groups. Ornamental vegetation is used along with fruit trees and shrubs, and vegetables can coexist with flowers. Landscaping takes a lot of creativity.
The ratio of the area of the garden to the area of the plot is a relative concept and depends only on the owners of the land plot. Nobody has set the standards for the balance of the territory, so the orchard can occupy more than half of the territory (if the owner wishes it), or it can be tiny and consist of only 3-4 trees.
Helpful advice. If there is not so much land for a garden, but you want to plant more trees, additional "land resources" are sought. You can plant 2-3 fruit trees in the front garden, located between the facade of a residential building and the fence. With a small front garden, it is permissible to use the space behind the fence, however, here you can plant not very valuable types of trees, for the fruits of which there are not many hunters: mulberry, apricot, summer apple, Hungarian plum, simple cherry.
How to prune trees in February
What is pruning for? With its help, a crown is formed, more light begins to flow to the branches, trees rejuvenate, diseased branches are removed. In addition, pruning is one of the most important techniques to ensure a stable harvest. It allows you to regulate the yield of trees with periodic fruiting - that is, those that yield a good harvest in one year, and almost do not bear fruit the next. Thanks to pruning trees in February, the number of fruits can be kept constantly at an average level - there will be not too many of them, but not too few. Moreover, they will be of good quality. Still, too abundant fruiting is also stress for the tree, after which it needs to recover. Therefore, the next year it does not bear fruit.
Pruning fruit trees in February consists, first of all, in the unloading of the crown, that is, the elimination of cross processes (branches) growing inside the crown, located too close to each other.
It is also good practice to keep the tree height at about 3 m. For this purpose, the apical branches are cut at this height. This will make it easier to care for the tree (for example, spray) and remove the fruit.
We also cut off all damaged, broken or diseased branches. You should not get rid of more than 20-30% of the branches at a time, so as not to weaken the tree too much.
February tree pruning scheme
For gardening, it is advisable to have good tools:
- for thin branches
- for thicker ones.
When buying, pay attention to the fact that secateurs from different manufacturers differ in the quality of the metal. A good tool costs around $ 100 (for thin branches) and up to $ 150 (for thick ones).
Helpful advice! After pruning each tree, it is advisable to process the tools - wipe them with alcohol or a solution of potassium permanganate, so as not to transfer the infection from a diseased tree to a healthy one.
What to plant in October in the garden: planting bulbs
What else to do in the garden in October so that in the spring the flower garden will play with a riot of colors?
In October, they continue to plant bulbs (tulips, daffodils, crocuses, muscari, scilia, etc.). Before planting, they are powdered with sulfur, wood ash or copper oxychloride so that there is no decay if the autumn is rainy.
Tulips should be planted in loose, fertile soil - bulbs develop poorly in dense soil, humus and sand are introduced in clay areas. When planting tulips in the tulip garden in October, you need to maintain a distance between rows of 20 cm, and in a row - depending on the size of the bulb - from 5 to 15 cm.The planting depth of large bulbs is 10, and for smaller ones - 6-8 cm.
To have blooming hyacinths in January-March, start planting them in pots and boxes with light nutritious soil, positioning the bulbs so that their tops are level with the edge of the pot. After that, water them well and place them in the basement. Keep at a temperature of + 3 ... 5 ° C. Cover the pots with sand to maintain the required moisture content.
In the open field, continue collecting seeds of annual and perennial flower crops.
Fruit garden with exotics
It may seem incredible, but on 2.5 acres you can grow about 100 fruit trees and shrubs!
Gardeners always do not have enough land: they want to plant more and more, but the size of the site does not allow. Well, what can be placed on 6-10 acres? A couple of apple and pear trees, a few currant and gooseberry bushes, a small plantation of raspberries and strawberries, leave the land for a garden, and plant flowers somewhere. Meanwhile, new items appear on sale every year. Either interesting varieties of frost-resistant hazelnuts will catch your eye, or seedlings of the incredibly popular goji berry. Blueberries would also be nice to have in the garden. Where to plant all this? Believe me, there is even a place for exotic cultures! The main thing is to correctly plan the site. We were puzzled by this question, made a plan, and it turned out that just a gigantic number of varieties and species fit on 2.5 acres!
Pay attention to the plan: we have placed in the garden not only classical crops, but also quite rare ones: hazelnuts, walnuts, chokeberry, thorns. Even for such a curiosity as goji berry, they found a place!
The main trick
In our case, all plants are planted not in rows, but with an offset. By the way, you can take this method into service both in the flower garden and in the garden - so much more plants fit!
On the plan, they are all located taking into account the height: on the north side the highest, on the south the lowest. This is how they will not shade each other. We made exceptions only for 3 crops: mountain ash, chokeberry (chokeberry) and hawthorn. They are not placed quite according to the rules - in the shade. And their yield, of course, will be lower. But we deliberately agreed to this “violation”, since there are not many such berries. Well, you see, hardly anyone will need 10 buckets of hawthorn. The blackthorn sits behind the apple trees deliberately - this is the only fruit crop that can grow in the shade.
3 components of success
A garden that is densely planted with trees requires special care.
First, they must be properly trimmed. They say that a sparrow can easily fly through the crown of a well-formed apple tree. We will say more: the crown can be made such that a goose will fly by! The yield in this case will be no less, but such a crown gives very little shade. And neighboring crops can be planted closer.
Secondly, a compacted garden needs to be watered more often, since the roots of trees and shrubs intertwine in the soil and take water from neighbors. So do not be lazy to water them.
Thirdly, the compacted garden needs to be better fed. Not more often, but better! At the same time as the classic, but the dose of fertilizers should be about 50% higher.
When choosing varieties, pay attention to the shape of the crown and choose compact options - swollen plants will be inappropriate here. When you start to form them, keep in mind that you will have to walk around the garden, and there are no paths as such. Therefore, do not feel sorry for the lower branches - cut them out immediately.
Auspicious days for work in October
According to the lunar calendar, the auspicious days of October are filled with the greatest activity. Household work at the summer cottage can of course be carried out the day you want, but it is important to manipulate plants, focusing on the phases of the moon, because it affects the movement of plant sap, their bioenergetics. Keeping track of auspicious days will help you not harm both garden and indoor plants. Planting and replanting during these times can help speed up emergence and improve growth.
Country calendar for October in the table
|Characteristics of the day||date|
|Auspicious day||21, 22, 27|
|Neutral day||4-8, 9, 10, 13-20, 23, 26|
Types of work allowed or prohibited on neutral days:
- from October 4 to 8, transplanting and loosening of the soil is prohibited
- On October 9 and 10, it is not recommended to plant bulbous
- October 17, 18, sowing is allowed, it is forbidden to separate roots and bulbous
- On October 19-20, minimal plant care is carried out. Sowing recommended
- October 23 will be successful for sowing different crops with seeds
- On October 26, any processing of plants is prohibited.
If you plant a plant before the New Moon, it will develop well. You can't plant anything on New Moon.
People continue to harvest in October. It is important to complete the harvest of late potatoes and onions before frost sets in. Root crops must be well dried in a ventilated dark area, otherwise the crop may be rotted and will not last long.
Favorable days in October 2020 for cleaning are indicated in the table
In October, carrots, cabbage, beets, turnips and radishes are removed from the gardens. Carrots and beets are not afraid of freezing, at this time they are gaining juice and sugar. Sometimes they are even deliberately left to winter in the ground, previously covered with light material.
Unfavorable days are the period when the moon is filled with minimal activity. Now gardeners and summer residents learn about unfavorable days from the calendars. On such days, you cannot sow seeds or transplant seedlings, in general, carry out activities that are somehow aimed at creating, related to sowing and planting. In October 2020, these are 1-3, 11-12, 24-25 and 28-30 October. These days, planting and transplanting work should be minimized.
Days for planting and caring for trees
October is the best month for planting, replanting and treating trees. Using the lunar calendar will help plan work in advance. It is noteworthy that the calendar for working with trees, compiled for Siberia, can be used by Moscow and the Moscow region, its action is similar.
- October 3 - time for planting fruit trees and shrubs, on this day you need to collect apples and pears of winter varieties
- 11 October it is useful to plant fruit and berry plants and cut trees and shrubs
- On October 13, it is worth planting cuttings of berry bushes, for example, currants, in the ground
- 19 October we plant fruit trees and berry bushes
- On October 28, pruning and spraying of fruit trees and berry bushes is carried out.
The lunar calendar advises pruning trees on October 30th. In autumn, trees are pre-cleaned and whitewashed with lime. If there is little rain in October, then trees and shrubs need to be watered before wintering.