In Hawaii, garden hibiscus is called the flower of love or the flower of beautiful women. Growing a plant in a garden area does not bring much trouble, while it will delight with large, about 12 cm in diameter, bright flowers from mid-June to early September. Garden hibiscus looks spectacular in any style of landscape design.
Is hibiscus a flower of death?
There is a belief that a flower carries negative energy and absorbs a person's health and strength, bringing him closer to death. He also has a second name - burnet. This is primarily due to the fact that flowers most often have a red tint, reminiscent of blood. Another sign says that if a plant has thrown off its leaves, then someone in the family will get sick, and if he releases a flower ahead of time, then one of the close people is in danger of death.
But to believe in these superstitions or enjoy a beautiful bloom, everyone decides for himself.
Photo of garden hibiscus
Garden hibiscus is herbaceous, shrub and tree-like. In cold climates, only the Syrian tree variety is able to grow, which is able to withstand even severe frosts.
It is a deciduous shrub that reaches a height of 5–6 meters. The length of rich green leaves reaches 10 cm. Single flowers have different shades. The best varieties are Diana, Pink Giant, Carneus Plenus.
The height of the plant is about 80 cm. The flowers of this variety have a peculiarity - they open in the morning, and close in the afternoon. Hibiscus blooms for more than a month.
This variety was obtained by crossing 3 species. Hybrid hibiscus is a herbaceous perennial plant. The most popular varieties are Yunost, Ardens, Pozdny.
It differs from other varieties in lush flowers. The most striking representative is Lavender Chiffon. Are the flowers large? violet-pink with a bright red center.
Landing in open ground
Garden hibiscus is widespread in the warm climatic zones of Russia. Growing a plant is also possible in colder climates. But in this case, it is recommended to plant the flower in a large pot, which will stand outside in summer and in the house in winter.
The time for planting hibiscus in open ground depends on the climatic conditions. The plant can only be planted when there is no longer any chance of frost and the ground warms up. In some areas it may be April, and in some it may be May. Correctly determining the optimal planting time allows the plant to adapt to the soil and take root to survive the coming winter.
Planting site and soil
Garden hibiscus are long-lived (20 years or more), so the planting site should be chosen with great care. The best option is considered to be a windless sunny area. Experienced gardeners claim that the plant does well next to roses.
The soil should be clay or loamy. The plant does not tolerate waterlogged and calcareous soil.
Step-by-step instructions for outdoor planting
To create comfortable conditions for hibiscus, it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:
- The size of the planting hole should be 2 times the size of the lump of the plant's root system. Roots need a lot of space to take hold.
- Immediately before planting, drainage should be poured into the planting hole, which will absorb excess moisture and prevent root decay. The drainage layer must be at least 15 cm thick.
- The pit is filled with a mixture of 2 parts of sod land, 2 parts of leaf land, 1 part of humus, 1 part of river sand.
- Place the roots of the plant in the resulting substance so that the soil slightly covers the root collar. Pour some more soil on top.
- Till the ground so that the hibiscus is in the center of the water recess. This must be done carefully, without damaging the roots.
- Pour water into the recess and, after it is absorbed, sprinkle with earth on top. If planting is carried out in the fall, then at the end the near-trunk circle should be mulched: this will allow the seedling not to freeze.
Taking care of your garden hibiscus is easy.
Temperature, humidity, lighting
Garden hibiscus is very fond of sunlight. Depending on the species, it can withstand up to -30 ° C and up to + 30 ° C, although most varieties need shelter during the winter. There are no special requirements for air humidity for a flower. If it is transferred indoors for the winter, it is necessary to periodically spray it.
It is recommended to use warm water for irrigation. On hot days, water should be done daily if the soil dries out. Whether a plant has enough water can be recognized by its bright flowers and rich green leaves. If the foliage is dead and falls off, then there is not enough water.
In rainy and cloudy weather, hibiscus does not need watering.
In the period from June to September, fertilizing is carried out 2 times a month with fertilizers with a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In the fall, when preparation for winter is taking place, potash fertilizers should be preferred. This can be a tincture of wood ash, which is added to the water for irrigation.
Pruning is not necessary for herbaceous hibiscus varieties, it is only recommended to remove dried stems before wintering. Treelike varieties need regular pruning:
- Hygienic (compulsory). It is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow. All branches that have dried or frozen during the winter, branches growing inside the plant, as well as root growth are removed.
- Stimulating. Usually performed at the same time as hygienic. Flowers appear only on young shoots. In order for the growth of young branches to be, it is necessary to cut off the old ones by a third.
- Formative (optional). If desired, you can form the desired shape and size so that the plant becomes part of the garden landscape.
Herbaceous varieties can withstand up to –30 ° C without shelter. After the ground part of the plant has dried, all shoots should be cut off and sprinkled with dried foliage or sawdust.
Treelike species in temperate climates also does not need shelter. In severe frosts, the procedure will be as follows:
- Water the plant before the first frost.
- After a few days, spud the earth.
- At the end of November, cover the hibiscus with leaves or sawdust (the height of the mound is about 15 cm).
- Bend all branches to the ground and cover with a cloth (spunbond, lutrasil) and plastic wrap.
- Around the bush, make a strong frame, which is wrapped on top with covering material in several layers.
Young bushes should be especially carefully insulated.
Reproduction of garden hibiscus is within the power of even a novice gardener. There are two most commonly used methods:
- Cuttings... Reproduction by this method is performed in the spring before flowering. Place the cuttings in water, and as soon as the first roots appear, they are transplanted into the ground. The seedling can be transplanted into a pot, which will be on the street all summer, and brought indoors for the winter and planted in the ground next year.
- Seeds. They are sown from January to March. The seeds are preliminarily lured in Epin's solution and planted in a mixture of peat and sand. Cover the container with glass so that the inside temperature remains at least 27 degrees. Open and ventilate the glass from time to time. After the first leaves appear, they can be dived into separate pots.
Hibiscus seedsIf the shrub was grown from seeds, then it will begin to bloom only after 3-4 years.
Disease and pest control, major care mistakes
Pests settle on hibiscus most often after contact with diseased flowers or when transplanted into contaminated soil. The most common pests and ways to control them are described in the table.
The main disease of garden hibiscus is fungal chlorosis. Infectious chlorosis is carried by various pests, therefore, first of all, it is necessary to destroy them. The diseased flower needs to be transplanted to another place, increased feeding and regularly sprayed with iron chelate.
Non-infectious chlorosis occurs due to excess moisture or if garden hibiscus grows in the shade. In this case, it is recommended to transplant it to a sunnier place and adjust the irrigation regime.
Garden hibiscus can get sick if not properly cared for. The main symptoms of the disease and their causes are described in the table.
Garden hibiscus will decorate the garden for many years and make it unique, especially since this plant does not require special care.
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- herbaceous varieties
Growing and caring for garden hibiscus is a fun experience. In landscape design, all types of plants occupy special niches. Herbaceous varieties hibernate well under cover and produce beautiful curtains that mask household structures.
Planting and leaving hibiscus garden - photo - shrub, allows you to get a hedge and various compositions by formation. It is especially easy to work with the unpretentious Syrian hibiscus. It is the shrub that has become the most common in the mild climate of the middle zone. It is easier to cover for winter preservation.
Garden hibiscus: care and reproduction
Growing this plant won't be a hassle. For normal flowering and growth, it is advisable to choose a sunny place where there is no wind. When planting hibiscus, you need to use humus-rich, loose and fertile soil. Watering must be frequent and regular.... The main thing is not to flood the plant, but it is important that the ground around the flower is constantly moist. If the plant is properly cared for, then the life span of a hibiscus can be more than 15 years.
Young bushes need to be replanted several times. As a rule, the transplant is done in the spring. Already 2 months after rooting, the plant can be transplanted into a larger pot. For planting, a mixture of earth from sheet, sod soil, sand and humus is used in a ratio of 3: 4: 1: 1. Every year, after transplanting, soil must be added to the pot.
Proper care after planting young bushes is important, especially in winter. The plant should overwinter in a shelter, as it may not endure frost... If the planting of bushes is scheduled for autumn, then before the arrival of the winter season, you need to mulch the land near the flower.
Fertilizers for hibiscus must contain an increased amount of phosphorus. Before winter, it is advisable to feed the bush with potash fertilizer. This will make it easier for the plant to winter.
Syrian hibiscus: photo and description
The Syrian hibiscus variety is characterized by unusually lush flowers.
A relatively new English variety with semi-double and double flowers. The color is blue-pink with a deep red center.
A small tree or deciduous shrub of medium size up to 3 meters and a crown circumference of 1.7 m. It grows well in a sunny area, but also tolerates light shading.
It has various uses: it is possible a tapeworm against the background of a lawn, you can plant a plant in the background in flower beds or for decorating fences, it all depends on where the sun's rays fall more.
Duke de Brabant
A small tree or deciduous shrub with an average height of about 2-3 m and a crown circumference of 1.7 meters. The inflorescences are large and quite attractive, violet-red with burgundy-red or dark red blotches in the center, terry, 10-12 cm in size. Grows well in a sunny area, but can tolerate light shading.
Garden hibiscus tree: photo and description
The tree-like garden hibiscus is a deciduous shrub that blooms for 6 months, but one flower only lasts a day. New inflorescences immediately replace wilted petals. Hibiscus blooms at the end of June, and renews its flowers until October.
In temperate climates, plant height no more than 2.5 m, although in the natural environment tree-like varieties reach a size of up to 6 m. Large ovoid or oval-shaped leaves have a rich green color. The inflorescences are single, rather large, reaching up to 28-31 cm in circumference.
Disembarkation takes place in the spring. Take care that the tree you are growing in the garden is protected from drafts. During the care and cultivation of hibiscus, do not forget that the plant is thermophilic and demanding on lighting. If you plant it in a shaded area, then it will both grow slowly and bloom weakly.
If your backyard is located in an area with a cool climate, then plant non-double species - they are the most hardy. In order for the plant to bloom profusely, it needs a small pruning every two years.... Supplement the hibiscus with lavender bushes to protect the hibiscus from aphids.
Hibiscus requires fertile land with normal water permeability. Strong watering is not required for this flower - it is necessary to moisten the ground only after it dries out. Abundant flowering will be ensured, if you do not forget about the constant phosphorus baits. Potassium supplements are also needed - with the help of them, wintering the flower will be easier.
Suitable for growing in pots. The plant must choose the ideal, in the literal sense of the word, place - otherwise, when turning or moving a flowering bush, there is a great risk of breaking weak peduncles. Choose a warm and sunny area, protected from drafts. In a pot, the bush must be trimmed periodically - this can help maintain its decorative shape.
Herbaceous hibiscus: photo and description
A distinctive feature is a long flowering time, and its peduncles are 2-3 times larger than tree varieties. Another advantage of the herbaceous variety is its high frost resistance.
The bush has many erect shoots that sprout every year. The flowers of this plant are painted in cherry-raspberry color.... It is advisable to plant the flower in the central part of the garden or in the background, because of its rather large size - about 3 meters.
When caring for this hibiscus, it must be borne in mind that the roots of the bush look like potatoes, their damage leads to the death of the plant. Therefore, in winter, after the dying off of the bush, it is advisable to place a plate at the place of growth of the hibiscus, which indicates its location and protects the bush from digging.
The bright and large flowers of herbaceous hibiscus are in perfect harmony with different plants, so be sure to plant it in your garden.
As a rule, herbaceous species are grown in large group plantings or in the formation of curbs. These plants can be used to decorate the coastal area of the home pond. But cultivation must be carried out in sunny places, protected from drafts.
The plant has no special soil requirements... It develops better on loams, and does not tolerate calcareous soil. An important role in the care of hibiscus is played by drainage at the planting site and periodic loosening, since waterlogging and waterlogging of the soil can cause the death of the bush.
In the spring, you need to build greenhouses from film, since the flower loves warmth and moisture. Under these conditions, the plant will develop much faster. With the arrival of summer, greenhouses are removed. The herbaceous variety loves constant watering, especially in the early stages of cultivation. At the end of flowering, watering should be slightly reduced.
Pruning garden hibiscus
Periodic pruning of the hibiscus is necessary; pruning the shoots is good for the plant. The bush forms flower buds on young shoots.In addition, pruning is required for the plant to give a decorative shape.
In the spring, the growth of hibiscus of the last year is shortened by 1/3... This significantly increases the number of new kidneys. As the plant grows thicker over time, it needs light, periodic thinning.
- After planting a young plant, remove all damaged and weak shoots. For uniform growth of a lush plant, and in the future, it requires a cardinal pruning. If you want to form a stem tree, then you need to be patient, since it takes more than one year to grow a stem.
- Trim branched shoots to the level of several buds. The main trunk is not trimmed. In the next season, from February, again cut the lateral branched shoots to one bud, and the main trunk - to 6-7 buds. When the bush reaches the size you need, form a crown from the strongest shoots, making it several buds shorter, cutting off the top of the trunk and removing all the lateral lower shoots.
- When you have achieved the desired crown shape, then only cut dry and weak shoots in the future. Cut thin branches to several buds. If over time the plant becomes one-sided, then remove unwanted branches on it to the base or cut them to lateral young shoots.
Reproduction of hibiscus
During the care of hibiscus, reproduction is carried out by cuttings, dividing the bush, and also by seeds. If you decide to grow a plant from seeds, then do not forget that this process can be done only after stratification.
The material for planting is covered with a small layer of earth, a little moistening is made, for example, with a sprayer, and set in the refrigerator for a month. After the propagation of hibiscus by seeds, sowing is done in the prepared substratemixed from sand and peat. The container must be closed with polyethylene or glass and left at a temperature of 25-27 grams. Conduct periodic ventilation and spraying of the container. Then, when the seeds germinate, you need to wait for the formation of several leaves. These seedlings dive into different pots. The flowering of a flower bed of hibiscus grown from seeds occurs only in the third year.
If the reproduction of hibiscus is done by cuttings, then the best time for this is spring. From new shoots, it is necessary to cut off the upper cuttings, which have several internodes. Pruning is done 5 cm below the node... After that, the top of the stem is cut off over the knot and a cut is made on the resulting cuttings. From the bottom of the cut it is necessary to remove the stem cut and the leaves. The few remaining leaves are cut in half.
To accelerate the development processes, the cutting is treated with growth stimulants, and then buried in the ground to the nodes. The planting is covered with foil and kept at a temperature of 18–20 grams. After a month, the bush will take root and can be transplanted to a permanent place. This plant will begin to bloom one year after planting.
The prolific and hardy hibiscus does not require much attention, but it always adorns any garden plot with beautiful flowers. All you have to do is plant additional plants to compensate for the sterile time of one plant with another. But in any case, hibiscus is a versatile plant. Its beautiful flowers and ease of care have made it one of the most popular shrubs to be grown in a garden or apartment.
Planting hibiscus outdoors
What time to plant
Before you start planting hibiscus, you need to choose the most suitable place for this. From this, as well as how well you take care of the plant, depends on how long it will decorate your garden. If everything is done correctly, then the bush in the same place can grow for about 20 years.
Planting hibiscus seedlings in open ground is carried out in the spring, after the spring return frosts are left behind. In this case, during the summer, the bush will be able to take root well and acclimatize in a new place. It is best to choose a well-lit place for planting crops that is reliably protected from the wind. The soil should be light, rich in nutrients and well-drained, roses still grow well in such soil. If desired, hibiscus can even be planted among the roses.
For tree-shaped planting, the planting hole should be 2 times larger than the volume of the seedling root system. After the pit is ready, a layer of drainage from pieces of brick should be laid on its bottom, its thickness should be about 15 centimeters. From above it is covered with a layer of sand 10 centimeters thick, then a fifteen centimeter layer of compost and again a ten centimeter layer of sand. To fill up the planting hole, you will need a soil mixture; for its preparation, the soil pulled from the hole, sand and peat are combined in a ratio of 2: 1: 4. Carefully place the seedling in the hole, with the root collar only slightly submerged in the soil. Then the pit is covered with soil mixture that you prepared in advance.
After the tree is planted, it must be well spud, as a result, a rather deep hole for water should be formed around it. Pour water into this recess and wait until it is completely absorbed into the soil. Then fill the hole with soil so that the trunk circle is even and level with the surface of the site.
If you need to plant a seedling in open ground in autumn, then the surface of the trunk circle should be covered with a layer of mulch, and the plant itself should be tied with spruce branches.
Types and varieties
Garden hibiscus is represented mainly by varieties of Syrian hibiscus, however, other plant species, as well as their varieties, are grown in culture.
Syrian hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus)
Surprisingly, it comes from China, not Syria. In nature, plants of this species reach a height of 5-6 meters and are deciduous shrubs with bright green ovoid leaves about 10 cm long and single flowers of different colors. In culture, in addition to hibiscus with simple flowers, terry hibiscus is grown, and the form of the plant can be either bush or standard. Of the popular varieties, the most interesting are:
- Diana - shrub up to 2 m high with wavy white flowers around the edge of the petals with a diameter of about 12 cm
- Vayelith Ilar Double - a very powerful upright bush with double or semi-double flowers of a violet-blue hue with red spots in the middle
- Pink Giant - a bush with single pink flowers with a purple spot at the base of the petals
- Carneus Plenus - a shrub with flexible shoots and double pale pink flowers with a purple spot in the middle.
In the photo: Syrian hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus)
Hibiscus trifoliate (Hibiscus trionum)
The species is native to central and North Africa, although today it is widely grown in all areas of irrigated agriculture. The root of this plant is pivotal, the stem is straight, branched, up to 80 cm high. The leaves are tripartite, petiolar, alternate, with pubescence. The flowers are yellowish, up to 4 cm in diameter, with a dark red center.
A feature of the species is that the flowers open in the morning for only a few hours, and close in the afternoon.
Flowering of this type of plants lasts more than a month, because a new hibiscus bud is formed in the axil of each leaf, and when optimal conditions for hibiscus trifoli are created, new flowers will appear daily.
In the photo: Hibiscus trifoliate (Hibiscus trionum)
Hybrid hibiscus (Hibiscus hybrida)
In addition to these two species, which grow both in the wild and in culture, hybrid hibiscus and its varieties are grown as garden plants. As already mentioned, this hybrid was bred by crossing three North American species - hibiscus holly (armed), bright red and marsh. Hybrid hibiscus - herbaceous perennials, which are distinguished by spectacular and very large flowers. The best varieties:
- Youth - a bush up to one and a half meters high, weakly branched, stems of a light yellow-green hue, from which shoots depart at an angle of 60º. The leaves are also yellow-green, three- or five-cut. Pink flowers with a white bottom and a bowl, up to 10 cm in diameter, have the shape of a tulip
- Late - a compact bush of about a meter in height and the same diameter, densely leafy toothed, oval-arrow-shaped leaves with light veins on thick petioles. Flowers, crimson-pink with a lilac shade in the form of narrow bells up to 7 cm in diameter, open on short thick peduncles
Photo: Hibiscus hybrid (Hibiscus hybrida)
- Pale pink - a herbaceous bush up to 170 cm high with short shoots extending at an angle of 60º from the branches, with three-cut yellow-green leaves with a serrated edge and tulip-shaped pink flowers up to 12 cm in diameter with a white bottom and a bowl
- Pink-porcelain - bush up to 130 cm, branched stems, yellow-green, deeply incised leaves with a wide, protruding middle lobe, dusty yellow-green hue, petioles up to 6 cm long. Large bell-shaped light pink flowers with barely noticeable yellowness and a white throat, up to 12 cm in diameter, sit in bunches on short peduncles.