Anti-aircraft lights: calculation, installation, repair

 Anti-aircraft lights: calculation, installation, repair

The person feels more comfortable in daylight. Therefore, in houses for additional natural light, glazing of the walls is used with the use of a variety of non-standard double-glazed windows. But there are times when the construction of the building does not allow the installation of large windows. Then an excellent solution is to install rooflights on the roof.

What are rooflights, what and where are they used

A zenith or skylight dome (bay window) refers to unusual architectural solutions. Its name is due to the fact that through such a structure one can observe the sun at its zenith. Designer skylights help to extend the daylight hours in the house and significantly save energy. These structures are now actively used not only in the creation of industrial buildings, but also in foreign private construction. After all, they also become an original decorative element that favorably distinguishes the building against the background of other buildings.

In Russia, many owners of private houses either do not know about these structures or do not trust them. There is a misconception that in winter such a lantern becomes covered with snow and becomes useless, but this is not the case. The skylight protrudes at least 30-60 cm above the roof surface, so the snow is well blown off it. Its inclined or spherical surface also contributes to this.

Rooflights are made in different shapes and sizes, based on the dimensions of the building and the required level of its illumination

Scope of transparent structures:

  • industrial premises;
  • warehouses;
  • shopping centers;
  • entertainment and sports facilities;
  • private housing construction.

Skylights are installed on the roofs of both industrial buildings, shopping and entertainment establishments, and private houses.

For the manufacture of skylights, durable materials and impact-resistant glass are used. Although their installation is quite complicated and carried out only by professionals, their popularity among private home owners is also growing. This is due to a number of advantages:

  • increase the natural lighting of the room, which is important on short winter days, and save energy;
  • decorate the building;
  • strong and durable;
  • have a high level of security (protection from outside penetration);
  • snow does not accumulate on them (unlike dormers that perform similar functions);
  • the tightness of the structure prevents the formation of condensation;
  • an air gap between the layers of the dome provides heat and sound insulation.

The aluminum frame allows you to build a large enough skylight on the roof of a private house

The base of the skylights adjacent to the roof can be made of any shape. For glazing the dome, double-glazed windows or single glasses are used. Usually such structures are made deaf, but they are supplied with special devices to ensure ventilation.

Skylights are installed on all types of roofs and fit perfectly into different architectural ensembles.

Construction requirements

An anti-aircraft lantern is a canopy attached to the base. The lower part of the structure cuts under the roofing cake and is mounted on the base of the roof. The general scheme of the anti-aircraft lantern device includes:

  • base;
  • frame - installed in the roof opening, has a plastic or aluminum profile edging;
  • transparent coating - transmits light (glass, plain or cellular polycarbonate, acrylic, polyester boards);
  • opening / closing devices - a dull lantern is used only to illuminate the room, and the opening ones also provide ventilation; the way of opening the lantern can be manual or electric.

It is more convenient to use a skylight with automatic opening and closing of hatches

Studies have shown that it is more efficient and more comfortable for a person to have a ceiling light coming through skylights than a side light coming through windows. But it is important to place such elements correctly, and then they will provide uniform illumination of the entire room or its separate zone. When determining the location of installation of skylights and their sizes, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the ventilation and fire-prevention system in the building.

For a person, daylight is perceived more naturally, coming from the top of the building, and not from the side.

Varieties of antiaircraft lights

The main thing in an anti-aircraft lantern is its shape. It is made in the form of a prism, pyramid, dome, crystal, etc. The shape affects both the appearance of the structure and its light transmittance. If the side walls are raised higher, then more light will enter the room in the morning and evening hours. And the domed structure will be more resistant to snow and wind loads.

The shape of the skylight can be different: it all depends on the design of the building and the requirements for this device.

It is possible to make a rooflight of almost any shape, but if standard models have been tested in a specific climate, then when creating experimental options it is not always possible to accurately calculate the load that the structure can withstand.

Skylights can be deaf or with opening hatches, which allows for smoke extraction and ventilation in the building

By type of design, an anti-aircraft lantern is:

  • point;
  • tape (long stripes);
  • panel (short stripes).

According to their functionality, the lights are divided into:

  • fireproof;
  • lighting;
  • ventilation;
  • decorative;
  • combined.

Additionally, there is a division into deaf and opening models.

Automatic smoke exhaust lantern

The main function of the zenith smoke exhaust lamp is to quickly remove smoke from the room with automatic ventilation. Such structures are equipped with an electric or pneumatic drive. The latter option is used in industrial buildings. In order for such a system to work reliably and ensure the safety of the premises, its calculation and installation must be carried out by specialists.

The zenith smoke exhaust lamp can be opened when the smoke sensors are triggered, and for ventilation it is opened periodically using a separate switch

The principle of operation is simple: a temperature sensor and smoke sensors are connected to the lamp control system. When they are triggered, the fire extinguishing system is turned on, hatches are automatically opened, the smoke is removed.

Automatic opening of the anti-aircraft smoke exhaust lamp can save the lives of those who are inside the building at this moment.

According to GOST R 53301-2009, no more than 90 seconds are allowed for opening the smoke exhaust lantern from the moment the fire extinguishing system is triggered, and the lantern itself must open at least 90 degrees.

Most modern models open in 5-7 seconds, and the opening angle reaches 172 degrees. In addition to this, there is the possibility of forced opening using a button or starting a program for periodic automatic ventilation of the room.

Deaf lantern design

An anti-aircraft lantern of a solid structure does not take part in the ventilation of the room, therefore it is installed only where there are other ventilation systems. The presence of a high-quality double-glazed unit "triplex" with triple glass provides high reliability, protection from the negative effects of sunlight, good heat and sound insulation.

The fixed rooflight consists of an outer sash, a subframe and a base

To filter the sun's rays, you can install a special transparent screen. The rays pass through it, so the room maintains a comfortable temperature. The screen is mounted from the inside of the room, it is powered by solar energy, and is controlled remotely. Pleated curtains are hung from the inside to soften the incoming light and to decorate the room.

Transparent screens let sunlight through like a sieve, which allows you to keep the room at a comfortable temperature

Ribbon skylights

A skylight (or "skylight") is used on large buildings. The length of such structures reaches several tens of meters, so they perfectly illuminate the room during the day.

Tape skylights are installed on long roofs and equipped with ventilation hatches

Their main advantages:

  • high light transmittance due to its size;
  • are made both deaf and ventilated;
  • neat appearance.

Installed on different roof coverings. They are mounted both along and across the ridge: it all depends on the size and structure of the roof.

Spot light

Spot skylights are mounted on roofs with a slope not exceeding 25 degrees, and are used not only for lighting, but also for ventilation. A large selection of all kinds of structures allows you to choose an option for any type of roof and for every taste.

Spot skylights can be deaf or with an opening sash

Pros of a spotlight:

  • practicality, ease of installation;
  • saving money costs;
  • increasing the fire safety of the building, ensuring rapid ventilation;
  • resistance to wind, precipitation and sunlight.

Video: a large anti-aircraft lantern on the roof of a building

Rules for calculating the size and throughput of an anti-aircraft lantern

The roof structure is of great importance when choosing a lantern model. If, for example, it is pitched acute-angled, then it will not work to install a polygonal dome. And you have to stop at the flat version.

It is necessary to correctly calculate the dimensions of the skylight: too small a structure will not fulfill its purpose, and a large one will weaken the roof structure.

You also need to decide on the number of lanterns (how many of them will be opening) and think over their location on the roof. For uniform illumination of the room, experts recommend it is better to install several small-sized point skylights than one massive structure.

It is most convenient to mount spot skylights on flat roofs.

Only a specialist can correctly calculate. But there are special online programs with which, knowing all the necessary parameters, you can perform calculations yourself. To correctly determine the size of the opening, which is not dangerous to make in the floor, it is necessary to take into account the size of the slab, the material of the floor, the placement of the stiffeners and other factors. You should not use ready-made drawings of skylights without taking into account the type of overlap on a particular building. Some firms do projects without visiting the work site, but it is better not to trust them.

It is better to entrust the calculation of the anti-aircraft lantern to a professional, but if you have enough skills, then this can be done on your own

When making independent calculations, it is necessary to take into account the standards:

  • above the roof surface, the dome should protrude at least 30–60 cm;
  • glazing area can be at least 2 m2, and when using translucent polymers - no more than 10 m2;
  • the angle of inclination of the edges cannot exceed 30 degrees (for high domes - no more than 15 degrees);
  • if the height of the room is less than 7 m, then it is better to install accurate lights; for higher rooms, tape structures are used;
  • there should be at least 3 m between domes with polymer glasses, and if they are large, then at least 4.5 m;
  • to maintain the anti-aircraft lantern, a free space is left around it: 1 meter from all sides;
  • when covering the lantern with glass, its maximum deflection is not more than 1/200, and if double-glazed windows are installed, then no more than 1/500;
  • if the surface of the dome is curved, then the inner glass should not be thinner than 2.5 mm, and the outer glass should not be thinner than 4 mm;
  • the support glass (base) must be of such a size that its two sides necessarily rest on the supporting structure of the roof.

To calculate the area of ​​the openings, the following formula is used: 100 Sf/ SP = (en Ks ηf) / (τabout rf Kf), where:

  • Sf - area of ​​light openings, m²;
  • SP - floor area of ​​the room, m²;
  • en - normalized value of the coefficient of natural light,%;
  • Ks - the safety factor of the lamp: it takes into account the deterioration of the light transmission characteristics of the lamp due to pollution and aging of the surface;
  • ηf - light characteristic of the lantern;
  • τabout - the general coefficient of light transmission of the opening;
  • rf - a coefficient that takes into account the increase in natural lighting due to the reflection of light from the surfaces of the room;
  • Kf - coefficient that takes into account the light reflected from the surface of the lantern.

The values ​​of en, ηf, τabout, rf, Kf are taken from tables that can be found in special literature.

Having determined the total area of ​​the skylights, it is divided by the size of one skylight and the required amount is obtained. After that, the lights are distributed evenly over the roof surface or in those places where maximum illumination is required. To use a tape structure, its length is determined.

What can you make an anti-aircraft lantern with your own hands?

For the skylight frame, an aluminum / steel profile or glued beam is used. If you have the appropriate skills and the necessary equipment, then you can do it yourself. A multi-chamber thermal profile is also suitable for the base, which is used to create metal-plastic windows.

Most often, aluminum is used for the manufacture of a lantern, since it is lightweight and does not corrode. Its main disadvantage is its high thermal conductivity. Therefore, in order to exclude freezing of the system, a thermal bridge is installed from polymeric materials.

The glazing of the frame is carried out with the help of one- or two-chamber double-glazed windows. In some cases, heated glass units, tempered glass or polycarbonate sheets are installed.

It is quite difficult to make an anti-aircraft lantern on your own: you need high-quality materials, suitable equipment and professional skills

Lantern made of polycarbonate

Polycarbonate, with its low weight, is a fairly durable material, it is easier to work with it. It is cheaper and more affordable than glass, therefore it is often used to cover skylights. However, the main disadvantage of this material is that over time, its surface dims, light transmittance decreases.

Recently, polycarbonate is increasingly used for glazing skylights, as it has less weight and higher strength.

Although the heat transfer of polycarbonate is low, in order to further reduce it, special interlayers are placed between the plastic sheets or heat-absorbing toning is done.

Large sheets of polycarbonate are laid on the frame and attached to it with clamping strips

Video: covering a broken anti-aircraft lantern with polycarbonate

Glass lantern

In such structures, tempered glass or a double-glazed unit of two / three glasses with a layer of a special insulating film that reduces heat transfer is used. But usually tempered glass is installed outside, and "triplex" is added from the inside of the room.

Glass skylights let in sunlight better and look prettier than polycarbonate structures

Advantages of a glass coating: it retains transparency longer, does not expand when heated, and is easy to clean. Cons: to create structures of complex shapes, the use of glass is inconvenient, and sometimes impossible. A glass skylight is heavy and more expensive than a polycarbonate one.

Video: step-by-step instructions for installing an anti-aircraft smoke exhaust lamp on a flat roof

Installation features

If you want to save money, have free time, desire and skills to perform construction and installation work, then you can cope with the installation of an anti-aircraft lantern on your own. A lantern is installed on the roof with a living attic or if there is no attic in the house.

The order of work will be as follows:

  1. Preparatory measures - dirt and debris is removed from the roof, the surface is washed. It is best that the installation of the roof light is carried out during the construction phase of the house, then the probability of damage to the roof will be minimal.
  2. Installation of the base (glass) - the base is installed and fixed along the edge of the prepared opening. Heat and sound insulation is provided with foamed polyethylene or bitumen mastic.
  3. Frame fastening - the frame is mounted in a prepared base: special fasteners are built into it, which reliably connect the structure into a single system. There are no gaps between the base and the frame, therefore a special rubber seal is laid around the perimeter.

    During installation of the skylight frame, the guiding elements must not be displaced or skewed.

  4. Glazing - in a blind canopy, polycarbonate or a glass unit is placed on the inner edge of the frame and fixed from above with glazing beads, and in the opening structure, the sash is attached to the frame on strong hinges. After its installation, the tightness and uniformity of closure is adjusted.

    The integrity of the entire structure will depend on the reliability of attaching the glass to the profile.

  5. Installation of the opening mechanism - after hanging the sash of the lantern, the opening mechanism is mounted:
    • mechanical - a rod of the required length is attached, which is connected to the handle of the lantern;
    • electric - the drive is controlled remotely, connected to the mains or has an autonomous power source.

      It is convenient to use an electric or pneumatic drive to open the skylight.

If you plan to install a tape or a large point anti-aircraft lantern, then it is better to invite specialists, since the weight of such structures is large, you will not be able to cope with their installation on your own.

Mounting a large skylight requires professional skill

Video: large glazing of a skylight

Repair of transparent roof installations

The rooflight is constantly exposed to sunlight, rain, wind and snow. And over time, the insulating characteristics of polyurethane foam, sealants, and seals decrease. All this leads to a decrease in light transmission and the appearance of leaks.

To increase the service life of rooflights, it is necessary to carry out inspections in the spring and autumn. If faults are identified, they must be eliminated immediately.

During the inspection of the structure, the state of the glazing, seals and the operability of the sash opening elements are assessed. The main types of breakdowns of rooflights and how to eliminate them:

  1. Reduced light transmittance - occurs due to contamination of the glass or from the formation of ice and condensation. It is eliminated by cleaning the surface with water or using special detergents.

    It is necessary to periodically clean the skylights, otherwise their light transmittance decreases.

  2. Leaks - appear due to damage to individual elements or a decrease in the waterproofing characteristics of the seals. They need to be replaced.

    If the seals are damaged, the skylight may leak.

  3. Increased air permeability - the glazing or frame is damaged, the sash is crooked or the seal is peeled off.
  4. Glazing damage - occurs during improper installation or maintenance, as well as due to thermal deformation of parts of the frame or base. Replacement of damaged elements is required.

    If the glazing is damaged, this element is replaced and high-quality waterproofing of the joints

  5. Formation of ice / frost on the inner surface - due to violations during the thermal insulation of the structure or a leaky glass unit. In this case, the flashlight (or its removable glass part) must be replaced.
  6. Breakdown of the opening mechanism - occurs due to improper operation or wear of some small connecting parts. We'll have to put in a new mechanism.

Video: restoring the tightness of the anti-aircraft lantern

In our country, rooflights are rarely used in private houses. But if you correctly calculate and install such a structure, then it will not only be a source of additional daylight in the house, but also an effective ventilation and smoke removal system.

Winter garden in the house

Today more and more country houses, private cottages and summer cottages are decorating winter gardens. They often have living rooms and swimming pools. There are gardens at the offices of large companies as recreational areas, as well as at cafes and restaurants as additional halls.

A winter garden made of aluminum is beautiful and durable

Modern conservatories are most often created on the basis of aluminum. The aluminum profile is resistant to deformation and climatic negative, as well as low weight. This makes structures made of it durable and lightweight, even with a large area of ​​the metal frame.

Winter garden - winter gardens of the Veranda series

TS Aluminum (Germany) has been specializing exclusively in the production of systems for winter gardens for over 30 years and is a leader in the winter garden market. The aluminum profile is durable, weatherproof and absolutely maintenance-free. The profiles are extruded in Germany from primary aluminum. The construction is light and durable with a unique design.

The winter garden has the same type of construction of nodes and junctions, which is deservedly considered an advanced engineering solution, guaranteed to exclude hydro-steam-wind permeability. The fundamental difference lies in the thermal properties of the systems.

Systems "TS Aluminum" winter garden of the Veranda series for translucent roofs (more than 30 years on the market) are the only conservatory glazing systems presented in Ukraine, which, unlike imitation systems, guarantee long-term waterproofing of the roofing part (without the use of sealants), and not relative performance only for the period of the official guarantee.

Consider replacing roofing systems "TS Aluminum" imitating analogs are not recommended for a winter garden, because they do not guarantee the durability and reliability of the roof waterproofing and require mandatory service every 2-5 years.

Static parameters systems "TS Aluminum" allow you to build a winter garden with a depth and with a step between the posts of more than 5 m, without using a metal frame, which makes it possible to install wide sliding structures (lift-and-slide doors and accordion doors) and transform the winter garden into a terrace in summer.

In the heated structures of the winter garden, "warm" profiles with thermal insulating inserts are used, in unheated ones - "cold systems".

Our experience is of great importance in the design of the facility, as many conservatories have been built.

TS Aluminum systems"Winter Garden" more than 30 years on the market and are constantly being improved. The special design of TS Aluminum profiles allows you to attach the side walls of the winter garden made of aluminum, wood or PVC from any system, thus showing an individual approach to the design, which makes it possible to optimize the cost of the winter garden. This opportunity guarantees you to choose your own version of the winter garden.

The shape of the roof of the Veranda series conservatory systems is one of the key features of the conservatory design. On the one hand, it depends on the architecture of the house, which is adjacent to the winter garden, on the other hand, on your taste and wishes. Below, we have developed frequently used forms of a winter garden (in practice, more than 100 types), it is possible to carry out a non-standard project.

Application of systems - Veranda "Winter Garden" Series

Aluminum structures: winter garden, greenhouse, veranda, terrace roofs, atrium, pool pavilion, domes, gazebo, car canopy and other structures with a transparent roof.

Key points of foundation installation:

An excellent advantage of the greenhouse as an extension to the house can be considered its low weight, and therefore, a belt of reinforced concrete slabs, the thickness of which exceeds 200 mm, laid below the freezing point, about 1200 mm from the surface, can be used as a foundation for the greenhouse.
To build a foundation for a winter garden from scratch, you can use any convenient options, for example, a strip foundation using reinforcement and concrete. As a rule, I install this structure at a height of 0.3-1 above the ground level. Thanks to this, in the future, it will be possible to harmoniously install heating devices to the interior and adapt window sills on which you can put flowers. Also, due to this, in winter, from the inside of the building, snowdrifts will not be visible, which will support the walls of the greenhouse.

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Winter gardens in a private house prices and types of profiles

Prices for translucent structures and profiles for winter country gardens are determined by the manufacturer's brand.

from 21 646 r / m² | from 13 700 rub / m2

The static, stable structure of support trusses provides rigidity when exposed to wind, snow and mechanical loads.

from 56 406 r / m² | from 35 700 rub / m2

The solid wood provides improved thermal insulation and less condensation in the profile.

from 63 042 rub / m² | from 39 900 rub / m2

Buy a metal profile with a thermal insert for heated winter gardens.

Start building your winter garden with a solid and solid foundation.

We lay foundations in private winter gardens strictly in accordance with SNiP 2.02.01-83, and use high-quality concrete from trusted suppliers of well-known brands.

from 16 370 r / m² | from 9 800 rub / m2

Reinforced concrete monolithic slabs with a thickness of more than 20 cm are laid below the freezing level.

from 24 380 rub / m² | from 14 600 rub / m2

The reinforcement and concrete form a rigid frame, redistributing the load evenly.

from 34 070 rub / m² | from 20 400 rub / m2

Foundation beams, interconnected by fixing supports.

Winter garden price per m2: inexpensively build annexes to a private house

We offer to buy winter transom gardens without intermediaries' surcharges for private houses, cottages and summer cottages. The presence of our own warehouse-type bases, production facilities with automatic control, developed logistics and special purpose tilt vehicles ensure the lowest prices for our goods and services in Moscow and Moscow Region.

Below is the approximate cost per square meter of standard winter gardens, excluding opening doors, hatches and doors.

Glazing system: Facade TP-50300 of the Tatprof plant, Russia.
Glass unit: 6zak-8-4M1-10-4M1x1x4M1 tinted - on the roof, 4M1-12-4M1-12-4M1 tinted - in the facade.

Cost per square meter. up to 25 m / sq from 25 m / sq. to 50 m / sq. from 50 m / sq. to 100 m / sq. over 100 m / sq
The roof area is approximately equal to the area of ​​the facades. 18,000 rubles * 16,000 rubles * RUB 14,000 * 11,000 rubles *
The roof area is much larger than the area of ​​the facades. RUB 21,000 * 18,000 rubles * 16,000 rubles * 12,000 rubles *
The roof area is significantly less than the area of ​​the facades. 17,000 rubles * RUB 15,000 * 12,000 rubles * RUB 10,000 *

* The cost per square meter of a winter garden made from SCHUECO profiles is on average 1.5 times more expensive than tabular ones.

Sashes, doors: Window-door system TPT-65, warm profile.

Aluminum profile - windows and doors

Door with aluminum profile

Glass windows and doors using an aluminum profile, firstly, emphasize the modern design of the building, since they are connecting and final elements of the structure, and, secondly, they provide coziness and comfort inside the room.

As mentioned above, windows and doors can be either cold or warm. You can individually order the installation of tinted glass or armored glass with one, two or three-chamber double-glazed windows. In addition, doors, like windows, differ in the number of leaves and the method of opening.

Window constructions, and, in particular, sliding windows made of aluminum profiles, provide the broadest possibilities for design ideas, since the color palette allows you to make a choice in any color according to the RAL scale. In addition, today there is an opportunity to decorate aluminum structures, namely to create patterns "under a tree" of various species.

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