In the list of compulsory garden crops, cucumber takes one of the first places. Growing cucumbers, you want to get a harvest earlier, more, better. Vegetable yield depends on proper planting, care and regular feeding.
Why feed cucumbers
Plants require many essential nutrients to grow. In nature, a certain balance is established between them. Continuous cultivation of a variety of crops upsets this balance.
A properly selected substrate contains useful elements that are necessary for cucumbers in the initial stage of development. However, there will come a time when all of them will be wasted and their additional introduction in the form of dressings will be required.
An optimal diet is essential at every stage of plant development, but excessive fertilizer accumulation must be avoided. When feeding, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommended rate indicated on the package, specifically for cucumbers.
Signs of a lack of fertilizer
It is necessary to pay attention to the appearance of plants and fruits. If the plant lags behind in growth, the leaves become smaller or change color, ugly fruits have appeared, then you should think about feeding. Let's consider specific examples.
Lack of nitrogen fertilizers
The leaves become too small and light colored. The lower leaves turn yellow, the growth of stems and lateral shoots slows down. The fruits acquire a pointed, wedge-shaped shape and become light green regardless of the variety. The flowering and appearance of cucumbers is reduced. Plants have a faded appearance.
Leaves take on a light color
The upper part of the fruit takes the shape of a beak
With an excess of nitrogen, vigorous growth of leaves and lashes is observed. The color of the leaves turns dark green. No ovary. This happens if a lot of manure is introduced.
Violent plant growth is observed without ovary
Lack of potassium or its excess
Rusty spots that appear on the leaves and, especially, on the edges of them, clearly indicate a lack of potash fertilizers. The growth of the plant stops. There is a tendency to wilting. The shape of the fruit becomes like an ugly green pear. The main reason is the frequent feeding at the beginning of summer with infusion of mullein, chicken droppings, and all kinds of herbs. These fertilizers contain a lot of nitrogen. Ash or potash fertilizers are simply not remembered.
Cucumber shape tapers towards the stalk
If a whitish tint appears on the leaves, and later mosaic spots appear, then this indicates an excess amount of potash fertilizers. Soon the leaves will begin to wither and crumble.
Deficiency or excess of magnesium
The leaves become brittle, at first they turn yellow, and then look like burnt ones. Magnesium deficiency is more common in areas of high humidity. It occurs in places with sandy or acidic soils with heavy rainfall. The yield is decreasing.
Yellowing of the leaves is observed
Excess magnesium leads to the death of the root system of cucumbers. It is important not to overdo it with this element.
Lack or excess of phosphorus fertilizers
Deficiency of phosphorus fertilizers is more often observed when planting on acidic soils with a lack of organic matter. Old leaves change their color, become bluish or reddish, and decrease in size. The growth and ripening of fruits slows down.
Excess phosphorus leads to a general yellowing of the leaves, necrotic spots appear. Leaves fall.
Leaves acquire a certain color
How does the lack of other elements affect cucumbers?
Observing young leaves and ovary will allow you to determine calcium deficiency. The plant has small leaves, they gradually curl.Fruits decrease in size, become tasteless.
If pale leaves appear, the shoots weaken, wither, and the flowers begin to fall off, then there is lack of copper.
The crumbling leaves and the appearance of brown spots on them indicate an excess of copper.
On the boron deficiency will indicate dying points of growth, weakened and prone to wilting shoots, crumbling flowers.
An excess of boron is indicated by the domed shape of the leaves and tissue necrosis that appears along the edges of the leaves.
"Table: Required dressings with deficiencies of various elements."
|Lack of nitrogen in the soil||Top dressing with manure (1:10), infusion of weeds (1: 5), ammonium nitrate (2 tablespoons per bucket of water).|
|Potassium deficiency||Root or foliar feeding with potassium sulfate. Watering with an ash solution under the root.|
|Lack of magnesium||Add mullein solution.|
|Lack of phosphorus||Spray with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.|
|Calcium deficiency||Spraying with 3% chelated calcium.|
|Lack of copper||Feed with 1% aqueous solution of copper phytoplasm|
|Boron shortage||Carry out foliar feeding with Boron Kelkat. Consumption of 5 grams per 10 liters of water.|
How and when to fertilize cucumbers
Let's talk about the types, forms and feeding regime that cucumbers require for the entire summer period.
As a rule, three to four dressings are carried out. They are composed of mineral and organic fertilizers. They can be alternated. Fertilizers are applied by root and foliar application. Gradually, guided by their experience, gardeners themselves choose the type, method of feeding, the order of their implementation. However, there are general approaches that everyone should follow.
Should be carried out after rain or heavy watering
In the warm summer, root dressing is carried out. It is recommended to carry out them in cool, gloomy weather, after rain or sufficient watering. And for foliar dressing, cool, gloomy days are more suitable. Spraying the leaves is carried out in the evening or on cloudy days in small portions. It is necessary that the liquid spreads in small drops and in a measured manner.
It is recommended to spend it in the evening.
The first feeding should be carried out two weeks after planting, the second - with the beginning of flowering, the third - during the mass setting of fruits. The fourth feeding is carried out in order to prolong the fruiting period.
The better to feed cucumbers
There are many methods of feeding, but it is necessary to choose a method that is suitable specifically for the given soil and climatic conditions of this area.
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers
When the second true leaf appears, 1 top dressing is carried out: 120 g of nitroammofoska or 50 g of another complex fertilizer per 10 liters of water. Experienced gardeners recommend adding chicken manure, ash, mullein to mineral fertilizers and performing the work as follows:
- For the first feeding, you need: 0.5 liters of mushy chicken droppings, 1 tablespoon of nitrophoska, 3 tablespoons of ash. Dissolve everything in ten liters of water.
- The second feeding should be done in 2-3 weeks. You need to take 1 liter of mullein (first dilute it 1: 3), 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate, superphosphate, urea and combine with 10 liters of water. Consumption - 8-10 liters of mortar per m2.
- After another two weeks, it is necessary to carry out the third stage of work. You need to take 10 liters of water, add 1 liter of mullein diluted in a 1: 3 ratio and one tablespoon of complex fertilizer to it. Consumption - 5 liters per 1 m2.
- The fourth top dressing can be prepared using plantain, starworm, nettle. Pour one kilogram of this mixture with 12 liters of hot water, stir, leave to infuse for a day. Watering is carried out at the rate of 2-3 liters per 1 m2.
Positive results in the cultivation of cucumbers are achieved using the method of spraying plants with the following composition: 1 teaspoon of urea is dissolved in 10 liters of water.Irrigation is carried out once every 15–20 days. Consumption - 1 liter per 1 m2. Such spraying promotes plant growth and development, and also reduces the likelihood of powdery mildew damage.
Foliar top dressing with potassium and phosphorus accelerates fruit ripening and increases productivity, it is advisable to feed them with microelements.
“Video: why do cucumber ovaries turn yellow and do not grow? And what to do? "
Feeding cucumbers with yeast
Yeast is an excellent growth promoter for plants. They contain the nutrients that cucumbers need. In addition, yeast improves soil composition and suppresses the development of pathogens. For yeast feeding, take one kg of pressed yeast, dilute them in 5 liters of warm water, let stand for one hour. Before use, the yeast solution is diluted 1:10.
Dry yeast can be used. You need to take 10 g of dry yeast, 2 tablespoons of sugar, dissolve in 10 liters of water. Hold for two hours in a warm place, dilute with warm water 1: 5 and water the plants under the root.
“Video: Fertilizer for tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables. Feeding on the basis of yeast ".
The use of greenery and iodine
When 3-4 real leaves appeared on the cucumbers, spray with a solution consisting of:
- 30 drops of iodine;
- one liter of milk;
- 20 g of laundry soap;
- a bucket of water.
The treatment is repeated several times with an interval of ten days. Such feeding will protect against the occurrence of diseases.
Greenery is a good antiseptic for processing plants. In addition to the fact that it is a good fertilizer, greenery will relieve plants of powdery mildew and foam spore. It is enough to take 5 ml of greenery, dissolve in a bucket of water, spray the plants. Repeat after 10-15 days. Harvesting should be done no earlier than five days.
Feeding cucumbers with ash
The ash content in top dressing increases the yield of vegetables, improves their taste, enriches the soil with microelements, and helps fight pests. In the garden, you can use oven or vegetable ash. Construction waste or plastic bottles should not be burned for this purpose. Positive aspects of ash fertilization:
- increases the level of alkali in the soil;
- favors the reproduction of beneficial bacteria;
- protects crops from the development of fungal diseases;
- neutralizes the acidity of the soil;
- has a long lasting effect for 3 years.
When planting seedlings, dry ash is thrown into the soil (a glass of ash per 1 m2). For root feeding, 100 g of ash is dissolved in a bucket of water and poured over the vegetables.
Useful spray formulation with added soap. Take 300 grams of sifted ash, dilute in 3 liters of water, boil for 30 minutes. Then they insist for 5-6 hours. The solution must be filtered and combined with 50 g of shavings from laundry soap, diluted with water to make the solution 10 liters.
Feeding cucumbers with manure, including horse manure
Top dressing with manure and, especially, horse manure is very useful for increasing the yield of cucumbers. For the preparation of mullein, fresh manure is used. To do this, it is poured with water (proportion 1: 3), left to ferment for ten days. Then one liter of this solution is diluted with a bucket of water and cucumbers are added.
To increase the yield, 50 grams of superphosphate is added to this solution during the fruiting period.
For spraying, use a solution of a lower concentration (1:20).
Nettles and other plants for feeding cucumbers
Ash or mullein is not always at hand for a gardener. But there are herbs in every garden. They become a real "magic wand". A particularly useful fertilizer is nettle. Top dressing from it is easily absorbed by plants, replenishes with potassium and nitrogen. Nettle tops are rich in various trace elements: manganese, copper, boron, potassium, nickel, titanium, calcium, sulfur. After feeding, the stems become thicker and denser. The leaves become more juicy and rich in color. The yield is increasing.
Solutions are not prepared in metal containers. Plastic buckets, cisterns, old enameled dishes can be found in every home.
Non-flowering nettle branches are cut off, crushed, poured with hot water, covered, left in a warm place for fermentation for 3-5 days. Stir every day. The mullein fertilizer is ready. For spraying, dilute 1:20. Be sure to filter.
Together with the nettle, various plants are added that are available in the garden. It is not recommended to use field bindweed because of its toxicity.
Video: Organic Versatile Nettle Treatment.
An indispensable condition for long-term fruiting of cucumbers is fertile soil. However, do not forget that excessive fertilization can harm the plant. Stick to the correct feeding rates and you will always have high yields.
How to feed seedlings correctly?
Fertilizers for pepper seedlings
Good results are obtained using infusion of eggshells or banana peels. Fill a three-liter jar by 2/3 with any of these components, fill it with water and set aside for 72 hours. After the end of this time, the infusion is filtered and used for feeding, after being diluted with clean water in a ratio of 1: 3.
How to feed cucumber seedlings so that they are plump
Every vegetable grower dreams of strong plants and large yields. And although the soil is prepared quite fertile, cucumber seedlings still need additional feeding. Preference is given to liquid compounds that combine irrigation and fertilization at the same time.
Seedling is the initial period in the life of a culture. The future harvest depends entirely on how much it was provided with food, light, and heat. Feeding seedlings is aimed at the most comfortable development.
Any mistake at this moment is practically irreparable, and will inevitably affect the future harvest: the quantity and quality of zelents.
When to feed
The seedlings are fed 3 times until they are transplanted to the beds. As a last resort, if the seedlings do not grow well, are weak, they are fertilized every 2 weeks. This applies mainly to greenhouse plants.
- As soon as a real leaf appears on the sprouts, the first feeding can begin. Only aqueous solutions are used during this period. Mineral or organic fertilizer should get to the roots of the sprouts during morning watering.
- A couple of weeks later, after the second leaf has grown, they re-fertilize, and 2 days before transplanting, the seedlings are fertilized a third time.
Studies and experiments have shown that even on completely sterile soil, cucumbers, until the first leaf appears, develop quite normally, since they live thanks to the energy in the seed.
Among vegetable growers, there are supporters of later feeding of seedlings. They argue that the most favorable moment for the adoption of fertilizers from seedlings comes at the time of the formation of 3 leaves. By this time, the roots have developed sufficiently, and are fully capable of fully accepting all the necessary minerals offered.
Top dressing rules
Nutrient solutions should be applied only to the root of the plants, preferably without even getting on the stems. As a rule, water the soil between the shoots.
Foliar dressing is prepared with a completely different concentration, so the low content of trace elements cannot damage the leaves.
Once root feeding has been done, the seedlings should be watered with clean, warm water. When fertilizers get on the plant, they are also washed by spraying.
Each root dressing must be combined with foliar dressing. With such a duet, the plant will significantly improve photosynthesis and metabolic processes.
How to feed cucumber seedlings so that they are plump
If the cucumber seedlings are lacking in any element, this will definitely affect the subsequent harvest.Lack of potassium will disfigure the greens, nitrogen will make the fruits conical, calcium will cause the ovaries to be wiped off.
Under the root, fertilizers begin to be given when the plants have permanent leaves - this is the first sign that the normal development of the roots. The procedure is usually carried out in the evening, preferably after good watering.
Foliar dressing is carried out when it is difficult for the roots to assimilate minerals from the soil. This happens in cool weather, when it is too damp and cloudy. It is advisable to set the sprinkler of the spray gun to the smallest dispersion in order to more evenly distribute the fertilizer over the foliage.
For cucumber seedlings, ready-made complexes are offered: sodium and potassium humate, effecton. Complex fertilizers are very economical: only 1 spoon of fertilizer is diluted in a bucket of water. The ready-made solution can be poured over 5 m² of the plantation.
During the 2nd and 3rd fertilization of seedlings, the dose of minerals should be doubled. In addition, a small amount of trace elements is introduced with foliar feeding. At this moment, cucumbers need complex fertilizers saturated with mineral mixtures: Nitrofoska, Kemira-Lux.
The gardeners carry out the third feeding using the composition of their own preparation. His recipe was compiled by the method of many years of observation and trial:
- Water - 10 l
- Potassium salt - 10 g
- Superphosphate - 40 g
- Urea - 15 g.
There is one important nuance here: it is very important to use potassium sulfate, but not chloride. This is very important to remember, as chlorine will cause irreparable harm to the seedlings. A bucket of this composition is enough to feed cucumbers on an area of 2 m².
The most convenient way to grow seedlings is to buy a special nutrient medium. Such a wonderful mixture will greatly facilitate the process of caring for the sprouts if you follow the included recommendations.
Any material that can replace soil is suitable for the substrate: mineral wool, sand, sawdust, coconut fiber. They are pretreated and soaked in nutrients.
You can choose a substrate at will, the main thing is that it must have the following properties:
- Excellent hygroscopicity
- The optimal composition of the required elements
- Acidity limits - 6.4 - 7.0
- Air permeability, looseness.
You can also buy a soil mixture in stores designed specifically for cucumbers. Inveterate growers try not to use substrates prepared with the addition of peat. The fact is that peat, if there is a problem with water, stops absorbing it, which causes the seedlings to dry out.
Growers prefer to make their own nutrient substrates using their proven methods. They keep their secrets secret, and rarely reveal them to anyone, competing in achieving results.
When using organic matter for cucumber seedlings, you should not stop choosing manure. There is a high probability of disrupting the dosage, and the excessive heat generated by the manure can easily damage the roots of the plant.
It is better to use fermented bird droppings. Potassium sulfate and saltpeter are added as organics.
When feeding seedlings for the first time, it is better to offer organic matter in tandem with minerals: rotted humus is combined with superphosphate.
It so happens that there was no organic matter on the farm. In this case, you can use the following recipe:
- A bucket of water
- Potassium sulfate - 8 g
- Superphosphate - 14 g
- Ammonium nitrate - 7 g.
If possible, a little mullein should be added to this solution, or at least fermented bird droppings.
In recent years, more and more gardeners give preference to feeding seedlings using folk methods. This is, first of all, good for health: environmentally friendly feeding prevents the accumulation of chemicals in the fruits, making them safe.
Ashes begin to be used from the moment the seedlings dive, gradually pouring it directly into the holes.It is also scattered right on the ground between the plants, and then watered. You can also infuse ash and water the cucumber seedlings with a solution, spray.
It is recommended to use ash procedures 2 times a month. In addition to ash, other fertilizing can be used for seedlings:
- Starting from the 2nd feeding, boric acid can be offered to the plants. To do this, hot water is poured into a liter mug, 100 g of sugar and a small spoonful of boric acid are put.
- Ordinary yeast will serve as a good feeding for cucumbers. They are not often fertilized with plants, however, the result is always excellent. A pack of 100 g is diluted in a bucket of water and infused for a day. The resulting composition is watered cucumber seedlings under the roots.
- Weed infusions give a good feeding. Nettle, dandelion and other herbs are brewed. According to another recipe, it is proposed to insist on the sun for a week, flooding with water. When feeding, the resulting solution is additionally diluted.
What top dressing should not be used
In order not to harm the seedlings, you should know which top dressing is better not to use:
- No chemistry - cucumbers do not tolerate it. Plus, chemicals build up in the fruit.
- No chlorides can be used, water must also not contain such impurities.
- When growing cucumber seedlings, you need to abandon the use of fresh manure.
What to do if the cucumber seedlings turn yellow
Often, summer residents are faced with such a problem when the cucumber seedlings, even, it would seem, with proper care, begin to turn yellow. This is due to several factors:
- If the seedlings are planted in small cups, then the roots do not have enough space, they are deprived of space and good nutrition. You should immediately transplant and feed the plants.
- Sometimes there is not enough nitrogen for the development of seedlings. Azogran or Vermistim will help to replenish stocks. Also, yellowing can be observed with a lack of manganese.
- When the seedlings outgrow, but they are still not planted in the plots, they begin to turn yellow.
- In sprouted cucumber sprouts, cotyledon leaves turn yellow in low light
Some gardeners like to share their secrets. When feeding cucumber seedlings, they use some tricks that are not available to beginners:
- A spoonful of one of the fertilizers (Ideal, Breadwinner, Fertility) is dissolved in a bucket of clean warm water. Each sprout needs to allocate a portion - half a glass
- In a bucket of water, dissolve the following preparations in a teaspoon: Agricola-vegeta and nitrophoska
- Before planting seedlings on the beds, 0.5 liters of Barrier solution should be poured into each well.
To keep the seedlings strong and the fruits plump and crispy, you can follow the advice and recommendations of more experienced growers.
- Greenhouse seedlings can be fed at most 5 times if they are weak or sluggish. Healthy plants need 3 dressings. Fertilizers are selected taking into account the type of soil. More nitrogen should be added on sandstones, and potash should be added on floodplains.
- An unnatural foliage color appears in seedlings with an excess of minerals.
Top dressing of cucumber seedlings. Secrets of good harvests - video
Starting to feed cucumbers at the stage of seedling development, the vegetable grower thereby provides a generous current harvest, and high-quality future seed. After all, it is on the health of the seedlings that the subsequent formation of fruits depends, in which the seeds will ripen. Top dressing is a very important and prerequisite for growing cucumber seedlings.
The better to feed tomatoes in a greenhouse
Growing vegetables in greenhouses (greenhouses) has its own characteristics. Maintaining optimal conditions for successful growth and development is not complete without the introduction of nutritional formulations.
Organo-mineral dressings for tomatoes in the greenhouse step by step
Consider the system of applying dressings for greenhouse tomatoes in stages.
The first feeding should take place 15 days after transplanting into the greenhouse.To enhance the growth of seedlings, top dressing with a high nitrogen content is appropriate. It is best to use urea: 1 tablespoon of the drug is diluted with 10 liters of water and regular watering is carried out. You can apply a solution of mullein infusion (0.5 kg of manure per 8 liters of water), but avoid getting liquid on the leaf part to prevent burns.
The second feeding is carried out with the same fertilizers as originally. However, if organic matter (mullein) was used for the first time, then urea should be preferred and vice versa.
The third feeding is at the start of fruit setting. At this stage, the plants need potassium, its deficiency is compensated by the introduction of wood ash. We prepare the working solution as follows: for 10 liters of water, you need 2 tablespoons of ash and 1 tablespoon of superphosphate, mix everything thoroughly and add 1 liter of liquid for each plant.
The fourth feeding is carried out during the flowering of the third cluster on the tomato bushes. This period is characterized by an acute shortage of potassium, which must be added. Top dressing is quite simple: take a tablespoon of potassium humate and dissolve in a 10-liter bucket of water. Solution consumption - 1 liter for each bush.
The fifth feeding will be marked by a phase of mass fruiting. At this time, it is better to carry out foliar feeding with yeast fertilizer that stimulates growth. For 10 liters of water, take 20 g of yeast and 2 tablespoons of sugar, dissolve and let the mixture ferment in the heat for 1-2 days. The workpiece is diluted with 50 liters of water and the plantings are sprayed in the evening.
Fertilizing tomatoes in the greenhouse with mineral fertilizers
What fertilizers to use
Practice shows that the use of exclusively organic fertilizers as a top dressing for tomatoes, as well as fertilizers prepared according to folk recipes, does not give an excellent result. It is more favorable to alternate them with special mineral compositions:
- Urea and ammonium nitrate are excellent nitrogen fertilizers.
- phosphoric - double superphosphate
- potassium - potassium sulfate
- and nitroammofoska and nitrophoska are complex (complete) mineral fertilizers.
How to prepare a solution and what is the consumption
During the flowering period, it is advisable to use fertilizing compositions in the following proportions:
- 30 g superphosphate and 15 g potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water
- 60 g of superphosphate per 1 liter of boiling water, stir until completely dissolved, let it brew for 14 hours and dilute with 10 liters of water, use by the foliar method
- Mix 20 g of nitrophoska with 15 ml of potassium humate and dissolve in water (10 liters)
- for 10 liters of water we take 25 g of magnesium sulfate and 10 g of potassium nitrate.
We use any of the prepared compositions, 1 liter per one tomato bush.
Complex mineral fertilizers for tomatoes in a greenhouse
Currently, ready-made complex formulations are especially popular - they contain a full set of all necessary nutritional components, you do not need to fiddle with the ratio of ingredients. Let's take a closer look at the most popular tools.
Kemira Lux is a complex designed for feeding tomatoes during flowering, the drug is completely soluble in water.
Senor Tomato - the product is applied only under the root, it is used when laying inflorescences. In addition to nutrient components, it contains nitrogenous bacteria (they are able to extract nitrogen from the air) and humic acids (have a positive effect on soil properties).
Complex Effecton - the preparation contains peat, which is uniquely converted by bacteria into compost; it also contains shale ash and phosphate rock, which can provide tomatoes with the necessary substances. Feed the tomatoes with this composition during the flowering period, then successful fruiting is guaranteed.
Tomatoes do not turn red in the greenhouse with what to feed?
The simplest feeding of tomatoes with iodine is widely known to accelerate the ripening of fruits, it is also a good prevention of late blight: dilute 4 drops of iodine in 10 liters of water and pour 5 tomato bushes with this solution. However, do not get carried away with this remedy: use iodine feeding no more than once every 14 days.
Preparation of iodine feed for different crops
When growing seedlings of cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers, feeding with iodine is especially relevant. Also, gardeners often use it to fertilize strawberries, strawberries, and home flowers. Let's consider each case separately:
Powdery mildew disease is very common in this culture. To get rid of it, the seedlings of cucumbers and the soil around are sprayed with a special solution. To prepare it, you need to mix 3 liters of water, 350 ml of milk, 4 drops of iodine. After transplanting to a new place, cucumbers are processed by spraying the seedlings with a mixture of 10 liters of water, 1 liter of milk and 10 drops of a 5% aqueous-alcoholic tincture. The procedure is repeated every 10 days. This treatment prevents yellowing of the leaves and "rejuvenates" the weaving part of the cucumbers. It is good as a preventive measure against fungal spores.
- Fertilizing tomatoes and peppers.
Tomatoes and peppers are processed from seed. They are filled with 0.1% iodine solution for 6 hours. Thanks to this care, the seeds germinate faster, the seedlings are strong and healthy. At the next stage, when the tomato and pepper release two real leaves, root feeding of the seedlings is carried out (1 drop of 5% iodine tincture per three liters of water). Fertilization of tomatoes is carried out after planting seedlings in the ground, as soon as the brush begins to tie. For this, 3 drops of iodine are added to a bucket of water and about 1 liter of solution is poured onto the roots of each plant. As practice shows, after such fertilization, tomato and pepper grow 15-20% more than usual (meaning the fruit). In addition, the plant resists diseases better, the ripening time of tomatoes and sweet peppers is significantly reduced.
To treat a tomato from late blight, the following recipe is used: 1 liter of whey, 40 drops of iodine tincture and a spoonful of hydrogen peroxide are poured into a bucket of water. The resulting solution is abundantly sprayed with seedlings.
There is another recipe, it makes tomato seedlings more resistant to late blight. You need to boil 8 liters of water, add 2 liters of sifted ash powder and mix thoroughly. When the substance cools down, a vial of iodine is poured into it and 10 g of boric acid is poured into it. Then the mixture is infused for 12 hours. Water the tomato at the root, after diluting the infusion at the rate of 1 liter per bucket of water. The composition of such a solution is rich in trace elements, so it can be used as the main top dressing for tomatoes.
When feeding plants, follow the recipe exactly, otherwise too high iodine content can disrupt the process of brush formation, the fruits will grow crooked.
- Processing of home flowers.
For indoor plants, prepare your own solution: add 1-2 drops of 5% iodine tincture to 2 liters of water. You need to water the soil, not the roots, otherwise the iodine can simply burn them. Such feeding will ensure rapid plant growth, frequent flowering, and good immunity. Also, iodine solution can be used to combat powdery mildew on gloxinia and violets. To do this, add 30 drops of alcoholic tincture per liter of boiled water, spray the plant, and then put it in a dark place to dry.
Watering with medicinal composition of plantings of strawberries and wild strawberries is carried out, as a rule, in early spring. To prepare the solution, use 10 drops of an aqueous-alcoholic solution of iodine, diluted in 10 liters of water. You need to water the plants 3 times every 10 days, while the container should be plastic, not metal. This helps to avoid the development of gray rot, strengthens the immunity of plants.
Iodine deficiency negatively affects the health of people, animals and plants. That is why the UK, USA, Germany, as well as a number of other developed countries at the state level are seeking an actual increase in its consumption by the population. The ability of the element to accumulate in soil and plants makes it possible to increase its content in vegetables and fruits.
The second undoubted advantage of iodine fertilization is an increase in the yield of tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and other crops. As the experience of many gardeners shows, such feeding is really effective, you just need to correctly calculate the required amount of iodine and water the plants in a timely manner.
What does a cucumber leaf burn look like?
If you notice the appearance of burn-like spots on healthy, intensively growing cucumbers, it is necessary to urgently determine the cause of the problem. The optional yellow speckles and brown edging along the edges of the plates are caused by infections. Often such phenomena are caused by violations in the agricultural technology of culture, errors in cultivation.
To begin with, the cucumbers are examined, taking into account the color, the location of the spots, the presence of plaque, some kind of incomprehensible discharge. This will allow you to determine (at least externally) the approximate nature of the origin of the spots - parasitic or due to improper care.
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- daily watering of cucumbers (especially on hot sunny days)
- insufficient lighting
- violation of the temperature regime.
In each case, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the details and not to stuff the cucumbers excessively with toxic chemicals.
Cucumbers are moisture-loving plants that require a lot of water. But it is necessary to comply with the norm, since an excess of moisture and prolonged drought are equally dangerous for the culture.
Cucumber leaf plates are sensitive to any changes in the external environment: heat, humidity, cold snaps. Sprinkling and irrigation on plants often leaves water droplets on the leaves. Heated from the sun, they, like lenses, focus the rays in a specific place.
The result is the appearance of whitish rounded spots on the green surface of the leaf, which dry out and turn brown over time. These are sunburns on green leaves of cucumbers caused by watering in the heat (see photo).
Spots that look like burns also occur as a result of uneven watering. Too frequent irrigation or, conversely, long breaks cause yellowing of the leaves, drying or decay of the bushes.
On a note! Watering with cold water is dangerous, causing burns, the occurrence of rot on plants.
Cucumbers need adequate nutrition no less moisture. Gardeners prepare a variety of solutions and infusions, which include:
- mineral fertilizers
- bird droppings.
When feeding, drops of working solutions fall on cucumber bushes, causing burns. White, yellowish or brown spots appear on the leaf blades. Their area is usually clearly limited, unlike bacterial or fungal spots, they do not merge into a single whole.
Yellowing in the form of burns occurs in the case of a deficiency of certain nutrients. Cucumbers lack nitrogen, which affects the growth, development and appearance of plants.
Yellow or whitish spots on cucumbers are the result of some kind of infection. The most common:
The fungus causes the appearance of rusty spots, drying of the plates, wilting of plants. With many infections, plaque (mycelium) appears on the top or bottom of the leaf. With powdery mildew, marginal burns of cucumber leaves appear, when a yellowish or brown edging is on the plate of the species.
The appearance of yellowness on plants is caused by a temperature drop, prolonged cold snaps. Cucumbers are especially often "fired" in film greenhouses, where it is difficult to maintain a stable temperature regime.
Thickened plantings are dangerous when the leaves of young plants touch the transparent walls of the structure (polycarbonate, glass, film). In the heat, the material heats up a lot, and the leaves get burned.
Most often it appears in greenhouses, where adult plants twine around trellises and form a real green jungle. The main stem of cucumbers and lateral lashes are covered with a large amount of foliage, so the sun's rays do not pass to the lower tier. The leaves below are covered with yellowish spots, dry out.
As mentioned above, it is necessary to identify the cause, and then proceed with adjusting the care or treatment of plants.
- Regulation of the irrigation regime. Cucumbers are irrigated at the root, preferably in grooves, grooves, trying not to wet the leaves. Water in the morning or late afternoon, when the heat subsides. Cucumbers love sprinkling, but they spend it only when the heat of the day recedes, in the evening. Then the greenhouses are ventilated, preventing a strong increase in humidity and the formation of condensation.
- In the heat, they water it more often, on cloudy rainy days - less often. They control soil moisture, preventing moisture stagnation. It is easy to determine practically the need for watering: they dig up the soil in the garden to a depth of 8-10 cm. If it is wet, watering is postponed for a couple of days, if the soil is dry, the plants need water.
- Cucumbers are fed with a fertilizer containing nitrogen. Diluted cow dung (1:10), poultry droppings (1:20) are suitable. Fertilizing with nitrogen compositions is necessary for cucumbers only in the first half of the growing season, then priority is given to potassium and phosphorus supplements. When fertilizers get on the leaves, the drops are washed off with clean water.
- With a fungal infection, solutions are prepared with copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture 1%), with colloidal sulfur (80 grams of the drug are taken in a bucket of water). It is not bad to use the composition with nitroammophos (about 2-3 tablespoons of fertilizer are stirred in a bucket of water). They are processed over the leaves in the evening.
In order to prevent the occurrence of stains, it is important to follow the rules of agricultural technology. This will not only save you from possible labor-intensive treatment, but also provide the cucumbers with comfortable conditions for development.
- When planting crops on open ridges, the plants are shaded with non-woven material (not film). The fabric saves young bushes from hypothermia, heat, unpleasant sunburn.
- To prevent fungal infections, the soil is treated with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate before planting (about 4-5 days).
- Cucumbers are watered only in the morning or in the evening, with mandatory ventilation of greenhouses and greenhouses.
On a note! It is convenient to use ready-made formulations as dressings: Kemiru, Ideal, Agricola.
Fertilizers are applied exactly under the roots of the cucumbers, in the grooves, without falling on the leaves.
To protect against burns, strengthen the immunity of plants, cucumbers are treated with special solutions:
- bread croutons (about one loaf) are soaked in warm water in a bucket overnight, then a bottle of iodine is added, mixed. The concentrate is diluted with water 1:10, cucumbers are sprayed every 12-14 days (treatment is indicated for greenhouse plants)
- 9 liters of water, a liter of milk or milk whey are poured into a bucket. Add 25-30 drops of iodine, a little shavings of laundry soap. The bushes are sprayed every one and a half weeks
- boil a bucket of water on the stove with onion husks added to it (one liter), insist for about 10-15 hours. Strain, dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 5 and spray cucumbers over the leaves
- a solution of ordinary baking soda (a tablespoon in a bucket of water) saves cucumbers from the appearance of fungal diseases
- kefir, sour milk or whey (per liter) are added to a bucket of water (10 liters), mixed, then the plants are treated on the ridges, in shelters.
Arrangement of drip irrigation systems gives good results. In this case, the plants receive a certain amount of water dosed, the leaves remain dry, in the shelters - the optimal moisture indicators.
The appearance of burns on the leaves of cucumbers is a reason to think about the correct care.Promptly correcting mistakes in agricultural technology, having carried out the correct treatment, you will return a healthy look to the cucumbers and will not lose in the harvest.
The cucumber ripens early and, with good care, succeeds early. Pleases the gardener along with the first greens and radishes - already in the spring.
For this to be so, you need to know both the biological characteristics of a juicy vegetable and possible problems.
The cucumber can be sore or attacked by pests.
We are already familiar with the main pests of our cucumbers.
The time has come to find out about what diseases of cucumbers we can meet in our beds.
Diseases of cucumbers are common: they do not pardon the plant in all zones.
These are viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases.
Some are more annoying under cover, others prefer to settle on a cucumber in the open field.
Craftsmen have learned to resist them.
Harmful dew can destroy cucumber plants quickly and completely.
It is easy to recognize it: the leaves seem to be sprinkled with flour. For this disease and the name was given: "mealy".
White bloom captures the leaf, spreading superficially. The leaves turn yellow and dry.
The petiole, fruit and stem are almost not covered with bloom.
Plaque is a growing mycelium of a pathogenic fungus, a disease of a fungal nature.
Cucumber is strongly affected in conditions favorable for the fungus. The mushroom loves moisture, shade, coolness.
If spring and summer turned out to be such, fungal diseases cause additional trouble for the gardener. And they deprive most of the harvest.
Powdery mildew leaves almost no cucumbers.
The preserved fruits are deformed.
The disease is also called peronosporosis. The leaves are covered with small yellowish specks - the first sign of another fungal disease of cucumbers.
The spots grow rapidly, the leaves dry. The bottom plate of the leaf is covered with a dark bloom.
Urgent help is needed, the treatment of cucumbers will require the same means as for powdery mildew and other fungal diseases.
Diseases of cucumbers in the greenhouse are more often of fungal origin, this is facilitated by a humid atmosphere and temperature regime.
Cladosporium is more of a greenhouse disease, although it also occurs on soil crops.
The whole plant is affected: stems, fruits, petioles, leaves.
The stems are affected first. They ulcerate, the lesions are filled with olive bloom.
The angular spots that appear later on the leaves are also covered with an olive-colored bloom.
Therefore, the disease is also called olive spot. The diseased tissue is dyed near the veins. The leaves dry up.
The main "blow" of cladosporium is inflicted on the fruit. Concave spots - ulcers - with the same bloom quickly increase on cucumbers.
The ovaries are bent, the fruits are underdeveloped.
The disease resembles cladosporium in its external manifestations.
It also affects all aboveground parts of the cucumber plant. Even the cotyledons are affected.
The spots are yellow-brown, as in cladosporia (at first). And angularity appears.
But diseases are caused by different pathogens, although both are fungi.
It is possible to distinguish and diagnose a plant by the state of the lower plate of the leaf, by its appearance.
Angular spot - bacteriosis - causes the formation of exudate, sticky yellow droplets from the bottom of the leaf.
These are repositories of infection, from here the bacteriosis spreads further.
With olive spot, the bottom of the leaf with a dark bloom of the mycelium of the fungus. This is a characteristic difference.
The nature of angular spotting is bacterial, therefore the second name is bacteriosis. Fruits bent, ulcerate, rot.
It is advisable to exclude sprinkling irrigation if there is bacteriosis on the site. This watering helps the infection spread.
Bacterial diseases require the gardener to make efforts to protect the crop:
- The infection can lurk in the seeds - collect the seeds by examining the fruit. It should be intact.
- Warm up the seeds before sowing: they will stand 60 ° in the oven. Place them in this "sauna" for three hours, the seeds will be disinfected from all infections.
- A solution of potassium permanganate will cope with the misfortune lurking inside the seeds in 15 minutes. Go for a weak, pink one. Dry the seeds afterwards.
- Remove dried lashes and leaves in the fall. Burn this material - bacteria settle there for the winter.
- The infection also remains in the ground. Dig deeply: let the bacteria freeze out.
- Disinfect wooden parts of greenhouses, greenhouses with whitewash.
- Bacteriosis, like a fungus, is afraid of copper. Therefore, Bordeaux liquid, preparations with copper (ordan, kurzat R 44) will come in handy. Spraying at the first sign of angular spotting is an effective disease-suppressing method.
White rot of cucumbers (sclerotinia) is another fungal disease that "eats" the plant completely, even the roots.
Under cover, it is a disaster. It is easy to recognize white rot by white mycelium flakes. They cover the infected stems, leaves, and reach the fruit.
The fungus destroys the cucumber plant, softens it, and causes rotting.
The infection lives in the soil, and during the growth period the plants infect each other mechanically.
The mushroom is also carried through the air.
If the disease is noticed immediately, try to save the cucumber plants.
Lubricate the stems with settled mycelium with the composition: sumilex, chalk (equally) - mix, diluting with water until a paste consistency is obtained.
Resistant to sclerotinia varieties: Telegraph, Yielding 1596. Fertile 147 is good for greenhouses, but its resistance to white rot is less.
After wintering, the spores of the fungus settle first on the roots of the cucumber.
Outwardly, the gardener may notice something amiss by discovering yellowing of the lower leaves - the infection comes from below. The whip withers, dries up.
Pulling out the plant, you can see: the roots rot, they are covered with brown spots, and have become unviable.
When the root dies, nutrition is impossible, the plant dies.
The causes of the disease are common to all fungal, the distribution is similar. Soil, mechanical transfer of spores, their transfer through the air, with watering, spread by insects.
The manifestation of the disease is similar to other fungal infections.
Leaves covered with brown spots, rotting stems. Fruits covered with damp brown spots.
The difference is in the color of the plaque, it is gray, which gave the name to the type of rot.
There are almost no female cucumber flowers with gray rot, male flowers are in abundance. They quickly rot, spreading disease.
In addition to general antifungal measures, sore spots are powdered with ash. Copper sulfate can be mixed with ash - 5 g of vitriol and a glass of ash.
The disease of all regions is for the cucumber. Greenhouse conditions are a paradise for fungus, and cucumber begins to develop in the spring - under cover.
Even in the south, you cannot get an early harvest without seedlings. And it is grown in greenhouses. Or they sow a cucumber in greenhouses.
Another option: sown under a film, under the cover of it on arcs.
Shelters save from the cold, but the diseases of cucumbers are more severe. In summer, plants suffer less if the season is dry, hot.
Ascochitosis is also rot. Begins destructive work from the stem, manifesting itself in spots.
The color of the spots changes from green to brown, then turns white. The stem is cracking.
Later, the leaves become stained, leaf tissues dry out. The fruits rot, their flesh turns brown.
Ascochitosis is selective: it settles on weakened plants. The mushroom hibernates in seeds, plant debris, soil.
The fungus parasitizes on the ground part of the cucumber: it feeds on stems, fruits, leaves.
Forms stem ulcers, elongated in length. The stems break.
The defeat of the leaves is similar to other fungal: oval yellow (sometimes brown) spots, prone to cracking, chipping.
It is easier to distinguish anthracnose by the defeat of the ovaries: there are many small, fast-growing spots of a pinkish tint that subsequently merge.
Fruits deteriorate, many plants die. The biology of the fungus is similar to ascochitosis.
If the leaves or tops of cucumber lashes, growth points, droop, wither - take a closer look at the surface of the stem emerging from the soil.
With fusarium wilting, rot is formed there.
When the cucumber blooms, the root portion of the stem and roots become brown, covered with cracks, and rot.
The internal vessels of the stem are affected, their brown color is visible on the break or cut.
At high humidity, the root part is covered with a pink coating of the fungus. The disease is transmitted from soil or seeds.
Diseases of cucumbers that cause mosaic leaf color are viral in nature.
Wrinkling and mosaic spotting of the leaf appears at the age of a month of the plant.
It begins to bear fruit, the leaf is covered with white asterisks (sometimes yellow).
The virus spreads quickly, and the fruits are covered with white stripes.
It is important to destroy aphids: it carries viral diseases of the cucumber. White mosaic is also transmitted through seeds.
The green mosaic of cucumber has several names. It is both speckled and English.
The disease is viral, mainly greenhouse. The first weeks (up to a month) may not show itself.
When warming, it quickly forms external signs. The leaves are deformed, wrinkled, the veins are lightened.
The fruits are bitter, short, speckled. They are deformed, mosaic. The spots are necrotic.
A virus detected in time can be stopped by treatment with a milk-iodine solution.
A liter is taken for a bucket of water - milk, iodine - 50 g. Periodic spraying restrains the disease, preserves the harvest almost completely.
The virus is afraid of iodine, milk softens the effect on the leaves, increases adhesion.
Old leaves darken, becoming covered with a grayish bloom. At first, these are small spots, their shape is varied.
Growing up, the spots merge, their tissues die off. A brown border remains in the place of the fallen tissues.
The young leaf is affected later and less.
Weakened, damaged plants are chosen by the fungus in the first place.
The burn spreads through infected seeds, plant debris left before winter.
The fungus forms white spots with a light halo on the leaves.
When the spots, having increased, merge, the leaves die off. They show a dark coating of conidia.
Half of the harvest is lost in a wet, cool summer. The disease is harmful, work is underway to select varieties that are less susceptible to macrosporiosis.
Diseases of cucumbers are mostly fungal. The fight against fungus of various types is carried out according to a verified scheme.
Differences (if any) are given in the characteristics of the disease.
Prevention is important. Do not give the mushroom a comfortable environment:
- Sow cucumbers so that they do not shade with each other. It is better to raise the whips on the supports, on the trellis. Then the root moisture will not overmoisten the air around the leaf by evaporation.
- With greenhouse cultivation, the temperature must be maintained above 18 °. The fungus that provokes the disease does not like this. Its development stops.
- Nitrogen-rich soil is good for fungal diseases. Not only mineral nitrogen, organic nitrogen is also attractive to them. Manure is rich in nitrogen. Balance is important - everything in moderation. Cucumber works better on manure. But the danger of powdery mildew is also higher.
- Preventive measure - compliance with crop rotation. Fungal spores wait patiently for the next host in the soil - up to three years. In the fourth year, sowing can be done in the same place. Dacha plots are small, it is not always possible to comply with this. It is all the more difficult to avoid re-infection in greenhouse conditions. An alternative to crop rotation is soil disinfection. In the greenhouse, the surface layer is spilled with boiling water. You can - with a strong (bright pink) solution of potassium permanganate. The fungus dies, the beneficial microflora also suffers, but it will recover, rise from the lower soil layers. The fungus does not penetrate deeply.
If the fact is already on the sheet: you noticed a plaque, made a diagnosis - fight.
Plants can be defended. The summer resident is able to treat cucumbers.
Try to get by with the safe means at hand.
Fermented milk spraying. Sour milk, homemade kefir, fermented baked milk - an environment for beneficial lactic acid bacteria.
Dilute them with water in any proportion. Process the cucumber plot with a solution.
The fungus will not resist, the beneficial flora will destroy it.
In case of severe damage or for prophylaxis, the treatment is repeated once a week. Homemade serum also helps.
Herbal ferments. Weeds can help heal plants and feed them at the same time.
To prepare fermented infusions, place a container (from a saucepan to a barrel, if desired) on the site.
Having cut out the grass, send it to the barrel, add water. The barrel is gradually filled (half or two-thirds of the volume is sufficient).
In warm weather, the contents are fermented. The smell is unpleasant, it is better to cover the container.
If necessary, take the infusion, process the cultures against the fungus, filtering the resulting liquid.
Fungal diseases of cucumbers will recede.
Soap and soda... Components at hand, effective. The fungus is afraid of them.
For a bucket of water: baking soda - two tablespoons, laundry soap - 50 g.
Spray weekly, repeat after rains.
Manure infusion... Overfeeding the cucumber with manure helps the development of the fungus.
But the same manure used in spraying, cucumber for fungal diseases - heals.
Pour one part of the manure into a suitable container with two parts of water.
After three days of infusion, use the strained liquid in processing.
Pre-dilute with water: one part of the infusion and ten - water.
Dusting with sulfur... Ground sulfur, you can feed it, is poured into a sieve and dusted with cucumber leaves.
Choose a sunny, dry, warm day.
Ash... Dusting the leaves with ash stops the development of the fungus.
Potassium permanganate... Dissolve a few grains of potassium permanganate in a liter of water.
You will get a solution of a saturated crimson color. From it, take the amount necessary for staining the main solution required for processing in a pale pink color.
Spray cucumbers with working solution.
Garlic... Peel and grind two medium heads. Fill with water in a liter jar.
Dilute with a bucket of water every other day. The solution is ready.
Zelenka. You can add the processing of a cucumber plot with brilliant green.
It is convenient to prepare the solution by measuring the brilliant green with a 5 ml syringe.
Having typed a full syringe, we release the contents into a bucket of water. The solution is ready.
- Fungal diseases are "taken" by preparations containing copper. Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, ordan (copper oxychloride combined with a chemical derivative of urea cymoxanil) are suitable.
- The modern drug ridomil is absorbed into plant tissues, destroying the fungus from the inside. At the same time acts from the outside, adheres well. The sheet holds it for two weeks.
- Phytoflavin. The drug is combined, acts in addition to fungal - on bacterial diseases. The action is complex, double: contact (affects the pathogen, directly in contact with it) and systemic (absorbed into the tissues of the plant and "works" with the infection - there). Recommended by specialists, tested and approved by summer residents. It additionally stimulates the growth of cucumber (whole plant), is environmentally friendly. Exposure in terms after processing before consumption - two days. For a cucumber, this is a godsend, it ripens quickly, the gardener will collect undisturbed fruits. The use of other drugs will not give such an advantageous opportunity.
It's nice when the harvest looks like a cucumber. But sometimes the gardener sees: the cucumber has disappointed.
The fruits can take on the most bizarre shapes. Such a vegetable can neither be sold nor pickled: it looks ugly.
Why does this happen? These are non-infectious abnormalities.
Curved cucumbers... The hooked shape of the fruit indicates: agricultural technology is violated.
If cucumbers are always sown in a "favorite" place, without crop rotation, they cease to love this place.
There is a one-sided removal of nutrients, infections of this culture accumulate in the soil.
The plant suffers - it signals fruit defects. Constrictions are formed, a "cucumber with a belt" can form.
The predecessor does not have to be of the same family - pumpkin seeds. Otherwise, diseases are common, and so is the need for food.
The soil is depleted, the necessary elements for the cucumber will not be enough.
Parthenocarpic varieties are self-pollinators. They do not need bees or bee-pollinated neighbors.
The summer resident is not always aware: this neighborhood harms the parthenocarpics. Alien pollen gets on them, the variety loses its purity, the fruits can be deformed.
Irregular watering can also affect the shape of the fruit.
Cucumbers love constant temperature conditions. When it fluctuates, the growth of the fruit is also spasmodic. This unevenness distorts the shape of the fetus.
Dense planting gives a similar result.
Pear-shaped fruits... Pollination problems. Either the bees worked little (on bee-pollinated plants), or the bees worked on parthenocarpic varieties.
Place common varieties next to honey plants that are attractive to bees.
Try to protect parthenocarpic ones: even a gauze cover will help. It is better to have a special non-woven fabric.
Sharp fruit and mild taste... This happens from:
- Overfeeding with nitrogen (mineral or as part of manure, compost)
- Lack of light - planting thickening
- Watering interruptions
- From the heat, dry air.
Double cucumbers... The accreted cucumbers are a consequence of extreme situations suffered in the "cucumber childhood".
Heat, cold, drought, excess moisture, temperature drops - stress for plants.
This disrupts the normal formation of fruits, the ovaries located nearby can grow together.
"Empty" cucumbers. Voids arise when:
- There is no nutritional balance. An excess of nitrogen against the background of a lack of other macro- and microelements. The habit of planting a cucumber "on manure" is fraught with fruit voids. Compost is preferred.
- There is a problem of regular watering. Irregular is the cause of emptiness.
- Viral diseases also provoke the formation of hollow fruits.
Cucumber is a precocious, early vegetable. But not easy. One and a half to two months of the growing season of a cucumber, the gardener will have to look closely at its condition.
Take timely measures, be "first aid" to the plant. Feed on time, do not be late - give watering, notice that something was wrong at the first signs.
But the worries will pay off: the cucumber is a grateful plant. He will delight a good owner with a healthy harvest.
It happens that gardeners, seeing any incomprehensible spot on the leaves of a cucumber, sin on some kind of disease. However, in order not to stuff the plants with unnecessary chemistry, it is necessary to understand the problem that has arisen.
First of all, do the following:
- Take a closer look, are there any fungal bloom or bacterial secretions on the leaf blades?
- Remember the time you watered your cucumbers?
If there is no plaque, you spent watering closer to noon, and the day was hot and sunny, then it is likely that there is an ordinary sunburn on the leaves of the cucumber.
Sometimes the spots on the leaves may not be of parasitic origin. Burns appear most often due to improper watering - either droplets of moisture remain on the leaves, or a fertilizer solution.
The leaves of plants, especially those of greenhouse plants, are very sensitive to external factors. After watering, droplets of water or solution remain on the leaves, which in hot weather act as glass lenses, focusing the sun's rays. As a result, white rounded spots are formed on the surface of the plants, which after a while can dry out and crumble. It is these spots that many gardeners take for a manifestation of disease.
Therefore, watering is recommended early in the morning or in the evening after sunset, so that the liquid has time to dry and does not harm the cucumber leaves.
Another reason for burns on cucumber leaves can be watering with solutions of mineral fertilizers or manure. Such watering should preferably be carried out in the furrows next to the plants, and if the liquid gets on the leaves, rinse it off with clean water.
The appearance of yellow spots on cucumber leaves can also be attributed to sunburn. You may have watered or sprayed the plants during the daytime in strong sunlight. In this case, the only advice is to water the cucumbers early in the morning or in the evening.
There may be several reasons why the leaves of cucumbers began to turn yellow:
- Failure to comply with the watering regime. If you water the cucumbers too rarely, or often, but with insufficient water, the plant quickly dehydrates. The first sign of this problem is yellowing of the leaves. Excessive watering is no less dangerous - cucumbers can rot. With proper watering, the soil at a depth of 10 cm should be moderately moist.
- Fertilizer deficiency. Perhaps the cucumbers need feeding. During the growing season, plants need complex nitrogen fertilizers. With a lack of them, the leaves begin to turn yellow.
- Hypothermia. Low temperatures also stress the plant and result in yellow leaves.
- Sunburn. If you water your cucumbers during the day and water gets on the leaves, yellow spots on them may indicate sunburn. To prevent this, watering is carried out only in the morning or in the evening.
- Diseases and viruses. Affected cucumber leaves turn yellow and wither. A common cause of yellow leaves is fusarium.
- Damage to the root system. If the roots of the cucumber are eaten by pests, or they were damaged when planting seedlings in the ground, during weeding or loosening, the leaves will inevitably begin to turn yellow
- Hypothermia or burns. Failure to comply with the optimal temperature regime often leads to yellowing of cucumber leaves. If the leaves of seedlings or young plants touch the sun-hot or cold glass (windows, walls of the greenhouse), this can also lead to their curling. Therefore, it is advisable to plant the plants so that they do not come into contact with the glass.
Why do the lower leaves of cucumbers turn yellow?
Most often, problems arise precisely with the lower leaves of cucumbers, since under stressful conditions the plant throws all its strength on the most "promising" parts - the upper leaves and ovaries, which give a crop. Therefore, sometimes the yellowing of the lower leaves of cucumbers is a natural process, and not the result of diseases.
Insufficient lighting. Healthy cucumber lashes are covered with dense foliage. Therefore, you should not be surprised that the sun's rays cannot break through to the very bottom of the bush. In this case, the plant naturally gets rid of the "ballast".
Improper watering. As we said above, non-observance of the cucumber watering regime can lead to wilting and yellowing of the leaves.
Hypothermia. With hypothermia, the lower leaves turn pale first.
Deficiency of nutrients. The yellowness of the leaves in the lower part of the plant most often indicates a deficiency of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus. True, in order to replenish it, it is advisable to use a complex feeding. This will reduce the risk of incorrect fertilization.
Fungal diseases. The lower leaves are primarily infected with fusarium, pityosis and other fungal diseases. In this case, the lashes become weak and frail. The affected leaves must be removed and burned immediately to prevent the spread of the disease.
1. Observe the watering regime. During flowering and fruiting, on average, cucumbers are watered every 2-3 days at the rate of 10 liters per 1 sq.m. Naturally, on drier days, watering should be increased, and on rainy and cloudy weather, reduced.
To determine if your cucumber beds need watering, carefully dig the ground between the plants to a depth of 10 cm. If the soil is too wet, you don't need to water the cucumbers just yet.
2. Maintain a comfortable temperature. Above, we have already talked about the temperature regime optimal for cucumbers. Try to keep the air temperature in the greenhouse and greenhouse at this level to prevent drying out and burns or hypothermia.
3. Air the cucumbers regularly. To prevent the bushes from starting to rot, it is important to moderately ventilate greenhouses and hotbeds, especially in hot weather. This will help reduce the risk of developing downy mildew and other fungal diseases.
4. Be sure to feed the cucumbers.If the yellowness of the leaves does not indicate a more serious problem, most likely it will go away after a complex feeding.
5. Conduct treatments for diseases and pests. A 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid will help to cope with the fungus. From aphids, you can spray cucumbers with a solution of nitroammofoska (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). A solution of colloidal sulfur (80 g per 10 liters of water) will cope with a spider mite.
Follow these guidelines to keep your cucumbers healthy and green.
1. Cover cucumbers during a cold snap. Avoid hypothermia of the plants, cover them in a timely manner with spunbond or film.
2. If the cucumbers are infested with blacklegs, treat the soil in the beds with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
3. Do not water the cucumbers during the day. The same applies to foliar dressing. Yellowing of the leaves may be due to sunburn.
To stop or prevent yellowing of cucumber leaves, you can treat the bushes with the following "tricky" solutions.
1. Milk and soap "cocktail". Add 1 liter of milk, 20 g of laundry soap, 30 drops of iodine to 10 liters of water. The soap should be completely dissolved. Treat cucumbers with this solution from the moment the second pair of true leaves appear every 10 days.
2. Bread with iodine. Soak a loaf of black or white bread in a bucket of water overnight. Mash the bread in the morning, pour in a jar of iodine. Dissolve 1 liter of concentrate in 10 liters of water. Spray the cucumbers with the solution every two weeks.
3. Onion infusion. Pour 10 liters of water into a jar (0.7 l) of onion husks. Place container on fire and bring to a boil. Remove from heat, cover, leave to infuse for 14 hours. Strain, dilute with water in a 1: 4 ratio. Spray the leaves of the cucumbers, pour the rest under the bush.
4. Potassium permanganate. At the first sign of yellowing of the leaves, spray them with 1% potassium permanganate solution.
It is important to feed the plants on time.
1.Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. It is best to use ready-made complex fertilizers, however, you can prepare top dressing yourself. In a bucket of water (10 l), dilute 10 g each of superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and potassium salt. This solution can only be used for root dressing.
2. Herbal infusion. The safest feeding of cucumbers is with herbal fertilizers. Fertilizer from comfrey works best for cucumbers. To prepare it, 1 kg of fresh chopped grass is poured with a bucket of water and insisted for a week. The resulting concentrate is diluted with water in a 1: 9 ratio. The solution can be used both for spraying and for root dressing.
After using this green fertilizer, it is also advisable to sprinkle the trunks with wood ash.
3. Soda solution. For the prevention of fungal diseases, pour young cucumbers with a solution of soda (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
4. Urea. In a bucket of water, dilute 40 g of urea and spray the cucumber bushes with the resulting solution. Rotted compost is added under the roots at the same time as this top dressing.
1. Fermented milk solution. Whey or kefir will help at the first signs of yellowness on cucumbers. Whey or kefir is diluted with water in a ratio of 2:10. Plants are sprayed with this solution.
To speed up the fruit setting process, you can add 1 cup of sugar to this mixture.
2. Infusion of mullein. Dissolve 1 kg of manure with 3 liters of water, leave for 3 days. Strain the concentrate and dilute with water in a 1: 3 ratio. Sprinkle on the cucumbers. This will serve as both foliar feeding and powdery mildew remedy.
3. Infusion of ash. 30 tbsp pour wood ash with 10 liters of water, leave to infuse for 2 days. Spray the plants with the resulting infusion.
The main problems and mistakes that can arise when growing cucumbers Cucumbers are grown by every summer resident, and it does not matter, in a greenhouse or in the open field. It is more fundamental to understand agricultural techniques and not make mistakes, otherwise there will be no cucumber in the beds or in the greenhouse.Therefore, today we decided to study the main problems and mistakes in the cultivation of cucumbers.
Planting, garter, watering and covering are far from the main points in the cultivation of cucumbers, although they are very serious ones. It is necessary to understand all the smallest details and favorable factors, and only then a good harvest is possible, in which each cucumber will be one to one. If we make serious mistakes, which we will talk about further, the color and the ovary will dry out and crumble, and the fruits will turn yellow, lose their shape, and disappear on the stem.
Do you want a quality harvest of cucumbers? Follow the planting and grooming rules!
All problems in the cultivation of cucumbers can be prevented or solved in time, and only in this case it is possible that your efforts will not be in vain.
We want to say right away that the signs of problems, as well as they themselves in fact, can change depending on the geographic location, climate, relief of the site, the general temperature and its differences, the quality and composition of the soil, as well as from dozens of factors and, of course, your personal relationship to cultivated plants. But let's hope that the list of cucumber tips compiled by our experts will help you at least partially solve the problems and significantly increase the yield, while at the same time putting its quality to the required level!
One of the causes of frequent diseases of cucumbers is a thickened planting. In this case, the plants cannot be properly processed, interfere with each other's development, do not ventilate and retain many infections in the dense greenery that should have been weathered. In addition, a very dense planting dies faster, since even if the disease or pests of cucumbers are detected on time (at least quickly), they have already managed to spread to many plants in the garden or in the greenhouse.
It should be remembered that, depending on the variety, there should be 2-4 plants per square meter of planting. We try to occupy as much land as possible by planting cucumbers every 10-15 cm in a row, which is very wrong and leads to problems.
One of the main problems of growing cucumber is frequent diseases.
Pest colonies can ruin crops in no time. The readers of DachaDecor.ru are well aware of this, who follow our news through subscription and studied material about spider mites and other insect pests. But serious damage is also possible due to the vital activity of the cucumber gnat and the sprout fly.
These insects can reproduce well in organic matter, which fertilizes green beds. And most often they appear if fertilizers are poorly embedded in the soil. Settling on organic fertilizers, insects lay eggs, from which larvae and adult insects develop, then destroying the bushes and fruits themselves. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly follow agricultural techniques and be sure to care for the cucumbers in exactly the way that experts indicate.
Insects on cucumbers can also be a serious problem.
Often, cucumbers are attacked by a spider mite, which we recall again, since the insect can very quickly destroy plantings and crops. But the manifestation here is specific, we want to draw attention to the yellowing of the leaf pointwise, as if acid had dripped onto the leaves of the cucumber.
Such damage can cause drying out and lethargy, and hence the abnormal development of the fetus itself. And what's most interesting is the cause of the problem. It turns out that the cover that we use at the very beginning of cucumber cultivation, when the bushes are in the seedling stage, may be to blame. Further, the film shelter is used to limit the sun's rays in the hot summer, which can burn the green mass. And it is the film material that causes such burns.
We all know that cucumbers cannot be watered in the heat, and even more so, irrigate them with sprinkling, since burns are possible on the leaves. But at the same time, we ourselves create problems by pulling the film over the beds.By watering in the evening, we contribute to the appearance of condensation, which, collecting in drops, falls down on the leaves. The water on the leaves and the morning sun are the cause of burns.
Yellowing of the cucumber leaf, burns with water and sunlight
The reason is simple - the plants are clogged with stronger plants as well as their root system. Therefore, it is necessary to remove weeds around and inside the garden in time, thereby freeing up the soil and contributing to an increase in the consumption of nutrients from the soil, which are no longer spent on feeding the weeds. In addition, planting without weeds is less thickened, and therefore better ventilated and less susceptible to various diseases!
Why can young seedlings of cucumbers grow and develop poorly?
The problem can occur for many different reasons, but one of the simplest is uneven harvesting. You should not wait a week to collect a bucket of cucumbers at once, you should not wait even two, because cucumbers like to pick quickly, at least every day. If you leave cucumbers on the bush, this will significantly reduce the rate of development of young ovaries, which will certainly affect the end result.
Pick a cucumber every day, every other day or two, but not less often, especially at the moment when active fruiting has begun!
One of the serious problems is a poor, low-quality or inconsistent harvest of cucumber.
There are a lot of similar problems, and it is impossible to describe in detail each of them just physically. Therefore, we focused on the most frequent ones, and then we want to move on to the mistakes of summer residents, thanks to which these problems, as well as many others, arise.
We will present a little more errors, since it would be much more correct to study them and exclude them as much as possible!
In no case do not allow drafts and sudden changes in temperature in the greenhouse if you decide to ventilate the cucumbers. This should be done only when the temperature exceeds + 30 ° C, and very carefully, alternately opening the greenhouse on each side.
Try to be very serious about the rules for airing the greenhouse.
Cucumbers love water, but only in moderation at all times. It is not worth drying the soil, but it should not be poured either, because if we are talking about a greenhouse, then a constant stagnation of moisture in the soil is a direct path to rot and various pests, which will be too difficult to remove from this environment!
Systematic and uniform watering of cucumbers is considered correct, it is not worth overfilling the plants
If you leave the cucumbers to their own devices, then you will get just such a crop - weak and very insignificant. Therefore, try not only to water and ventilate, tie and carefully feed the plants, but also to shape them.
Be sure to pinch off excess shoots to reduce the density of the bush. This is especially necessary at first, and in the lower part of the bush. Remove sinus shoots a few sheets from the surface of the soil, do this in the morning, while the sun is not so high.
Do not forget about the formation of cucumber bushes, which is very important for the future harvest.
If the cucumbers have produced a good harvest, this is not a reason to grow them in one place for decades. No, of course, it is possible, and we will only be glad if good and rich soil can saturate the plants with nutrients. But often the soil accumulates not only positive, but also negative factors - infections, insect larvae, and so on. And, if even in the first few years the cucumbers were not sick, then later they can be completely destroyed in the shortest possible time. Try to change your location at least once every few years.
Do not plant cucumbers in one place for many years, otherwise you may lose your crop.
The lunar calendar, the calendar of holidays, other dates are not at all a reason to be guided by them, because planting plants has a number of requirements, this also applies to cucumbers. It is necessary to choose the optimal time for the weather, wait for the soil to warm up, calculate the planting time in such a way that the seedlings are not damaged by night frosts.Of course, sometimes, say, seeds planted on "Maundy Thursday" give excellent shoots, but we do not recommend sticking to this date!
You should not always be guided by the calendar, watch the weather when landing!
Cucumbers planted with seedlings often show good results, but for this you do not need to overexpose the seedlings, grow them up to half a meter and immediately transfer them to open ground. There may be two negative factors at once - the seedlings will not withstand their weight during transplantation and are injured, or the seedlings from the apartment (greenhouse) will not have time to adapt, will not harden and will simply disappear at the first draft or freeze.
Tall bushes of seedlings are far from an indicator of plant strength and a good harvest.
Hoping for the usual maybe, many summer residents practice planting in simple, poor soil. At the same time, they process the seeds with growth stimulants, produce stratification or otherwise prepare them for a better harvest in the future. But all this is a waste of time if the cucumbers are planted in soil that is not fertilized with organic matter. If you do not have the opportunity to use organic fertilizing, see our articles on compost and other fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden, with their help you can find a way out of the situation.
Do not plant seeds in poor soil!
Why not? You always want to eat tasty and healthy food, but it will not always grow without proper processing. Many infections, pests and diseases are killed only by chemical means, and therefore you should either use very strong varieties and preach ideal agricultural techniques, or process cucumbers as standard if you choose modern fast-growing hybrids.
The exclusion of poisons and additives is possible, but only depending on the type of cucumber
The leaves turned yellow - that's okay, one bush disappeared - it doesn't matter, because there is more ... and so on. A very wrong opinion, because the signs of plant disease in the garden are an alarm bell that requires immediate action. In general, a triple treatment is considered correct, namely prophylactic, even if only minor signs of cucumber disease have appeared. Treat the plants on the first leaves, just before flowering, or 10 days after the first treatment, as well as two weeks before the appearance of greens.
Stop any disease of cucumbers in the beds instantly!
And again to fertilizers. Earlier we said that without organic matter, the cultivation of this crop is simply unrealistic. Organic matter gradually releases nutrients and removes harmful salts from the soil. The same is with mineral fertilizers, which cucumbers love no less. But they love it gradually and in small quantities. Therefore, you can feed the plants every ten days by pouring a bucket of water with mineral fertilizers per square meter (1 tablespoon of complex fertilizer per 10 liters of water).
Top dressing for cucumbers is applied gradually, one-time fertilization will not be beneficial!
In no case should you pick large cucumbers, or rather, constantly wait for them. It turns out that cucumber is a smart plant that does not work for crops, but for seeds. Therefore, if you are waiting for a large-sized fruit on a bush, the growth of the rest simply stops when it appears. Don't let the plant get close to its goal, and then you will get a much larger harvest!
Harvest in a timely manner, because when cucumbers appear for seeds, the bush ceases to actively bear fruit
In general, this is a wrong principle, since each crop variety has a recommended planting density. In general, it is correct to grow only a few bushes per square meter (although in summer cottages we plant seeds every 15-20 cm). See the planting instructions for each new variety and be sure to follow the recommendations!
To obtain a high-quality harvest of cucumbers, you should adhere to the planting scheme by varieties
This list of typical mistakes is also incomplete, and many of them can be regional, have a direct dependence on the variety and other factors.So just try to follow agricultural practices, love the plants and provide them with the best possible care. It is in this case that a high-quality harvest is possible.
Mistakes and problems in growing cucumbers even the most seasoned pros have it, so don't be discouraged if, for the second or third year in a row, you fail to reach your previously set goals. Every day you gain some experience and study with us, and therefore soon we will have a really serious harvest of juicy and crunchy cucumbers.
We appeal to our regular readers and newcomers to the DachaDecor.ru site with a request to share their observations and ideas in the comments to each article. This information is useful for all of us! We recommend reading the article about anise or aromatic anise.
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays on the skin leads to severe burns. Only twenty minutes of ultraviolet exposure is enough for a burn to appear on the skin: it begins to peel off. There is no need to talk about pleasant sensations here, especially with the appearance of redness. Itching after sunburn, irritation, redness of the skin is especially unpleasant. The body is almost impossible to touch.
Inappropriate use of sunscreens can exacerbate the situation if the cosmetics are not chosen correctly or do not have sufficient protection. Therefore, during the period of activation of the sun, it is not recommended to be in open spaces, sunbathe.
In terms of strength, ultraviolet skin lesions fall into three categories:
The first degree includes lesions that do not bring much discomfort. They are characterized by slight reddening of the skin.
Stronger exposure to the sun makes the skin redder, irritation and itching, general weakness and discomfort appear. The temperature may rise and nausea may occur, but this is a completely normal reaction of the body.
A burn of the most severe third degree manifests itself as follows:
- loss of consciousness
- severe itching of the skin.
As a rule, such severe lesions need to be treated only under the supervision of a doctor in a medical facility. The first and second degree of sun damage to the skin can be treated at home to relieve discomfort and relieve itching. The main thing is not to aggravate the situation even more.
It is strictly forbidden to re-expose the skin to sunburn, provoke a new burn. From this, the affected areas recover painfully and much harder.
The skin affected by ultraviolet rays becomes inflamed, a strong fever is felt in this place, and the body temperature rises. Cold is the most effective method to relieve itchy skin. You can also use methods such as:
- take a shower or bath in cool water
- drink as much clean water as possible
- take one or two aspirin tablets, which relieves skin irritation
- sprinkle the burn area with baby talcum powder or powder.
Severe burns can appear on the body even with the first degree of damage, if the exposure to the rays is systematic. The burned place itches very much, is more likely to become infected, loses its elasticity, gets old. That is why you need to drink as much liquid as possible and use antiseptics, creams and lotions.
Attention! It is strictly forbidden to lubricate burnt skin with oil: vegetable, creamy or cosmetic.
In order for the period of treatment and rehabilitation of the skin to pass without consequences, it is necessary to adhere to several important rules.
- Do not expose your skin to external irritants, rays of the sun.
- Use after-sun cooling moisturizers to relieve the burning sensation.
- Pain relievers can be taken, such as Ibuprofen, Aspirin.
- Be sure to monitor the body's water balance and skin hydration. For local use, various creams, calamine lotions are useful.
- For the prevention of allergic reactions, we use antihistamine tablets, drops, such as Suprastin.
- Do not injure the skin by piercing the blisters and removing peeled layers of the epidermis.This will lead to infection, and the color of the skin will change.
- When exposed to stress, including sunburn, the body loses vitamins and minerals. And in order to restore them, you need to make various vitamin masks. Here you can use special creams with vitamin E, or make it yourself by adding a few drops of vitamin E to hand or face cream. The burns will heal faster, the burning sensation, peeling will pass. Vitamin D can also be used.
Natural products are a great way to provide first aid for sunburn. To do this, you need to do:
I do not agree with any defendants! This is most likely not a disease, but: The earth is caked or it is clayey No fertilizers are applied Around the plants weeds grow Lack of light.
I will help you fix what is wrong with you!
1. Remove all weeds.
2. Make an earthen curb around the plants with a hoe so that water does not flow into unnecessary places.
3. Place half a bucket of sand under each bush. This is necessary for loosening, which is very necessary. The sand will seep inward when watering.
4. If you do not use any fertilizers, then buy a pack of ammophos and a trace element supplement (boron, calcium, copper, manganese in it if you find such a pack) from the garden store. Pour 1 and a half tablespoon of ammophos into 10 liters of water and pour abundantly, if not enough, dilute again. After a week, it would be good to sprinkle with ash or manure and water. And again, 2 weeks after ash or manure, a tablespoon of trace element additives and half a spoonful of 10 liters of ammophos and water.
5. Water the cucumbers every other day.
You shouldn't recognize your plants in 2 weeks! Fertilizers will make the plants strong (and sores do not stick to strong plants!), The sand will loosen the soil a little, weeds will not interfere (if any).
And yet, next year, make beds with a lot of sand and dig up. This is a must!
autumn is just around the corner
I cut off the yellowed or starting to turn yellow daily
and throw it away. Otherwise, by the middle of summer everyone will be amazed
Cucumber pests: photography and pest control. Tick and aphid on cucumbers ...
Most often, plants are affected by the following diseases: powdery mildew, downy mildew or downy mildew, bacteriosis, ascochitosis, root rot or fusarium, gray rot, brown (olive) spot. ... You can see these pests of cucumbers in the photo.
If the cucumber leaves begin to turn yellow and dry, then you need to turn the leaf over and see if it is aphid. Aphids feed on plant sap, so cucumber leaves turn yellow and dry. noticed tyu on cucumbers - take urgent action, since aphids quickly enough infect healthy cucumber bushes, moving to new and fresh leaves. You can use a soap solution to fight it, spray the affected plants. You can also use chemical means of protection, such as "Iskra", "Agravertin", "Fitoverm" and other preparations against aphids.
It is possible that the leaves turn yellow and dry due to the defeat of downy mildew (peronosporosis). This is a fungal disease. In order not to lose the crop, you need to take measures, for example, use drugs to combat this disease. For example, the practically safe drug "Fitosporin", which not only fights against fungal diseases, but also additionally serves as plant nutrition. I use Fitosporin myself, and you can ask about other drugs in specialized stores.
sunburn or not ammonia, the mole sawed off part of the root
I would feed the cucumbers. they grow, but they are not allowed to eat, they will not grow on one water.
we never fertilize, watering every night, the soil is wonderful. so disagree with inte *'s answer. I agree with Daniil Zolotarev's answer.
I plant Chinese and there is no rod headache, they breed to frost and do not get sick.
Either a spider mite or a burn. Or treat it with poison, or with an emerald.
Cucumbers help fight edema, lower blood pressure, and normalize heart rate. Among other things, this vegetable has antipyretic, anti-sclerotic, analgesic properties (which is why cucumber is widely used in folk medicine).
the cucumber can be applied to the burn site, only immediately.
They are useful, but they are not vitamins, but microelements, which are also needed.
Cucumbers contain - tartronic acids. This acid neutralizes the effect of carbohydrates that enter our body during meals, thereby preventing the appearance of fat mass. That is why nutritionists advise you to include cucumbers in your diet if you want to lose weight.
● Cucumbers are useful in cleansing the intestines and other internal organs. Cucumber contributes to the general detoxification of the body, this is due to the fact that cucumbers consist of 95% of the purest natural water.
● Cucumbers are rich in potassium, magnesium and calcium, which have a beneficial effect on the functioning and functioning of all organs and systems of our body.
Cucumbers contain 95 - 96% water, 1 - 2.5% sugars, up to 0.88% proteins, 0.7% fiber, 0.5% minerals (including compounds of potassium, phosphorus, iron). Vitamin C in cucumbers is from 4 to 13 mg per 100 g of raw weight. The content of vitamin B2 in cucumbers is higher than in radishes, B1 is higher than in beets, and there is more iodine than in other vegetable crops. Carotene, organic acids, essential oils and other beneficial substances are also found in cucumbers.
Cucumbers have a diuretic effect, promote the elimination of water and salt from the body, which is very important for people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. They have a low calorie content (11.3 - 14 calories per 100 g of wet weight), therefore they are recommended for people with excess weight, obesity, obesity.
In folk medicine, the use of cucumbers has been known since the time of Hippocrates. Cucumbers and cucumber juice reduce and stop coughing. In the past, cucumber juice was drunk for pulmonary tuberculosis. Cucumber juice and chopped fresh cucumbers are taken as a gentle laxative for constipation, as a diuretic for dropsy. Cucumbers have a beneficial effect on the nervous system. They have antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, emollient and analgesic effects. Cucumber juice is drunk with severe pain in the stomach and intestines.
In folk medicine of the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Region, a decoction of old fruits and lashes is taken for jaundice and liver diseases, and a decoction of flowers for malaria. Cucumber seeds are used to prepare a drink used for fever, renal colic, painful urination and respiratory diseases.
Dry fruit powder without seeds is used for dusting burns. Cucumber juice and water infusion of green cucumber peel as a generally available cosmetic product are used for washing and lotions for acne, freckles, birthmarks and excessive sunburn. Cucumber powder is also used for cosmetic purposes. Crushed cucumber fruits, as an external agent, are used for inflammatory skin processes, rashes and tumors.
Cucumber has a very rich chemical composition:
- water - 96.8%,
- sugar - 1.3 3.0%,
- nitrogenous compounds - 0.8%,
- fiber - 0.5 0.7%,
- organic acids - 0.1%,
- minerals - potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, etc.,
- vitamins C, A, PP, group B,
and I also found such information http://alifar.ru/ogurcy
Calories: 15.4kcal, Water: 95.0g Proteins: 0.8g Fats: 0.1g Carbohydrates: 3.0g Mono- and disaccharides: 2.5g Starch: 0.1g Dietary fiber: 0.7g Organic acids: 0.1g
Ash: 0.5g Vitamin A: 0.06mg Vitamin B1: 0.03mg Vitamin B2: 0.04mg Vitamin B3: 0.3mg
Vitamin B6: 0.04mg Vitamin B9: 4.0mg Vitamin C: 10.0mg Vitamin E: 0.1mg Vitamin H: 0.9mg Vitamin PP: 0.2mg Iron: 0.9mg Potassium: 141.0mg Calcium: 23.0mg Magnesium: 14.0mg
Sodium: 8.0mg Phosphorus: 42.0mg Chlorine: 25.0mg Aluminum: 425.0μg Iodine: 3.0μg Cobalt: 1.0μg Manganese: 180.0μg Copper: 100.0μg Molybdenum: 1.0μg Fluorine: 17.0μg Chromium: 6.0μg
Everyone knows: they lose weight well on cucumbers. It's kind of like an axiom in geometry: everyone knows everything about cucumbers, they can supplement the diet of almost any diet, they are extremely low in calories, they can be consumed in almost unlimited quantities.
And nothing can be done, from the table below you can see: a kilogram of cucumbers is only 135 kcal and 950 g of water!
Since ancient times, cucumbers have been used as an excellent cosmetic product. What woman hasn't walked around with a cucumber mask on her face? Fashionistas who pamper themselves with expensive imported cosmetics should remember: cucumber is also included in the basis of many cosmetic masks. And these masks are considered to be among the most effective. Cucumber moisturizes, rejuvenates the skin, promotes exfoliation of keratinized epidermis, is an excellent nourishing agent for the skin, making it soft and tender. With cellulite, it is imperative to rub cucumber gruel into the skin, it greatly contributes to its (cellulite) reduction.
What vitamins are found in cucumbers.
The content of trace elements in cucumbers
calorie content13.5 kcal
proteins 0.8 g
fat 0.1 g
PP 0.2 mg
iron 0.6 mg
potassium 141.0 mg
calcium 23.0 mg
magnesium 14.0 mg
sodium 8.0 mg
phosphorus 42.0 mg
chlorine 25.0 mg
aluminum 425.0 μg
iodine 3.0 μg
cobalt 1.0 μg
manganese 180.0 μg
copper 100.0 μg
molybdenum 16.0 mcg
fluorine 17.0 μg
chromium 6.0 μg
zinc 215.0 μg
mono- and disaccharides 2.4 g
starch 0.1 g
dietary fiber 1.0 g
organic acids / td> 0.1 g
ash 0.5 g
Medicinal properties of cucumbers. Cucumber treatment
The beneficial properties of cucumbers have been known since time immemorial, even Hippocrates spoke about it. Cucumbers, which, according to legends, appeared in ancient India, quickly spread throughout the ancient world. The Egyptians, who cannot be denied knowledge and ingenuity, used cucumber juice with rose water to strengthen their health. Cucumber juice itself was used as an excellent antipyretic agent, not only for fever, but also for burns.
Its fruits contain 95-98% water and a negligible amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The remaining 3% includes carotene, vitamins PP, C and B, as well as macro and micronutrients. Including cucumber contains a lot of potassium.
NPK - for a jerk! Top dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Instructions and rules
Tomatoes are a thermophilic crop, therefore, in the northern regions, and often in the temperate zone, it is preferable to grow them in a greenhouse. The fruits ripen about two weeks earlier, the yield is up to 2.5 times larger, the culture is less sick. At the same time, the greenhouse requires a lot of money and labor, pests reproduce better in it, tomatoes require a little more fertilizer. But, even in Siberia, you can grow your own tomatoes.
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse. General remarks
- It is necessary to plant tomato seeds for seedlings in a greenhouse a little earlier than for seedlings in open ground. You can start already in the middle - at the end of February (Read on:
How to grow tomato seedlings at home
- The optimum soil temperature for planting seedlings is at least + 10 ° С, air + 20-25 ° С.
- It is highly desirable that the greenhouse is oriented from east to west in order to provide the maximum continuous and intense lighting.
- To create an optimal microclimate, prevent excessive moisture condensation, favorable pollination, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the greenhouse.
- Tomato bushes are planted in rows in a checkerboard pattern, so that the distance between the bushes is 40-60 cm, between the rows - 50-70 cm.For determinant (with limited growth) varieties - less, for indeterminate (with unlimited growth) - more.
- Install devices for tying - pegs or trellises, digging them to a depth of 25-30 cm, it is necessary before planting the seedlings or simultaneously with it, so as not to damage the roots of the seedlings later (Read on:
How to tie up tomatoes correctly. In the greenhouse, in the open field
- For the prevention of late blight and other diseases, it is recommended to disinfect the greenhouse, for example, with a mixture of bleach (50 g / l of water) and copper sulfate (3 g / l).
Schedule for feeding tomatoes in the greenhouse.Basic schema
Backlog for the nutrition of tomatoes for next year. Organic matter is introduced so that it has time to go into the most accessible form for plants. The norm is from 5 to 15 kg of rotted compost or humus per 1 sq. m. greenhouse soil.
Superphosphate is also introduced in the fall - 50 g per 1 sq. m to stimulate the development of the root system of future seedlings.
If it is guaranteed that melt water does not penetrate into the greenhouse, potassium fertilizer can also be applied - 40 g per 1 sq. m., but it is still better to leave potassium for the spring.
An efficient and sustainable way to enrich the soil with all nutrients, especially nitrogen, is to grow green manure. They can be sown from about the end of August - when the last harvest ripens, right under the tomato bushes. Before the cold weather, they will have time to ascend and grow up to 10-15 centimeters, then they can already be embedded in the ground. It is best to use a mixture of green manure - rye or oats + rapeseed or mustard + vetch or other legumes.
Spring preparation of soil for seedlings
A small amount of humus, ash, calcium fertilizers are introduced. You can scatter their soil surface, dig it up and then make holes, but it is more efficient to apply fertilizer to each hole separately: two tablespoons of ash, humus or vermicompost and a little ground eggshell.
Again, you can sow green manure a few weeks before planting tomatoes - it is enough for them to grow just a few centimeters and green fertilizer can be repaired.
You can find recommendations for the introduction of iodine into the soil before seedlings - it is not vital for plants, but, according to the observations of specialists, it improves the survival rate of plants and has disinfecting properties. The rate of iodine addition is no more than 3 drops per 10 liters. It is best to water the soil before planting, and not the seedlings themselves - this way there is less risk of burning young roots.
Seed treatment before sowing for seedlings
Tomato seeds definitely need to be soaked before sowing for about two days. It is best to use melt water or rainwater.
Before soaking, it is also recommended to decontaminate the seeds - for 20-25 minutes. place in a slightly pink (1%) solution of potassium permanganate or 10% hydrogen peroxide solution, then rinse with running water.
There is no need to soak tomato seeds in solutions of any fertilizers - all the same, at first, the seedlings feed only on the cotyledons.
Read also our article on the topic:
What to put in the hole when planting a tomato? Review of fertilizers and folk remedies
Top dressing of seedlings
The best food for seedlings during the period of initial growth and green mass gain is nitrogen.
Nitrogen fertilization of seedlings is carried out as follows:
- after discarding the first two true leaves, watered with a solution of urea - 5g / 10l. water.
- ten days later and then every ten days before planting in the ground - watering with a solution of nitrophoska (5 g / l).
When watering seedlings with nitrogen fertilizers, try not to get them on the leaves, which are still too tender and can get burned.
Many summer residents recommend sprinkling the seedlings with a solution of boric acid for a friendly flowering to prevent premature fall of flowers.
Read also our article on the topic:
How to save tomato seedlings from wilting? Review of the reasons and methods of salvation
Fertilizers for vegetation (during fruiting)
The first feeding in the greenhouse is done no earlier than two weeks after planting the seedlings and then about once every ten days. A complex mineral fertilizer is introduced, with a N: P: K ratio of approximately 2: 1: 4, which is dissolved in warm water at the rate of 30-40 g / l. It can be the same nitrophoska, "Solution", "NPK Master", "Red Giant", "Kemira Lux", etc. In the first three decades we add 0.5 - 0.7 liters. under a bush, in the next - about 1 liter.
Experienced summer residents recommend adding boric acid (1 g / l) to your usual mineral fertilizer to increase the sweetness of the fruit.
In addition, it is good to add humate at the rate of 1 tsp. 10 liters.throughout the growing season. Or, as an organic fertilizer, you can take chicken manure, dilute it with water in a 1: 2 ratio, leave for 4-5 days and dilute it with water ten to twenty times before adding.
Instead of separately applying mineral and organic fertilizers, you can apply a complex organo-mineral fertilizer every 10-15 days, for example, Agricola No. 3. For tomatoes, peppers and eggplant ”. Agricola's norm is 25g / 10l of water.
For the prevention of apical rot and calcium deficiency, tomatoes are treated with a solution of calcium nitrate (10-20g / 10l) 2-3 times per season. Before flowering, they are applied at the root when watering. During fruiting, it is used as foliar dressing by spraying.
If you noticed that tomato plants have a powerful stem, abundant foliage, and few flowers and ovaries, they may have been overfed, first of all, with nitrogen. In this case, it is better to skip the next complex feeding or replace it with the introduction of only trace elements, paying special attention to the boron that stimulates flowering.
Above is an approximate scheme for feeding tomatoes, it can vary depending on the characteristics of the greenhouse, soil, varieties grown, etc. You can work out your optimal scheme only through trial and error, practicing growing tomatoes in a greenhouse for at least a couple of years.
Read also our article on the topic:
Feeding tomatoes and cucumbers with yeast
Video tips: how to feed tomatoes during flowering
Alexander, Leningrad region
I convince everyone and I myself firmly believe in this that tomatoes do not need any additional feeding in May. What we add to the soil (mineral fertilizers, ash, compost) will be enough for plants until fruiting. That's when the first ovaries begin to form, the tomatoes in the greenhouse need to be fed, but without fanaticism. Who needs fattening bushes with few fruits?
Some of my seedlings are good, healthy, and about 30 are bad. The one that is healthy, I once treated with a solution of calcium nitrate (prevention of apical rot). And for the dead seedlings I prepared a herbal infusion and have already fed them. Weak seedlings were planted less often so that they would get more sun. After herbal feeding, they noticeably revived and have already grown up a little.
I do not use organic fertilizers, because I do not understand how much nitrogen, phosphorus and everything else is in them. I use only ash and purchased preparations. I pour ashes (a handful) into the hole when planting, and send a complex fertilizer for a tomato (1 tsp) there. When they grow, I fertilize with Kemira or Agricola. A month later, I water the bushes with superphosphate. I spend no more than two foliar dressings per season. My harvest is always good, but sometimes there are doubts about whether I use a lot of chemicals.
To improve the soil in the greenhouse, I sow siderates: rye, mustard. I dig up the soil in the fall, add potash fertilizers. In the spring, I dig up the ridges again and add superphosphate. In the summer I feed only with mash. In the first half of summer I insist on nettle, in the second - dandelion leaves.
In the greenhouse, I build warm ridges, fill them with organic matter (manure, fallen leaves, grass). After transplanting, I feed the seedlings once with infusion of chicken droppings. From chemistry I use only Epin. I process the seeds with it before planting. Tomato yields are always excellent.
I use fresh manure for the first top dressing of a tomato in a greenhouse. I fill it with water, wait until it ferments, water it with a diluted 1:10 solution. For weak seedlings, the concentration is reduced to 1:20.
All summer I fed my tomatoes in the greenhouse with mash. For cooking, I used only live yeast: 100 g per 3 liters. I also added a little sugar. She insisted for 3 days, then watered, diluting 1 glass in 10 liters of water. I pour 1 liter of mash under each bush. Over the summer, I feed tomatoes in the greenhouse 3 times. The weather was hot, but the harvest was good. There was no chemistry. There were no diseases in the greenhouse.