U - the gardener's words - The lexicon of the garden by

U - the gardener's words - The lexicon of the garden by

U - The gardener's words

Discover all the U-words of the gardener and the garden. You will find them as you read the plants or vegetables sheets on our website. The words from the vegetable garden, the words from the ornamental garden. The words of fruits and culture, the words of gestures and tools, the words of diseases and parasites… All the words in U of the lexicon, the list is not exhaustive and only asks to be completed, then do not hesitate to ask us questions or to point out to us gaps and to make us proposals… We will add the definitions as quickly as possible. Thank you.


Plant or fruit tree producing only one harvest per year.


Plant whose cyme - Defined single inflorescence, whose main axis ends in a flower - will develop in successive lateral branches as it develops. Uniparous plants sometimes develop a scorpioid inflorescence.


Refers to plants whose contact or sting causes skin inflammation / irritation which may be accompanied by redness, stinging, burning or itching. Nettle is said to have stinging power.

The gardener's words

acclimatize : adapt a plant, originally not hardy, to a new climate.

aerate : make small regular holes in the grass or make room in flower beds.

amend : incorporating a substance into the soil to modify its physical structure without it really providing a fertilizing element.

loosen : work the earth to make it more loose.

arch : bend a branch to another branch with a plastic tie or raffia in order to reverse the direction of the rise of sap to slow down its vigor.

sanitize : make a land healthy by draining or treating it.

to bathe : water the foliage copiously.

hoe : break the surface crust of the soil with a sharp tool.

limit : pack the roots around a plant when planting.

cuttings : root a portion of the plant (leaf, stem, root).

mist : spray as a mist.

butter : bring earth around the base of a plant to form a mound.

to encircle : dig a trench around a plant.

lime : spread lime on the soil to decoagulate clay soils or correct the pH in acidic soils.

compost : make compost by storing the most diverse organic waste to break it down.

smash : loosen the soil in depth.

clear : eliminate existing vegetation before recultivation.

stump : eliminate the strains mechanically or chemically.

to divide : separate a plant stump into several parts to multiply it.

drain : limit excess water.

to draw up : properly prepare a soil for its cultivation by eliminating the coarsest particles.

to bud : eliminate unnecessary eyes (buds).

button : eliminate flower buds, to favor those which are better placed or on the contrary to cause ramifications.

unplug : eliminate certain branches, or parts of a tree.

weeping : remove some tall branches of a tree from the ground.

topping (topping) : cut off the top tip of a plant stem.

to clarify, to demarcate : eliminate excess plants in a seedling.

bud : graft by removing a bud from a desired subject with a flap of bark to insert it by incision under the bark of the rootstock.

prune : prune large trees to lighten their shape, reduce the size of their branches and rebalance them.

pot : potting for the first time. Potting is most often done in a bucket.

bury : make penetrate a product, or a material, in the ground, or cover them with earth.

stick : coat with grafting mastic.

overwhelm : temporarily place a plant in a small trench.

mow down : action of cutting grass with a scythe or with a motor mower.
fertilize : bring food to the plant.

force : produce plants ahead of their normal cultivation period by controlling climatic factors.

to smoke : bring manure to the earth.

graft : multiply by welding two different but compatible plants (scion and rootstock), in order to improve the characteristics of the plant.

scratch : run a claw on the ground to loosen it and roughly level it.

dress : remove part of a plant (leaves or roots) to facilitate its recovery.

to stay : place guy ropes or other forms of staking.

incise : cut notches in the bark (fruit tree).

layering : root a branch without weaning it from the mother plant.

mulch : Spread a vegetation cover (mowing grass, straw, pine bark, etc.) on the ground to prevent it from drying out, hamper the proliferation of weeds or add a little surface humus.

mulch : cover the ground at the foot of the plantations with straw, dead leaves, dry peat, pine bark etc. mulching has above all a temporary protective action against frost or against drying out.

trellis : orient the branches of a plant in a specific direction in order to give it a shape.

parry : finely cut with a very sharp tool an uneven wound in order to facilitate its healing.

pinch : remove part of a stem, or a twig, to make them branch.

seal : tamp the seedlings with the back of the rake.

praline : soak the roots of a bare-rooted tree or shrub in an organic mixture: praline.

cast off : remove a branch or twig, in order to induce the emission of new shoots that are more vigorous or better placed.

refresh : lightly cut an organ (root, bursa), to expose its tissues, with a clean and clean cut.

rejuvenate : keep young twigs (a year or two) to the detriment of the old ones, which are eliminated.

coppice : cut a plant very close to the ground to rejuvenate it by causing more vigorous starts.

put on : replace a plant in the ground that may have been lifted by the action of freezing and thawing.

repot : transfer a plant grown in a pot to a larger container or renew the earthy mixture without changing the size of the pot.

transplant : transplanting a plant in the seedling state to make it stronger and more branching.

restore : to rebalance the shape of an old plant or to top-graft it, when a carpenter branch has been broken.

wipe out : Allow the plants that have just been uprooted to dry out so that the soil that surrounds them can be eliminated quickly.

scarify : remove moss and felting from the lawn, using a scarifier or rake.

wean : separate a rooted layer from the mother plant. Weaning is done in the fall.

surfacing : replace the surface soil of the pots, when it is impossible to remove certain plants.

transplant (to move): to move a plant from one place to another. It also means setting up plants grown in pots and transplanted with their root ball (unlike the bare root plant which transplanted).

Gardener's tools

Spring is approaching and the desire to go and take care of the garden begins to itch. This is why, within the framework of our project around gardening, I will try to deepen a little the knowledge surveyed last year and further structure the "lessons" in order to allow more lasting acquisitions.

Here is a vocabulary sequence that will allow students to discover the name and use of the different tools used for gardening.

The exercises are taken from the kit for "gardening week at school", the site of which offers very nice tools (posters, leaflets.) But relatively expensive.

1. Discovery of tools and their uses

I am using a poster of several gardening tools that comes from the "School Gardening Week" kit, but one can consider using a scrapbook on the subject as a starting point as well (if you have any suggestions n 'dont hesitate !). We observe and comment, then each student individually carries out a written assignment (sheet 1) in which it is a question of associating the name and the image of some tools.

2. Revision and memorization of the lexicon (game n ° 1)

Each student receives a picture book which includes the names of the tools then we do a part of the gardener's tools memory using the poster and picture books as referents.

3. Revision and memorization of the lexicon (game n ° 2)

I suggest a goose game to the students which they will play by referring to their picture book. The game in A4 format is distributed at the end of the session to work at home.

4. Reuse of the lexicon

The pupils work on sheet n ° 2 where they are asked to understand the lexicon worked through words and images.

We can then resume the two games to revise following the sequence.

Verem (Friday, 01 May 2015 10:34)

Thank you very much for your work ! I will use your game and your picture book on the garden with a non-French speaking family. Sometimes she helps us in the garden and it will be more pleasant for her to know the vocabulary used.

BSC (Wednesday, 06 May 2015 10:21)

I love the poster and the goose game you offer, I download it right away and I think about its implementation in my class. And I continue to rummage on your site, see you soon!

Tampopo (Wednesday, 06 May 2015 10:25)

Thank you very much for your little messages, it's nice :)

Philau94 (Thursday, October 22, 2015 2:09 PM)

A very big thank you for sharing files. I will be using them with my CPs for our gardening project.

Could you please send me the rules of the game. It's for a birthday. For her 27th birthday. Thank you

I come to thank you for your work and your sharing, I will use it to talk about gardening in a few days.
Have a nice week end !

CECILE (Sunday, March 20, 2016 09:25)

Thank you very much for this work I will try to use it for my MS

deschamp nathalie (Wednesday, March 23 2016 16:33)

thank you for these ideas it's beautiful

FLORENCE (Sunday, April 24, 2016 09:47)

Very good work, it makes you want to get started.

Karynette (Wednesday, April 27, 2016 6:17 PM)

Your pictures will be very useful to me because the children still don't have a lot of vocabulary. Thank you

laurence (Wednesday, October 12, 2016 12:02 PM)

Thank you for all this documentation and sharing

Blanca (Wednesday, 02 November 2016 22:51)

Thank you braucoup! Here in Spain, it's very useful for interdisciplinary work: French lessons in the college's vegetable garden

Laurence (Thursday, 03 November 2016 19:32)

Congratulations for your site which exudes serenity and the desire to discover, what a taste for colors, shapes, a big bravo.
I am using some of your media tomorrow. to be continued.

moa (Wednesday, 25 January 2017 17:23)

your work is great. Did you work on the dictionary?

moane (Sunday, February 12 2017 04:48)

Thank you for the person who did this great job.

Elodie (Sunday, March 19 2017 22:54)

Very nice work, thank you! I will use it with my group of allophone students for our garden workshop.

vero cores (Saturday, 13 May 2017 22:55)

your work is great. am in internship and only had a few tools here there are more thank you for your sharing

Marianella (Wednesday, March 21 2018 14:24)

Great document!
We have a mini-farm in our school and this tool will serve as a display.
Thanks again !

Rahila (Monday, March 26 2018 17:01)

Great Job. I love. Thank you so much.

HAAS (Thursday, 05 April 2018 19:41)

Thank you for disseminating your remarkable work!

Anne (Tuesday, April 10 2018 19:19)

Well done for this work. and thanks for sharing!
It makes you want to start a gardening project!

Isabelle (Tuesday, May 15, 2018 4:35 PM)

Thanks so much for sharing!

Anne 73 (Saturday, 19 May 2018 04:25)

Thank you for all the great work, I practiced the goose game, they love it.

helene (Thursday, May 31, 2018 9:53 PM)

Thank you very much for your very well done job which will be very useful to me! Well done!

Elodie (Wednesday, 05 September 2018 11:39)

I work in an association which is at the service of schools.
As part of a work with children on the theme of the garden.
I would like to know if I have the right to use your work (download it, save it, print it) or if they are protected.

Mina (Monday, October 22 2018 19:53)

tica (Wednesday, November 21, 2018 10:34 AM)

aurel (Thursday, January 10 2019 11:23 PM)

impeccable for my gardening project, thank you!

catlic (Sunday, 03 February 2019 15:44)

Thank you so much for sharing. Bravo for these clear and neat sheets.

Valerie Rased07 (Wednesday, February 20 2019 09:18)

MA-GNI-FIQUE work! Thank you for sharing.

Dangin Lucile (Sunday, February 24 2019 13:55)

Thank you for your splendid, meticulous and so useful work.

President of a gardeners association, and we would like to use your cards and games to make a workshop for children during our garden parties. Do we have the right?
You allow us to download them but then we can use them for these parties.
Entrance, stands, workshops: everything is free.
It is to make people love gardening and nature.

Tampopo (Sunday, February 24 2019 3:09 PM)

Hello Lucile, you can of course use the cards as part of your workshops! They are there for that.
The only thing I ask is that if there is broadcast on the internet, it is a link to this page and not a direct download from another site.
Happy gardening holidays!

Zohra (Monday, March 11, 2019 10:09 PM)

Pink (Thursday, March 14 2019 17:47)

Thank you very much for this work! My students will love it

AGNES (Saturday, 06 April 2019 18:31)

thank you very much I will use it as a support

Magali (Wednesday, 01 May 2019 22:37)

Thank you very much for all the documents you share on gardening, the vegetable garden and the little animals.
They will be in my class from tomorrow!

Delphine G (Monday, 06 May 2019 07:42)

Thank you so much ! The kids at the IME where I work will love it.

Martine Jacobs (Monday, 13 May 2019 09:19)

Korotoumou (Thursday, 23 May 2019)

Hello ! I enjoyed the blog and for the Year 2019 2020 I want to introduce gardening to my kindergarten class. Could I have the heart to better prepare this disciple? Thanks for your help
My mail. [email protected]

nadine (Monday, July 15 2019 19:56)

hello I am creating the class booklets for preschool so that they are bought by the parents, the price is that of the color printing, I am a teacher but not a designer I am in Morocco and I need the cards. work and be able to illustrate the booklets
so my question would be can I make use of it for free and royalty free and be able to use all its wonders really a great job and thank you for those like me who do not know how to use our fingers
[email protected]

Tampopo (Monday, July 15 2019 21:35)

I thank you for the interest shown in my files, but, as specified on the home page, I refuse to allow them to be used in a commercial context.

Noria (Thursday, February 27, 2020)

Thank you so much for sharing!

RAKOTO Elodie (Wednesday, April 22 2020 09:07)

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Helen GARRETA (Friday, May 22 2020 11:41)

Hello, great! I love. I will adapt it in the English version for my son who is in the landscaping professional bac. A fun and visual way to enrich your vocabulary. Thank you for your work.

Nsimba (Sunday, July 26 2020 23:33)

thank you for all those informations

Nsimba (Sunday, July 26 2020 23:43)

It's quite a course, can you do us this favor to give us the industrial information of the garden with the tools?

Emmanuel (Monday, August 17 2020 14:42)

superb files. thank you so much

Cath Ulis (Thursday, February 25, 2021 5:50 PM)

Thank you for your files which are great. Enough to make a pretty garden project in the spring

Bertrand Lateyron (Monday, 08 March 2021 00:08)

Thank you for this precious and nicely shaped work :)

anonymous (Thursday, March 25 2021 6:48 PM)

List of gardening tools

The practice of gardening is based on skills and tools. Use the right tool for the right job.

We can differentiate the tools according to their use:

  • soil preparation before planting or sowing: for example two-wheel tractor, spade fork.
  • preparation and maintenance of soils already planted or sown, for example: lawn mower, watering can.
  • pruning, cutting or removing tools: for example: chainsaw, saw, secateurs, hedge trimmer.
  • tools intended for transporting liquids or solids, for example: wheelbarrow, bucket.
  • tools for preparing or moving substrates, for example: fork, manure hook.

Gardening tools can also be differentiated according to whether they are tools using human or artificial energy (electric or thermal in particular), for example: chainsaw versus saw.

You can share your knowledge by improving it (How? 'Or' What ?) according to the recommendations of the corresponding projects.

here is a list of gardening tools usual.

Why a botanical lexicon? Summary

It was produced thanks to the work of Magali Bouillon, Marie-Jeanne Carrier, Catherine Cottin, Alain Dupont, Marie-Laurence Paoli, Evelyne Ransonnette

Many people use the common name to refer to plants.
But this name can vary from country to country, region to region. In addition, the same name can designate very different plants: laurel for oleander (Nerium oleander), palm laurel (prunus laurocerasus), Portuguese laurel (Prunus lusitanica), tin laurel (Viburnum tinus) or laurel sauce (Laurus nobilis) .

It is imperative to call a plant by a full and precise name, even if this one may seem off-putting since it uses botanical Latin.
Knowing the Latin name of a plant is often to know valuable information : its morphology (columnaris for its columnar habit), its geographical origin (canariensis for the Canary Islands), its color (argenteus for its silvery foliage), its culture medium (sylvaticus for its ability to grow in the forest), etc.

The botanist LINNE, in the 18th century, developed a classification of plants still in use today.

For all these reasons, it was essential to create a botanical lexicon, called "the gardener's words" which could help to understand the names of the plants to better memorize them.

U - the gardener's words - The lexicon of the garden by

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Below is the meaning (meaning) of the vocabulary usually used to talk about gardening and the garden: flower, fruit, vegetable, cultivation technique. (especially on this site).

Adjoining. - Fixation of a branch on a support (tab of a rootstock, wall bar, stake, etc.).

Permanently. - Establishment of a given plant at its final location (permanent plantation).

Teens. - Cultivation board with inclined surface, located in the middle of the square, arranged for the maximum use of solar heat.

Adventitious. - Which grew without having been sown. Weeds can, depending on the case, be eliminated during loosening or maintenance work.

Adventive. - Organ located on a part of the plant which does not normally include such an organ. Thus, adventitious roots are set by the stem of certain plants.

Affinity. - More or less marked attraction existing between two apparently different plants, due to the more or less marked similarity of their physiological characters. Lack of affinity between rootstock and scion may be a cause of graft failure.

Postage. - Return to the state of the "franc", that is to say to an autonomous vegetation, of the plant associated with the rootstock during the grafting.

Amendment. - Substance incorporated into the soil in order to modify its physical properties.

Loosening. - Operation intended to make the soil suitable for cultivation.

Annual. - Qualifier applicable to plants whose vegetative cycle does not exceed one year.

Anticipated. - Qualifier applied to an organ (eye or branch) developing before the normal period of its blossoming.

Quickly. - Transformation of herbaceous twigs into woody twigs, that is to say into wood twigs.

Call-sиve. - Organ (eye or branch) momentarily retained with a view to attracting sap to the level where it is placed.

Arable. - Qualifier applied to the part of the soil subjected to cultivation methods.

Arcure. - Bending of the branches in order to reduce their vigor and, therefore, to increase their production possibilities (fruiting, in particular).

Rotation. - Division of all the cultivated land of a holding, into soles, each of these comprising all the parcels which, in the same year, bear the same crop.

Awning. - Mobile shelter used for the protection of fruit trees led in espalier or counter-espalier.

Advances. - Contributions of fertilizing materials supplied to the soil, in anticipation of unforeseen withdrawals of fertilizing elements, carried out during the formation of crops.

Axillary. - Qualifier given to the bud - also called lateral eye - located in the axils of the leaves, this bud giving rise to a branch of less development than that on which it is located.

Tarpaulin. - Chest in bowls or masonry, more or less buried in the ground, serving in particular as a support for the frames and allowing isolation from the external environment of the cultivated crops.

Drenching. - Superficial watering in fine rain intended, as the case may be, to moisten either all or part of a plant, or a bed of seedlings or plantation just established, or even young plants resulting from seedlings.

Bat. - Tool allowing the filling of the ground, in particular on the occasion of the sowing of fine seeds practiced in light and dry ground.

Biennial. - Qualifier applicable to plants whose vegetative cycle exceeds one year but does not exceed two years.

White. - Term used to designate each of the fungal diseases of the opium genus or related genera.

Border. - Association of herbaceous or semi-woody plants, planted frontally in a single row in the immediate vicinity of internal traffic routes (paths, alleys), or massifs.

Bounding. - Operation consisting, during planting, in applying the soil by pressure on the roots, in order to put them in close contact with the soil particles.

Bud. - Organ showing the outline of new shoots in which the constituent parts (especially leaves and flowers) are in a rudimentary state and most often included in a series of scales.

stock Exchange. - Bulge existing in pear and apple at the site of the fruits, this bulge being due to the persistence of the axis of the inflorescences.

Button. - Designated organ, sometimes under the name of flower bud, sometimes under the name of fruit bud, in which the flowers, not yet blossoming, are found grouped.

Cutting. - Fragment of a stem, leaf or root, taken from a given plant and capable of producing roots, thus making it possible to obtain a new subject, identical to the first.

Twig. - Short, slender branch of fruit trees, usually fruitful.

Bulb. - Rounded underground stem, also called onion, consisting of a fleshy plateau, tunics or scales attached to the plateau and tight against each other and a more or less central bud also attached to the plateau.

Bulbil. - Small bulb originating in the axils of the leaves or at the site of the flowers, in certain plants.

Ridging. - Operation consisting in accumulating a variable volume of soil, at the foot of certain plants, and sometimes, in completely covering them with the aim, as the case may be, of causing the multiplication of subterranean organs, of protecting the plant or of allowing the bleaching of the air system of it.

Lapsed. - Term used to qualify the plant parts (leaves in particular), which fall immediately after having fulfilled their role.

Caпeu. - Bud which forms in the axils of scales in certain bulbs (for example: garlic) and which itself presents all the characteristics of the bulb from which it emanates.

Deficiency. - Insufficiency, in the soil, of the content of a secondary constituent element such as: boron, manganese, iron, zinc, etc., this insufficiency resulting, in particular, in the decay and even the disappearance of the plants which suffer from it ( deficiency disease>.

Cernage. - Operation consisting, in pulling up into clods, in cutting the roots of the plant concerned at the limit of the clod to be extracted.

Loading. - Operation consisting in completing the chests or the tarpaulins, by means of a volume of soil or compost sufficient to allow the normal development of the roots of the plants to be cultivated.

Hairy. - The whole of the rootlets or the last divisions of the root of a plant, each branch having the appearance of a hair.

Collar.- Ideal point of junction between the stem and the main root.

Compost. - Mixture of debris of plant or animal origin, piled up and subjected to a slow transformation, in order to increase the assimilability, by the plants, of the fertilizing materials contained in these debris.

Basket. - Association, in a regular form, of annual or perennial ornamental plants.

Coast. - Cultivation board, with a slightly inclined surface, located at the foot of a wall, a fence or a hedge, and arranged for the maximum use of solar heat.

Layer. - Clusters of fermentable matter (manure, and leaves, in particular), capable of supplying, thanks to the rise in temperature which occurs during their fermentation, the necessary supplement of heat, at certain times, to plants grown outside the normal season.

Gunshot. - Time when the fermentation and the temperature of the layers, after reaching their highest level, remain stationary, before starting to decay.

Blanket. - Protective device (frame, mats, straw, leaves, etc.) used for plants sensitive to cold or grown outside the normal season.

Stealth culture. - Cultivation of a given crop, carried out between two main crops carried out during the same year, the harvest of which is added to that of the latter two and correspondingly increases the soil ratio.

Underlying culture. - Cultivation practiced under the plants of another culture, as is the case in the rural orchard.

Vegetative cycle. - Period during which a given plant performs all the functions of its life.

Stinger. - Production emitted by the pear tree and the apple tree, constituted by a pointed eye and a very short branching and which is likely to transform into fruitful element in two or three years.

Sinking. - Operation allowing deep loosening of the soil by reaching not only the entire layer constituting the soil itself, but also the upper part of the subsoil.

Degeneration. - Progressive deterioration of certain characters, in various plants, which usually results in anomalies of vegetation and the absence of any harvest (degenerative disease).

Displacement. - Operation consisting, most often, in removing a plant found in the nursery with a view to planting it in its final location, that is to say permanently. In a more general sense, uprooting a plant to replant it elsewhere.

Storage. - Removal of a plant from the pot in which it was grown.

Tufts division. - Dissociation partielle ou totale des йlйments constitutifs de la souche d'un vйgйtal donnй en vue de replanter ailleurs chacun des йlйments dissociйs.

Drageon. - Rameau souterrain prйsentant les caractиres propres а une tige, йmis par certaines espиces vйgйtales.

Drainage. - Opйration consistant а assainir le sol, en йvacuant l'eau qui s'y trouve en excиs.

Dressage. - Opйration pratiquйe en vue de donner une surface plane aux planches de culture, la ligne de repиre de cette surface йtant reprйsentйe par le cordeau, tendu dans le sens de la longueur.

Йcimage. - Pincement de l'extrйmitй ou cime chez certains vйgйtaux, en vue de limiter l'accroissement de ceux-ci en hauteur et de fortifier les organes infйrieurs.

Йclaircissage. - Arrachage des plants en surnombre en vue de favoriser le dйveloppement de ceux qui doivent normalement exister.

Йclatage. - Opйration consistant а sйparer par dйchirement une ou plusieurs fractions (йclats) de la souche d'un vйgйtal donnй, susceptibles de mener ailleurs une vie autonome, aprиs enracinement prйalable, s'il y a lieu.

Йcusson. - Њil а bois ou а fruit comportant une fraction d'йcorce et de liber, dйtachй d'un rameau d'un arbre donnй, en vue de le greffer sur un autre arbre.

Йlagage. - Opйration consistant а йliminer les branches charpentiиres excйdentaires ou mal situйes se trouvant sur les arbres conduits en formes libres, dans le dessein, notamment, d'йquilibrer la charpente.

Empotage. - Plantation en pot d'un vйgйtal ou d'une fraction de vйgйtal.

Engrais. - Matiиre fertilisante susceptible d'amйliorer la composition chimique des sols et, partant, de favoriser le dйveloppement des vйgйtaux du fait de l'accroissement de la fertilitй.

Ensachage. - Mise dans des sacs en matiиre impermйable ou impermйabilisйe, des fleurs ou des fruits de certains vйgйtaux, en vue de les isoler du milieu environnant et, partant, d'assurer leur protection contre toute attaque ou perturbation venant de ce milieu.

Йpandage en couverture. - Application d'engrais au moment oщ les vйgйtaux cultivйs se trouvent dйjа plus ou moins dйveloppйs.

Йtiolement. - Opйration ayant pour but de priver de lumiиre, pendant un certain temps, tout ou partie des organes aйriens de certains lйgumes, en vue de provoquer la disparition de la chlorophylle et de permettre ainsi le blanchiment des parties intйressйes.

Йtouffer. - Soustraire а l'action de l'air, en les plaзant sous abri vitrй, des vйgйtaux venant d'кtre multipliйs (greffe, bouture, etc.), afin de favoriser le dйveloppement des racines.

Filet. - Rameau aйrien rampant sur le sol, donnant naissance, de place en place, а des racines adventives et formant, au niveau de chacun de ces emplacements, un nouveau plant pouvant кtre sйparй du pied mиre (exemple : fraisier).

Fonte. - Anйantissement total des jeunes plants а la levйe, dы а la prйsence de certains champignons dans le sol, ou а un excиs d'arrosage.

Forзage. - Opйration consistant а provoquer, avant la saison normale, la mise en vйgйtation de certaines espиces lйgumiиres ou fruitiиres ou ornementales, notamment au moyen de chaleur artificielle.

Franc. - Sujet issu de semis.

Gazon. - Surface de terrain, encore appelйe pelouse, gйnйralement situйe а proximitй d'un lieu habitй, recouverte de vйgйtaux appartenant le plus souvent а la famille des graminйes et а celle des papilionacйes, ces vйgйtaux йtant associйs en mйlange de composition variable et fauchйs frйquemment, afin de les rendre touffus et de donner au terrain l'aspect d'un tapis.

Godet. - Pot de diamиtre rйduit, gйnйralement infйrieur а 12 cm.

Gousse. - Fruit des vйgйtaux de la famille des papilionacйes.

Greffe. - Association йtroite de deux fractions de vйgйtaux en vue de la reproduction de l'un de ceux-ci, le vйgйtal servant de support йtant dйsignй sous le nom de sujet et le vйgйtal а reproduire, sous le nom de greffon, le rйsultat de l'opйration constituant le greffage.

Griffe. - Nom donnй, en raison de sa forme, а la souche de certains vйgйtaux, constituйe de racines fasciculйes, courtes, йpaisses et charnues (exemple : asperge).

Habillage. - Opйration consistant а йliminer, avant la plantation, les organes superflus ou endommagйs se trouvant sur les vйgйtaux а planter.

Haie. - Ligne d'arbres ou d'arbustes, plantйs de front sur une largeur plus ou moins grande et jouant, le plus souvent, le rфle de clфture. Par extension, nom donnй aux plantations d'arbres fruitiers formйs en V et entrecroisйs, la forme йtant dйsignйe sous le nom de losange et la plantation, sous le nom de haie fruitiиre.

Haie. - Vent sec et froid du nord-est, soufflant en mars-avril et plus ou moins nuisible aux cultures.

Herbacй. - Qualificatif applicable aux vйgйtaux dont les tissus sont mous, tendres, aqueux et de couleur verte, comme ceux des vйgйtaux constituant l'herbe des prairies.

Hivernage. - Mise а l'abri et en sommeil vйgйtatif pendant l'hiver de certains vйgйtaux. L'hivernage est йgalement constituй par la mise en milieu froid de certains vйgйtaux destinйs а la culture forcйe, en vue d'immobiliser plus ou moins la circulation de la sиve et de permettre ainsi l'йchelonnement de la production rйsultant du forзage.

Intermйdiaire . - Vйgйtal interposй entre le sujet et le greffon, lorsque l'affinitй entre ceux-ci n'est pas satisfaisante, le rйsultat de l'association du greffon de la partie supйrieure au vйgйtal intermйdiaire йtant dйsignй sous le nom de surgreffage.

Irrigation . - Opйration ayant pour but principal d'apporter aux terrains ne disposant pas d'une humiditй suffisante, les quantitйs d'eau nйcessaires aux vйgйtaux qui s'y trouvent cultivйs.

Jauge . - Tranchйe ouverte au dйbut du bкchage et conservйe pendant toute la durйe de l'opйration, afin de permettre le dйplacement de la terre а ameublir. Par extension, est dйsignйe sous le nom de mise en jauge l'opйration consistant а disposer provisoirement certains vйgйtaux ou fractions de vйgйtaux dans une jauge, rebouchйe ensuite, en l'attente de la plantation ou de la multiplication desdits vйgйtaux.

Jet . - Petite pomme йmise en plus ou moins grande quantitй par le chou de Bruxelles et rйpartie tout le long de la tige, sauf au sommet.

Lambourde . - Rameau а bois, gros et court, terminй par un bouton а fleur ou par un њil а bois en cours de transformation en bouton а fleur.

Lignification . - Transformation des tissus herbacйs en tissus ligneux, c'est-а-dire constituйs par du bois.

Maille . - Nom donnй а certaines fleurs de plantes potagиres telles que le pois et les vйgйtaux de la famille des cucurbitacйes (melon, potiron, etc.), les fleurs ainsi dйsignйes, dans ce dernier cas, йtant les fleurs femelles.

Mange-tout . - Terme appliquй aux variйtйs de haricot et de pois dont les gousses sont dйpourvues de matiиre fibreuse ou parcheminйe, ce qui permet de les consommer en l'йtat.,

Marcotte . - Rameau sur lequel on a provoquй, au prйalable, l'йmission de racines adventives en un point donnй, alors qu'il йtait encore reliй au pied mиre, et que l'on sectionne en vue d'obtenir un vйgйtal indйpendant.

Massif . - Assemblement d'arbres ou d'arbustes plus ou moins serrйs et disposйs de maniиre а obtenir un effet ornemental dйterminй.

Minimum . - Nom donnй а la rиgle (Loi du minimum) selon laquelle le rendement des rйcoltes dйpend de l'йlйment fertilisant (azote, acide phosphorique, potasse) qui se trouve en moindre quantitй dans le sol, d'oщ la nйcessitй de l'apport de fumures йquilibrйes.

Nettoyage . - Opйration dйsignйe encore sous le nom de toilette, consistant, notamment, а dйbarrasser les vйgйtaux cultivйs en pleine terre ou а l'abri, de tout йlйment inutile, gкnant ou mкme nuisible (feuilles mortes, bois mort, etc.).

Њil . -Terme sous lequel les bourgeons des arbres fruitiers et des arbres d'ornement sont gйnйralement dйsignйs.

Њilleton . - Pousse йmise par la souche de l'artichaut, la sйparation de ce rejet, du pied mиre, йtant dйsignйe sous le nom d'њilletonnage.

Ombrage . - Opйration consistant а protйger des effets des rayons solaires, certains vйgйtaux cultivйs sous abri vitrй, le plus souvent au moment de la reprise ou lorsque les plants sont jeunes.

Onglet . - Fraction de tige ou de rameau conservйe aprиs certaines opйrations de greffage, lors de la rйduction du sujet, en vue de servir de support au rameau йmis par le greffon, situй plus bas, et de permettre l'apparition d'appels-sиve.

Palissade . - Assemblage de planches ou de vйgйtaux coupйs et plus ou moins secs, йtabli en longueur et destinй, notamment, а jouer le rфle de clфture et d'abri contre le vent.

Paillage . - Opйration consistant а йtaler sur le sol cultivй, en un lit continu de faible йpaisseur, de la paille ou du fumier plus ou moins dйcomposй.

Paillis . - Couche de paille ou de fumier disposйe а l'occasion du paillage.

Passe-pieds . - Sentier dont. la largeur n'excиde pas celle de deux pieds placйs au mкme niveau.

Pйpiniиre . - Emplacement de terrain rйservй а la multiplication des vйgйtaux et au dйveloppement de ceux-ci jusqu'au moment de la mise а demeure.

Persillage . - Opйration consistant а dйbarrasser les graines de certains vйgйtaux (carotte, en particulier), des barbes qu'elles comportent.

Persistant . - Terme utilisй pour qualifier les parties vйgйtales (feuilles, notamment), qui subsistent en restant vertes, aprиs chaque cycle vйgйtatif annuel.

Pied mиre . -Touffe ou souche d'un vйgйtal, destinйe а fournir les йlйments nйcessaires а sa reproduction autrement que par la graine. Dans ce dernier cas, le vйgйtal intйressй est dйsignй sous le nom de porte-graines.

Pincement . - Opйration, encore appelйe йbouquetage, consistant а couper, soit avec les ongles, soit avec un sйcateur, l'extrйmitй des jeunes rameaux, en vue de concentrer la sиve а la partie infйrieure de ceux-ci et, partant, de favoriser le dйveloppement des йlйments qui s'y trouvent Implantйs (bourgeons, rameaux ou fruits).

Pivot . - Nom donnй а la racine des vйgйtaux qui, par son importance par rapport aux autres racines, constitue la racine principale et s'enfonce plus ou moins verticalement dans le sol.

Plant . - Jeune vйgйtal Issu d'une graine. Par extension, vйgйtal plantй ou destinй а l'кtre.

Pla t eau. - Partie du systиme radiculaire oщ viennent s'Insйrer la racine principale et tout ou partie des racines secondaires.

Pleine terre . - Terme utilisй pour dйsigner la culture pratiquйe en plein air sans qu'il y ait besoin d'abri. Ce terme est йgalement utilisй pour dйsigner la culture а mкme le sol, par opposition, notamment, а la culture en pot ou en bac.

Plein vent . - Terme employй pour dйsigner les arbres des espиces fruitiиres, notamment ceux conduits sur tige, loin de tout abri.

Plombage . - Opйration consistant а tasser le sol par divers moyens : rouleau, batte, pelle, voire mкme les pieds, en vue d augmenter sa consistance et de mettre les graines йpandues lors des semis en contact plus йtroit avec les particules de terre.

Poils absorbants . - Organes filamenteux йmis par les racines et par l'intermйdiaire desquels s'effectue, notamment, l'absorption des йlйments nutritifs du sol.

Poquet . - Trou de faible importance pratiquйe dans le sol, en vue d'y dйposer des graines ou des tubercules.

Pouvoir absorbant . - Possibilitй que prйsente un sol de pouvoir retenir plus ou moins longtemps, dans sa couche supйrieure, les йlйments fertilisants qui lui sont fournis lors de la fumure.

Pralinage . - Enrobage des racines et, exceptionnellement, de la tige au moment de la plantation, dans un enduit consistant comportant des matiиres fertilisantes rapidement assimilables, en vue de diminuer la transpiration des sujets et de favoriser la reprise.

Prolongement . - Rameau de l'annйe situй а l'extrйmitй de la tige et des branches charpentiиres.

Recйpage . - Opйration consistant а rabattre tout ou partie d'un vйgйtal ligneux en un point de la tige ou des branches charpentiиres, suivant le cas, de telle sorte qu'il puisse bйnйficier d'une vйgйtation renforcйe, soit au moyen des nouvelles pousses йmises, soit par voie de greffage.

Rйchaud .- Fumier frais incorporй а une couche ou placй sous forme de muraille d'йpaisseur variable а la limite des coffres, en vue, suivant le cas, d'apporter un regain de chaleur а la couche initiale ou d'йviter des pertes de chaleur plus ou moins importantes qui diminueraient les effets et la durйe de ladite couche.

Rejet . - Rameau, encore appelй rejeton, qui naоt sur la souche des plantes ligneuses ou vivaces.

Rempotage . - Opйration consistant а enlever une plante donnйe du pot oщ elle se trouvait placйe, et а la mettre dans un pot de calibre supйrieur.

Repiquage . - Opйration consistant а transfйrer des vйgйtaux issus de semis, йclaircis ou non prйalablement, afin de les planter а un autre endroit, dans le dessein de les endurcir et de renforcer leurs possibilitйs d'absorption et d'assimilation jusqu'а leur plantation а demeure.

Reprise . - Moment physiologique а partir duquel les vйgйtaux ou fractions de vйgйtaux placйs en terre par voie de plantation ou mкme de repiquage, sont а mкme de reprendra leurs fonctions vйgйtatives, interrompues au moment de la dйplantation.

Ressuiement . - Retour progressif а un йtat de siccitй normale des terres humides fraоchement remuйes ou des sols ayant bйnйficiй d'arrosages plus ou moins abondants, ainsi que des parties vйgйtales extraites du sol (tubercules, par exempte).

Rhizome . - Tige souterraine charnue, constituйe gйnйralement d'une succession de petits renflements ayant plus ou moins l'apparence d'un chapelet.

Roulage . - Opйration consistant а passer un instrument appelй rouleau sur un sol ameubli dans le dessein, soit de l'йgaliser en brisant les mottes superficielles, soit de provoquer le tassement de sa partie supйrieure afin de lui donner plus de cohйsion.

Scion . - Pousse de l'annйe йmise par un vйgйtal issu de semis ou par le greffon dans les opйrations de greffage.

Sevrage . - Opйration consistant а sйparer le rameau reliй au pied mиre, de ce dernier, dans le mode de multiplication par marcottage, lorsque ledit rameau est а mкme de poursuivre une vйgйtation autonome.

Sole . - Groupe de planches de culture qui, dans une exploitation donnйe, portent la mкme culture, une mкme annйe.

Stratification . - Disposition par lits successifs de certains йlйments vйgйtaux (graines, bulbes, tubercules, greffons, boutures, etc.), avec intercalement d'une couche de matiиre isolante (terre sиche ou lйgиrement humide), en vue de conserver la vitalitй nйcessaire а ces йlйments en l'attente de leur utilisation normale.

Sujet . - Terme sous lequel est dйsignй le vйgйtal servant de support au greffon, dans l'opйration du greffage, ce vйgйtal йtant encore appelй porte-greffe.

Surfaзage . - Rйgйnйration de la partie superficielle de la terrй, notamment dans les cultures pratiquйes en pot.

Surgreffage . - Opйration consistant а greffer deux fois le mкme sujet, en utilisant un sujet intermйdiaire (voir ce mot).

Taille . - Opйration consistant а rйduire mйthodiquement certains йlйments constitutifs du systиme aйrien des vйgйtaux (tige, branches charpentiиres, coursonnes, etc.) dans le dessein d'obtenir un meilleur йquilibre vйgйtatif ainsi qu une utilisation rationnelle des йlйments fertilisants du sol et, partant, d'amйliorer la fonction du vйgйtal. .

Talage . - Marques plus ou moins profondes existant sur les fruits а la suite de pressions anormales de l'йpiderme, en cours de cueillette ou de transport, la meurtrissure des tissus qui en rйsulte entraоnant gйnйralement la pourriture des fruits atteints.

Terreautage . - Opйration consistant а recouvrir la surface d'un terrain de culture, aprиs un semis ou un йclaircissage, d'une couche de terreau de plus ou moins faible йpaisseur, en vue d'amйliorer la partie superficielle du sol, tant au point de vue physique que chimique, et de fournir ainsi aux graines semйes ou aux plants subsistant aprиs l'йclaircissage, de meilleures possibilitйs de dйveloppement.

Terre battante . -Terrain compact superficiellement ayant tendance а se glacer aprиs chaque chute de pluie ou chaque arrosage, ce qui nйcessite l'exйcution de binages nombreux.

Terre creuse . - Terrain constituй de grosses molйcules, а cohйsion insuffisante de ce fait, qui nйcessite l'exйcution d'un roulage ou d'un plombage avant les semis ou les plantations.

Terre franche . - Terrain dont la teneur en йlйments constitutifs de base (argile, silice, calcaire, humus) est satisfaisante pour chacun de ces йlйments.

Transplantation . - Opйration consistant а arracher un vйgйtal donnй et а le replanter а un nouvel emplacement.

Treille . - Cordon de vigne conduit sur une tige йlevйe et йtabli soit en espalier, soit en contre-espalier.

Trisannuel . - Qualificatif applicable aux vйgйtaux dont le cycle vйgйtatif excиde deux annйes sans toutefois dйpasser trois ans.

Tubercule . - Tige souterraine renflйe et gorgйe de matiиres nutritives de rйserve, rencontrйe chez certains vйgйtaux, tels que la pomme de terre.

Tuteurage . - Opйration consistant а fournir un support rigide а un vйgйtal donnй ou а une fraction de vйgйtal en vue, suivant le cas, de le consolider dans le sol (arbres fruitiers, par exemple) ou d'assurer le maintien de sa tige (exemple : vйgйtaux sarmenteux ou grimpants). Le support est, d'une faзon gйnйrale, dйsignй sous te nom de tuteur, sauf pour la vigne oщ il est connu sous le nom d'йchalas et pour des vйgйtaux tels que le pois oщ le tuteur est appelй rame.

Vivace . - Qualificatif applicable aux vйgйtaux herbacйs dont la souche dure plusieurs annйes, en йmettant chaque annйe des pousses nouvelles qui meurent а l'automne ou а l'entrйe de l'hiver.

La cabane des sorciиres dans les arbres sous la neige au rйveil !

Lexique Botanique

Il est impératif d’appeler une plante par un nom complet et précis, même si celui-ci peut paraître rebutant puisque faisant appel au latin botanique.
L’originalité de ce lexique botanique écrit en 2002 est son classement des mots par thèmes.

Articles de cette rubrique

  • Pourquoi un lexique botanique ? Sommaire
    Connaître le nom latin d’une plante c’est souvent connaître de précieux renseignements.
  • Les mots du jardinier
    Une série de verbes d’action dont il faut connaître la signification exacte.
  • Des mots pour les plantes
    Des mots qui caractérisent les plantes et qu’il faut absolument connaître.
  • Annuelles, bisannuelles et vivaces
    Leur mode de vie et de culture sont très différents.
  • Le port des plantes
    De la forme et du port d’une plante dépendront sa place dans le jardin et le rôle qu’elle y jouera.
  • Les feuilles : structure, formes et dispositions
    Connaître les caractéristiques des feuilles est indispensable pour reconnaître les plantes.
  • Les fleurs : structure, différents types d’inflorescences et formes
    Les fleurs peuvent avoir des formes très variées. Encore faut-il prendre le temps de les observer.
  • Principales formes des fruits
    Akène, baie, capsule, samare, silique, drupe et gousse.
  • Règles et termes de la nomenclature botanique et horticole
    Comment écrire le nom d’une plante ?
  • Les noms des plantes liés à la morphologie
    arboreus, baccatus, campanulatus, cordatus, crispus, dentatus, diffusus, filiformis, etc.

Glossaire du jardinage

Adventice , Amendement , Anémogame , Annuelle

Billes d'argile , Binage , Bisannuelle , Blet , Bouillie bordelaise , Bulbe , Bulbille , Buttage

Caduc , Caïeu , Carnivore , Chauler , Cochenille , Coursonne , Cryptogamique

Dioïque , Drainage

Eclaircissage , Ensachage , Epiphyte

Fongicide , Fronde , Fructification

Graminée , Griffage

Héliotropisme , Hivernage

Marcottage , Mellifère , Monoïque , Mouche blanche

P.E.F.C. , Paillis , Palisser , Persistant , Plantoir , Plantoir à bulbes , Pralin , Pyrèthre

Rejet , Rhizome , Roténone

Sarcler , Semi-persistant , Stolon , Substrat , Succulente , Surfaçage

Terreautage , Topiaire

Video: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography