Plant propagation Published: October 13, 2011 Reprinted: Last edits:
Seeds are propagated less often than in other ways, but this method does not become less exciting from this, moreover, with the help of seed propagation, it is possible to achieve the appearance of new forms of plants that differ in the color of flowers or leaves.
For those who are just starting to grow plants from seed, it is better to train on annuals - this is an easier way, and it also gives quick results. After that, you can try to grow more complex plants from seeds - saintpaulias, cacti, ferns. The more complex the plant and its propagation by seeds, the more interesting this activity. In general, perennial plants grow slowly, so it may take more than one year before they grow to large sizes - before planting seeds, you need to carefully read on the package how and when to sow the seeds. When planting a small amount of seed, they are sown in pots, and for large quantities, on a tray.
The main condition for sowing seeds is their freshness and the absence of diseases or pests. In January-February, seeds are sown, which take a long time to germinate. Seeds that germinate quickly are sown in March-April - if you plant them earlier, the seedlings will stretch out, because they will lack lighting. Seeds of asparagus, camellias, palms and other plants, the seeds of which have a hard skin, must be treated before planting: either scald the seeds with boiling water, or soak them for three to five days, or cut the skin of the seed, or treat with aloe juice - aloe leaves without damage it is necessary to store at a temperature of three degrees for 25 days, then squeeze the juice and soak the seeds in it. Treated aloe seeds will sprout faster, and the plant will start flowering earlier.
You need to sow seeds either in pots or in trays, having previously disinfected the soil once or twice with boiling water. An exception is sowing heather seeds.
How to sow seeds
Sowing on a tray
Usually the tray is filled with a mixture of peat and clay, because this mixture is suitable for almost all seeds. The use of ready-made indoor plant substrates is not recommended because they contain too many nutrients, which will inhibit seed germination. The soil in the container should be leveled with a piece of hard plastic or a board and then tamped lightly. On a flat soil surface, you need to evenly distribute the seeds, then sprinkle them with a thin layer of earth, but only if the package with the seeds does not say that they should be in the light, or if they are not very small. The layer of soil sprinkled on top should be equal to the thickness of the seeds - a sieve can be used to distribute the soil evenly. It is necessary to carefully water (you can also use a sieve), after which the tray is covered with glass or placed in a greenhouse. Information about temperature and amount of light can be found on the seed package.
Sowing in a pot
The pot should be lined with quality drainage from pebbles, fine gravel and coarse sand. A light substrate is poured on top and lightly tamped and leveled. The seeds need to be evenly distributed in the pot. As with planting in a tray, it is necessary to sprinkle the seeds with soil, the thickness of which should be equal to the thickness of the seeds. The ground is watered from a sprayer or bottom irrigation (the water level in the container must be below the ground level in the pot). When the top layer of the substrate becomes wet, you need to remove the pot from the water and let the excess drain, after which the pot is placed in a greenhouse and covered with cellophane wrap or glass. The distance from the glass to the substrate, if small seeds were sown, should be equal to 1 centimeter, and when planting large seeds, one and a half to two centimeters.
The sown seeds need to be watered from time to time with bottom watering, sprayed on the substrate, periodically ventilated and wiped off the accumulated moisture from the glass. You need to be careful, because and waterlogging and overdrying are very harmful. When the seeds sprout, it is necessary to remove the glass, and the container with the sprouts itself is moved closer to the light, but for the first couple of days they provide diffused lighting.
In order for the plant to form strong roots, when propagating by seeds, a pick should be carried out - usually this is done two or three times, and each time the soil should be more nutritious. Some plants need to be dived four or five times, while others cannot stand dives at all, so read more about seed propagation of specific plants in the Encyclopedia from A to Z. You can dive with a sharpened peg, made albeit from an ordinary pencil. With one hand, they stick a peg near the seedling into the ground, with the other, raise the seedling, slightly pulling it out of the substrate. You need to dive the plant into slightly moist soil, and the plant itself needs to be sprayed. In order for the plant to take root better after the pick, the container with the sprouts can be covered with glass for a couple of days.
An example of propagation by seeds of Adenium can be seen in the photographs.
- Indoor Plants Information
Reproduction of indoor plants. Reproduction by seeds. - garden
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Ginkgo biloba is planted in the fall or early spring. To do this, dig a deep hole in the size of the roots. A drainage layer must be poured at the bottom of the trench, fine gravel, river pebbles or broken red brick are ideal. Sand is laid out next. Then a layer of fertile soil is poured, complex mineral fertilizers and growth stimulants are added. You can also apply organic fertilizing to the soil, for example, ash.
Only after all the preparatory procedures have been carried out, the seedling itself is immersed in the pit. The root system must be evenly distributed in the trench so that the roots lie freely and do not bend. After that, you can fill the hole with the rest of the soil. The root collar is left above the ground. Having carried out the planting procedure, the plant is watered and the soil next to it is mulched with coniferous needles.
Ginkgo biloba belongs to unpretentious and fairly hardy plants. Caring for both a young and an adult tree does not imply anything special.
It should be borne in mind that in the first few years the plant will practically not grow and give abundant growth. This is due to the fact that he needs to build up a large root mass. During this period, it is enough to periodically water the seedlings and feed them with root growth stimulants or complex mineral fertilizers. They can be applied both in liquid form under the root, and by spraying the crown. It is also necessary to loosen the soil in the hole and remove weeds in time.
After the root system is sufficiently strong, the seedling will begin to grow intensively and give a large increase in shoots. It is noteworthy that in the first 30 years of life, the tree grows up to 15-20 m in height!
Caring for an adult plant consists of regular watering and weeding of the soil. Ginkgo biloba is not subject to any diseases and pests. The tree requires additional protection only in winter. It is advisable to wrap the trunk with insulation, since hares and various rodents are very fond of the bark. For the summer period, this covering is removed.
You can also cut the crown of the tree and give it a certain shape. Ginkgo is grown as a bonsai and is easy to cut.
This kind of breeding is quite simple and quick.
Indoor crops can be cultivated:
- mustache or offspring
- air layering
- a piece of stem
breeding types of indoor plants
Stem or leaf... A healthy and colorless shoot 7-15 cm long (depending on the size of the mother plant) below the node or a highly developed leaf is cut onto the cutting with a sharp knife. The lower leaves are removed from the shoot. The cut part is placed for a short time in a solution of Kornevin or any phytohormone.
Now a recess is made in the nutrient soil with a stick, into which our cutting is placed.
All cuttings except geraniums and succulents are covered with foil to create a humid microclimate. The container with cuttings is placed in a warm and well-lit place, but protected from direct sunlight. Then watering is carried out regularly, and the cacti are only sprayed.
This method can be used throughout the year, but rooting occurs faster in spring or summer, except for geranium and fuchsia, which root more actively in August. For reliability, it is advisable to plant several cuttings at once.
This method is used to propagate begonia (but not tuberous), balsam, violet, ficus, cacti, gloxinia, succulents, ivy, geranium and many others.
Remember that slices of succulent leaves, cactus cuttings must first be dried for 1-2 days.
Leaf stalk... The method is similar to the previous one. The leaf is broken off from the stem completely, leaving no residue on the stem. Further processing in a stimulator and planting in the ground. Rooting takes place after a few weeks.
Leaf breeding is possible for uzambara violets, bush begonias, bastards and others.
Most crops can be gotten roots in a glass of water.
reproduction by layering
It is suitable for a well-developed plant with many shoots. The best time is spring. A healthy shoot is gently pressed to a special soil (you can pin it with a wire). Since the cuttings take root slowly, the culture is often provoked by making a small incision in the stem where it touches the ground. This way you can make several layers at once. The new plant is cut off when it starts to grow.
The method is suitable for climbing, ampelous crops (tradescantia, ivy, chlorophytum), palm, philodendron.
It is used for crops with thick, long and bare stems that are overgrown and ugly.
To do this, determine the place where an incision is made on 1/3 of the stem, put a chip in it and carefully remove the bark from the stem at a width of 1.5 cm. Now the incision and the area with the bark removed are placed in sphagnum, wrapped in a film and tied with twine before and after the incision.
Remember, the cut should not be more than 60 cm long.
After about 30-45 days, the roots will appear and the layers can be cut off and planted in a container. And on the mother plant, lateral shoots will appear over time.
This is how azalea, tree ficus, dracaena, monstera, dieffenbachia are bred.
This is the name of the lateral shoots that grow from the mother flower. The offspring is carefully cut off from the mother plant as close as possible so that it has more roots and is planted in a separate container.
This is how cacti, bromeliads, and bulbous species reproduce. Small bulbs are separated and planted separately. The seedling blooms in 1-2 years.
Dividing the bush
This procedure is usually carried out in the spring, removing the main plant from the pot, and dividing it, breaking or cutting carefully, into two or more parts.
It suits chlorophytum, fern, violet, piperus.
There are cultures that produce mustaches. For some, they already have roots, they are immediately cut off and planted in a separate container. A mustache without roots is first placed in the ground, and when rooting, it is cut off from the main flower.
The method is suitable for braided saxifrage, chlorophytum, degremona, tolmiya.
Vegetative propagation of indoor plants florists spend in different ways. It is important to know which method is suitable for a particular plant, and to fulfill all the conditions for its successful breeding. Then you will grow healthy and beautiful home crops without financial costs.
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Tips & Tricks
Before starting a home pomegranate in an apartment, you need to be sure that there are all conditions for growth. Pomegranate comes from southern latitudes, where there is a lot of sunlight, so it will not feel very comfortable on the eastern and western windowsills. North windows are contraindicated for him. Southeast, south, or southwest window sills are required for its successful cultivation.
The pomegranate tree grows well on neutral soils, so it is not necessary to allow the substrate to acidify. For this reason, oak soil cannot be used.
The clod of earth should not dry out, otherwise the pomegranate will shed its leaves, and the root system will die. But you should not plant a swamp in a pot either - the roots will begin to rot. Especially carefully you need to monitor the watering regime during the dormant period.
Before planting, dry grains are soaked for several hours in water with growth stimulants.
Reproduction of indoor plants
It is not a problem to buy seeds of indoor plants now. In flower or garden shops they sell lung seeds in the culture of asparagus, some palms, begonias, strelitzia, gloxinia, etc. If you want to purchase seeds of rarer plants, you can do this through the online store or by ordering on the forum. It is very important to think about whether you can provide the necessary conditions for the plant, its special requirements. For example, Strelitzia is a beautiful plant, but it needs a lot of space and light. Also, always pay attention to the sowing dates (for example, it is better to sow cyclamens in the fall) and the expiration date of the seeds.
Most plants propagate by cuttings taken from the upper parts of the shoots mainly in the spring and summer, some plants easily propagate by cuttings at any time of the year. You can put the cuttings for rooting in plain water (preferably boiled), while it is better to use dark glass dishes, for example, a beer bottle, if the cuttings pass freely into the neck. Or a glass jar wrapped in paper, so the water in the container will not bloom. If the walls of the vessel are covered with blue-green algae, the stem of the cutting is also often silted up and does not give roots.
This method is typical for Saintpaulias, Gloxinias, small-leaved peperomia and some types of begonias. To do this, take an adult healthy leaf taken from the base of the plant. The length of the petiole to be left will depend on where you will root it.
So, when rooting Saintpaulia in water, a petiole of about 3-4 cm is left at the leaf. And when rooting in the ground - no more than 1 cm. The tip of the petiole is cut strictly across with a sharp knife, dipped in a phytohormone solution (see phytohormones). The stalk is placed in a recess previously made in the soil, so that the underside of the leaf is facing the wall of the pot. The leaf itself should not touch the soil, but rise above it. Then the pot is covered with a jar to increase air humidity and must be ventilated twice a day.
There are two options for plant propagation by layering. Each consists in the fact that the new plant gets its own roots, not cut off from the mother plant (otherwise it will be cuttings).While the cuttings are taking root, the mother plant provides them with nutrients.
The first method consists in deflecting and bending the lateral shoot from the bush to the ground, and re-rooting it. Those. if the bush has flexible or herbaceous shoots, one of them can be bent to the ground in the same pot or put the pot next to it. Pin the cut to the ground with a paper clip or press it with a pebble, do not cut off the mother plant until roots are formed. Under the influence of soil moisture and stagnation of sap flow, due to the bending of the shoots, they take root.
The method of reproduction of plants by division is to divide the bush. This method is typical for plants that grow well in width (aspidistra, clivia, calla, cyperus, arrowroot, agapanthus, asparagus, ferns, passionflower, pineapple, etc.). When transplanting in spring, these plants, taken out of the pot, are divided in half or into more parts. To do this, use a well-sharpened knife. Each of the parts should have a small number of roots and growth buds. Plants that reproduce mainly by dividing the bush, as a rule, have one feature - they like cramped dishes. So, if an aglaonema or sansevieria is planted in a pot that is too large, the above-ground part of the plant will not grow for a long time. In this inhibited state, the flower can survive for about a year.
Svetlana Larsen (svph) shares her experience gained from her own mistakes. I quote verbatim so as not to miss a single bit of important information:
So, there is one secret in the grafting of rhododendrons, which for some reason is very rarely mentioned in the literature. Perhaps because so far only specialists are engaged in this. I was told about these features by a girl from Riga, who wrote a thesis on propagation of wild and varietal rhododendrons, and then an American at an international flower forum. The approach is somewhat different, but the meaning is the same.
Plant diseases and pests
Nolina is a fairly resistant plant to a variety of diseases and pests. But still, some of them are capable of infecting this plant. Nolina needs regular watering. If this action is not performed, then it will not be able to assimilate moisture from the reservoir, which is located in its stem. That is why its roots will start to rot. Also, the foliage of this plant may have brown spots, and the shoots will become much softer.
To get rid of this disease, you must:
- Trim the decayed parts of the plant.
- After that, gently treat the cut sites with activated carbon.
- Next, nolina is transplanted into dry soil.
- After planting, the plant does not need to be watered for at least a week.
- After this time, it is necessary to provide this plant with watering in moderation.
In very dry air, this plant can be affected by thrips or spider mites. Nolina can also be attacked by worms or scale insects. If you find any insect, you need to do everything possible to get rid of it. The most effective way to combat scale insects and chervens is a wet rag, which is moistened with a tobacco-soap solution. The fight against ticks and thrips consists in the treatment with special preparations in the form of insecticides. Dalmatian chamomile is also very often used for this purpose.
In order to prevent the appearance of pests, it is necessary to spray the plant in a sufficiently dry air, and also wipe its leaves with a dry sponge.
This plant has a rather attractive appearance, thanks to which it can easily decorate any room. In addition, it is easy enough to look after him, which gives him even more value.
More information can be found in the video.