Variety of table grapes with seeds
Table grapes are commercially available in different types, but the most important distinction is that between the varieties with seeds and without seeds.
As regards the varieties of table grapes with seeds, among others we also find the victoria grape: it is a table grape with a typical white color that is characterized, first of all, by the fact of being remarkably early, but also to be extremely productive, but also for the appearance of both the bunch and the berry. The Victoria grape can count on an excellent level of resistance as regards transport and how much the plant is able to preserve itself.
The bunch has a rather large size and a cylindrical and compact shape, while the grape can count on a high level of resistance against crushing and detachment, on a typically yellow color and on a neutral flavor.
Uva Italia is another white table grape which is characterized above all by being particularly requested by the final consumer due to the decidedly beautiful appearance of its bunches, but also by the fact that it can count on tasty and particularly crunchy berries; moreover, it also has a good level of resistance and shelf life.
The grape of Italy is characterized by having a typically golden yellow or amber color, with a skin of medium thickness and a crunchy and rather juicy, but also very sweet pulp.
Variety of seedless table grapes
As for the seedless varieties, among the best varieties of white table grapes, both from the point of view of production and from the point of view of quality, we must certainly highlight the presence of the sugraone grape. Among the main characteristics of this type of white table grape we find the fact of being precocious and having excellent qualities from the organoleptic point of view, as well as from a strictly aesthetic point of view.
The Sugraone grape is available in the period of time between the end of July and the middle of September; the bunch can count on average dimensions, with a conical shape and a weight that does not go beyond 500 grams.
The grape has a yellow color and a crunchy pulp, with a particularly sweet taste.
In the seedless varieties, among the best varieties of white table grapes we also find the Thompson Seedless grape: it is a seedless white table grape, which can be used safely both for fresh consumption and for making juices. and spirits. It is a particularly widespread grape for drying and its availability is between the last days of August and the beginning of October.
The Thompson Seedless grape is characterized by having a medium-small size, with an ovoid shape and a decidedly crunchy pulp.
Grapes are able to quench thirst and purify, but at the same time release energy and manage to nourish with great effectiveness. The properties of grapes are well known since ancient times: in fact, each grape can count on the presence, within it, of revitalizing substances, which allow it to fight skin aging and ensure adequate protection against the fragility of the grapes. capillaries.
The grape is characterized by being particularly rich in mineral salts, especially iron, calcium and potassium. Since grapes are characterized by having a limited quantity of sodium chloride, they are able to benefit diuresis, but it is a suitable and recommended food for all hypertensive people. The salts contained in the grapes can count on the performance of an anti-uric activity, which allows to stimulate and promote digestion.
The berries and, specifically, the peel, in addition to the seeds, can be classified among the most powerful anti-free radicals that can be found in nature, since they boast, within them, a high quantity of calcium, phosphorus, polyphenols and flavonoids. The table grape, therefore, allows to improve the metabolism of sugars, but also to operate an overall antioxidant activity, guaranteeing adequate protection to the skin, making it radiant and young.
Table grapes: Storage and consumption
After purchasing the variety of table grapes (remember that the rather wide choice is mainly divided between those varieties with seeds and those without seeds) that you prefer and that you consider best suited to your needs among those available in commerce, the advice is to place the bunches inside your refrigerator.
We pay great attention since it is suggested to put them inside a perforated plastic box: this is a small and excellent trick that will allow you to keep the clusters of table grapes even for a period of more than seven days.
Finally, it is advisable to wash the grapes thoroughly and for a long time just before consuming them.
Finally, we recall how Italy is the largest producer of table grapes in the world, representing an excellent resource both from an employment and economic point of view in the regions where it is grown.
Best planting time for table grapes and vines in the garden
Tasty grapes are healthy and delicious. As soon as they come out of their garden, they taste double. To grow vines or table grapes, it is not necessary to live in one of the classic wine regions. They grow in almost any garden and deliver popular fruit in late fall. When you should put vines in your garden, we explain to you in detail here.
to know more
Growing vines has been a tradition since ancient times. It is important to distinguish between grapes intended exclusively for consumption and those that must be pressed into wine. The grape varieties grown in the vineyards are naturally also edible, but there is a certain acidity required to make a good tasting wine from the grapes. Crops of table grapes and vines for the garden are often other varieties tailored to the taste and consumption of hobby gardeners. That is, they are grapes that are full, plump and sweet, as long as the vines are grown in a sunny, sheltered place.
Those who grow vines on a trellis or house wall can use half-shade, because the plants receive additional heat from the warm wall of the house and can therefore bear fruit in addition to the desired privacy or greenery.
- If the harvest is very abundant, it is also worth squeezing the juice from the grapes
- Table grapes cannot be transformed into wine
Best sowing time
For vines, as well as for table grapes, the best time for sowing is certainly late spring. Then there is little danger of night frosts that could damage the young plants, the soil is already heated and the plants that suffer from the sun can spread and take root. In addition, the ground is not too wet after the snow melts. Too much moisture promotes fungal diseases.
Grape vines can also be used excellently to beautify a pergola or house wall. From early April to mid-May, young vines can be planted in the intended location. It is important to ensure that the refining site is only 3 - 4 cm above the ground. When buying, be sure to buy fungus resistant varieties. Although vines are now available as container plants throughout the year, the planting season should be no later than May so that the first flowers will grow in the same year.
Table grapes can also be grown in a planter, but they definitely need a climbing aid, that is, a climbing cable or two tall plant rods, between which a thread is stretched.
Wine blooms only on one-year shoots and there too only fruit, so annual pruning is important.
- The vines for a trellis can be placed throughout the year, as long as they are not freezing
- Vines for table grapes should be best planted only in spring
- Ensure adequate ventilation to prevent fungal diseases
Table or wine grapes: from planting to harvest
The vine, from which the grapes derive, has very ancient origins: present in its spontaneous state for over 300 thousand years, it was certainly already cultivated in the Caspian Sea area in 1700 BC, but experienced a great development only with Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Unmissable at aristocratic banquets, consumed fresh or in the form of 'nectar' and 'ambrosia', grapes were also offered to heroes and gods in decorative wreaths, as shown by ancient pictorial tables. Greeks and Romans gave great boost to the crop: in addition to increasing the production of wine, which from an elite product became an increasingly popular drink, they used grapes as a method of treatment, giving rise toampelotherapy (from the Greek ampelos, vine), to purify the body by exploiting the diuretic and laxative properties of the fruit.
After an immense fortune, however, with the end of the Roman Empire the grapes almost disappeared, saving itself from extinction only thanks to the monasteries. From Middle Ages cultivation regained vigor and modern production techniques were born.
Two hundred years ago, however, parasites arrived from America, such as phylloxera and downy mildew, which have endangered the European vine, forcing growers to graft the vines on the most resistant vines of American origin and to regularly use phytosanitary products such as sulfur. Only in Twentieth century production is regulated through specific regulations aimed at improving the quality of the fruit, even at the expense of quantity.
How it looks
Rather demanding, the vine asks sun and light in summer, rain in spring and winter, gradual increase in temperature. Only where the four seasons exist, therefore, will the vine generously produce its juicy fruit: grapes, which appears as a cluster, with a stalk (woody skeleton) on which the pulpy berries that contain the seeds develop.
There is a huge variety of grapes, with the fundamental distinction between those used to produce wine (wine grapes) and those intended for food consumption (table grapes) some varieties, such as Muscat grapes, have both uses.
However, both types of grapes derive from two unique species: Vitis vinifera, of Euro-Asian origin, mother of most of both table and wine vines, e Vitis labrusca, originally from North America and mainly intended for the production of table grapes and marginally for the production of wine.
The grape varieties or vines
Of these two species there are also numerous varieties, or vines, selected by man over the course of history and which can be classified according to different points of view: for intended use (wine grapes, table grapes, drying grapes), for the flavor (aromatic or neutral), for their earliness or for theirs thermal needs. With the selection, man has come to attribute different characteristics to the vines depending on their intended use, flavor and local environmental characteristics.
In the case of table grapes for example, white or red, one was favored low thickness of the peel, the firm and crunchy texture of the pulp and the presence of few seeds. In the case of wine grapes instead the peel is much thicker, the pulp is less firm and juicier and the seeds are often larger and more numerous.
A special mention deserves, for its renowned double attitude, the so-called "American grape" or "strawberry grape", a variety of labrusca which is used both as a table grape and for the production of Fragolino, the sweet and sparkling wine typical of Northern Italy.
For table grapes we will talk about collection while for wine grapes we will talk about harvest the fruits will undergo direct consumption in the first case or transformation in the second case.
After harvesting, table grapes can be eaten fresh or dried, or it can be used to make fruit juices. In the case ofwine grapes, it is thanks to winemaking that the must ferments producing alcohol and transforming the juice into wine.
Grapes can be white or black: the first produces yellow or light green grapes (for example Italia, Regina, Aledo, Gloria, Canicattì, Matilde, Moscatel), the second produces reddish, purple or black grapes (Red Globe, Rosada, strawberry grapes).
Some varieties of traditional table grapes:
- grapes Italy, obtained by crossing the Bicane and Muscat of Hamburg vines, always very valid for the sweetness and size of its berries. Ripens in the second half of September.
- grapes Cardinal, semi-seedless, sought after as it is very early. Ripens in late July / early August and its attractive clusters have large red - purplish, crunchy and exquisite berries
- grapes Pizzutello black and Pizzutello white, with its beautiful clusters with elongated and crunchy berries. Ripens in late September and is also suitable for growing in pots.
Among the varieties of modern table grapes here are the most suitable for hobby cultivation:
- grapes Citrine (aromatic muscat), seedless, which ripens very early and stands out for its intense aroma and exquisite flavor, it is a very rustic variety resistant to fungal diseases. Ripens in early September.
- grapes Sapphire (blue muscat), a recently selected table grape variety that ripens very early (early September), is very productive and its blue berries are medium-large and very sweet, it is also very rustic and resistant to fungal diseases.
Some varieties of strawberry grapes:
- Golden white strawberry
- Early white strawberry
- Black strawberry
- Early black strawberry
- Opaline - aromatic black strawberry
- Smeralda - very early jumbo black strawberry
- Topazia - white seedless strawberry
Some varieties of white wine grapes:
- Greco di Tufo,
Variety of red wine grapes:
- Cabernet Sauvignon,
- Merlot, Brunello,
- Nero d'Avola,
Seedless grapes (seedless)
All children and many adults love seedless grapes as they are much more pleasant to eat. Not everyone knows that the absence of seeds, or their small size, in grape varieties that have this characteristic is the consequence of a natural process to which, however, man adds chemistry.
The phenomenon ofapyrenia (from the Greek: absence of seeds), in nature, it is caused by two distinct processes of incomplete fertilization of female gametes within the flowers. The first process is called stenospermocarpia that is, fertilization takes place but the development process of the embryo is aborted, thus giving rise to rudimentary seeds; the second process is called parthenocarpy that is, despite pollination and the consequent emission of hormones of the development of the berries, fertilization is absent and no embryo develops. In this case the seeds are completely absent but also the size of the berries is smaller.
For the production of table grapes without seeds but with large berries, manufacturers are forced to intervene with excessive fertilization or even with administrations of synthetic phytohormones in order to meet the tastes of consumers.
The vine for table grapes
First you have to choose the most suitable vines for the soil and above all the right rootstock. It is advisable to contact a serious nurseryman, providing him with the necessary information on the characteristics of the soil, exposure and microclimate.
In autumn, the burglary is prepared, shallower on dry and loose soil, deeper in compact or depleted soil. The plant must be done in the spring in the northern regions, while in the less cold areas, on the lakes and in the south, it can also be planted in autumn. A shovel of good manure is placed in the hole, a little mineral fertilizer and a rather thick layer of fine earth. The roots stretch out in the hole and cover it with fine earth almost to the height of the graft. Then, the cuttings are cut (one year vine) to two gems so that you do not try too hard to take root and keep the earth around slightly moist, soft and always free from weeds.
The vine is one climbing tree plant whose bearing, in agriculture, is determined by the training system ("on the ground", "Guyot", "spurred cordon", "awning", "pergola", "alberello"). The natural bearing on the contrary, it is irregular, with sparse branching but very developed in length. The forms of farming most suitable for a table grape vineyard consist of the espalier, counter-espalier or simple inclined pergola shape with planting of the cuttings that are not too dense and with the shoots stretched to an accessible height. They are used poles in treated wood, in wood with concrete at the base, or those in concrete (perforated or solid). To them are tied, at two different heights, the galvanized wires to which the vine shoots are fixed by means of plastic ties. The rows must be quite spaced apart (3-4 m).
There fertilization it is carried out in autumn with 100-140 g of mineral superphosphate, 50-70 g of potassium sulphate, 100-120 g of ammonium sulphate to be administered to each plant.
There pruning it is always indispensable, in March. Usually the flowers appear on branches born from the shoots of the previous year, and the best buds are those in the middle of the shoot. If the branch already has hanging twigs, these should be pruned to two-three buds, if it does not have twigs, seven-eight buds can be left. As these shoots age, they must be eliminated when the new vigorous shoots are ready. When the shoots have developed and carry the clusters, they must be pruned at a distance of two or three leaves above the last cluster, while the shoots that do not bear any should be pruned to about 50 cm.
In viticulture, in order to produce selected varieties and improve their vigor, the grafting technique is widely used, the selected varieties are grafted onto rootstocks, that is, stems with a root system born from seed and on whose vigor and rusticity the development of the entire plant depends. Vines for table grapes propagate with eye graft with vegetating bud in spring, split in March-April, generally on American rootstocks, which are resistant to limestone and phylloxera, or by layering.
If you grow seedless grapes (ie without seeds), it is essential to carry out the suckling too, i.e. the elimination of the shoots along the trunk the thinning of the shoots, to be carried out after setting the topping, i.e. the shortening of the shoots that get too long the binding of the shoots, which allows a better exposure to the sun of the bunches during the maturation.
Cultivating the vine for table grapes
There are many varieties of grapes, but the primary distinction is between table and wine ones: the first are sweeter, they have smaller pips, thinner skin and more compact pulp. These are the most interesting to grow in the family orchard.
How table grape vines are grown
• The vine must be planted in full sun beyond this basic need, the many varieties and rootstocks allow great adaptability to any climate and any type of soil. The hole will be shallower on dry and loose soil, deeper on firm soil add manure, mineral fertilizer and fine earth before planting.
• The most suitable training systems for table grapes are back, the espalier or the pergola, which is also very decorative on special supports. It can also be bred sapling, form also indicated for the pot culture. They are used as supports poles in treated wood or special concrete poles, to which galvanized wires are tied at different heights: the shoots will be fixed to these with plastic ties.
• The 2-year-old cuttings are put on planted in autumn and already in the following summer they begin to give the first bunches. To have a generous production it is necessary to supply abundant fertilizer ternary, in spring and autumn.
• L'irrigation it is very important: to obtain large and fleshy berries it is necessary to water in increasing quantities starting from flowering. Irrigation must be suspended 15 days before harvesting to avoid splitting the berries.
• The vine produces fruit on the branches of the year. There pruning it is preferably carried out in autumn or late winter, to avoid the abundant leaking of sap from the cuts that would occur in the growing seasons. On the sapling vines, 3-4 buds are left per branch: on the shoots, starting from the fourth-fifth node, clusters of flowers will form. One or more permanent shoots are preserved on the pergola (or awning) vines to favor the development of vegetation.
• To cultivate the table vine in pot, it is important to provide deep containers, about 50 × 50 centimeters, to be placed in an airy area and in full sun, to allow the bunches to ripen well and give a sweet and juicy harvest.
• The bunches they are harvested from August until the beginning of October, according to the ripening moment of the different varieties. Table grapes are harvested with scissors, always leaving a piece of the vine attached to the bunch. The clusters will be placed in containers that are not too large, to avoid crushing them.
What varieties of table grapes to choose
• Italy: among the most popular for the beauty of the bunches and the tasty and crunchy berries, large berry, muscat aroma.
• Pizzutello Bianco (Grape Cornetta or Damasco) crunchy and sweet.
• Muscat of Hamburg: delicious black grape variety, large berry, with an intense purple color, soft and juicy pulp, with a muscat flavor.
• Red Globe: recent cultivar but already very widespread, productive and beautiful purple grape, characteristic flavor.
• Big Perlon: black table grape, very productive, with very beautiful bunches and great sweet flavor.
• Thompson Seedless (or White Sultanina): very ancient white grape, excellent both for fresh consumption and for preparing juices, it is the grape par excellence destined to withering. Small grape, crunchy, sugary pulp.
Here is ours video tutorial on vine pruning:
Green pruning of the vine of table grapes
Green pruning of the vine of table grapes
The vines that produce table grapes express the best performance if grown in the south of our peninsula, Puglia in the first place, where the strength of the sun allows us to obtain berries full of sugary substances and with a beautiful color. This does not mean that, even in the Po Valley, excellent results can be obtained with the right soil, careful varietal choices and appropriate breeding systems.
In the plot where the Project is located R. COLLECTED of sustainable and solidarity agriculture, located in San Massimo di Verona, we have chosen to breed 5 table grape cultivars. The varieties are: Superior white seedless, Regal white seedless, Pizzoletta white seedless, Grimson pink with seeds, Michele Palieri black with seeds.
They are varieties that have shown excellent adaptability to the north and, above all, being differentiated ripening, they allow table grapes to be harvested for about 60 days, from early August to late September. The cultivation system chosen is the simple pergola which allows excellent penetration of the sun's rays and the right ventilation to limit fungal attacks. The soil is easily drained alluvial and therefore excellent for the vine.
The table grapes are very delicate and must be treated very carefully in order to obtain good sized bunches with sparse berries.
Green pruning is a very useful practice to ensure a good harvest if all the previous operations have been well carried out and we refer to nutritional integration, winter pruning, fungal treatments against powdery mildew and downy mildew.
At this point, if we have managed to obtain the right number of clusters for each plant in order to reach the end of the crop with a good production, we must proceed to carry out a series of agronomic operations. They will start immediately after flowering and finish towards the end of July, so just before harvest for the early varieties.
The set of these cultivation operations is called GREEN PRUNING and is so called as it takes place mainly on the green organs of the vine.
It affects all the vegetative portions up to the imminence of harvesting with the aim of maintaining the optimal size of the canopy, ensuring the vine a large and functional leaf surface, avoiding unfavorable microclimatic conditions around the clusters, improving the penetration of treatments ensuring uniform wetting.
- cluster cleaning or thinning
- tying the shoots to fruit,