Planting potatoes and other vegetables into the turf bed
Now many of my friends use this method, and I brought it from the Novgorod region. Having bought an old house there with a long-abandoned vegetable garden, for the first time in my life I came across red earth. Red earth is rich, but very heavy soils with an admixture of red pottery clay.
The composition of such clay includes a whole set of macro- and microelements (it is even used as a mineral supplement for animals), but it is very, very difficult to cut the turf on the red earth with a shovel. I am used to processing our lightweight loams, and even better - cultivated peat bogs, from where even nasty roots can be pulled out with a simple hoe. The land of my Novgorod site seemed to have never known a shovel, but I wanted to plant potatoes, at least half a hundred, yes cucumbers from zucchini - how would it all go well on a rested ground ...
And now a local resident, the kindest soul old woman Katya, noticing how I, bent over with a hook, wander into the bathhouse to steam my aching back, advised the local method of developing new lands. I named him "landing in the formation turnover", and this method not only greatly facilitated my life, but also helped to get a decent harvest in the first year.
When landing, the earth is not dug up in this way! The surface is freed from debris and last year's grass by a rake or by burning dead wood. Then the contours of the future vegetable garden or potato field are cut with a shovel to the entire depth of the turf. It should be said right away that this method is suitable for planting fruit vegetables, as well as potatoes (stachisa and Jerusalem artichoke), but not suitable for root crops - they are not able to "tear the sod" so easily and will either die or grow clumsy, crooked. Under the potatoes, the turf is cut with a shovel across the field with a distance of 60-70 cm between the cuts, then visually divide each strip in half - this will be a fold.
The sod along the entire length of the strip is folded towards itself (as if closing a book) so that its surface exactly coincides and the whole is covered. Freshly hatched potatoes are taken so that the heavy turf does not break the sprouts. The tubers are laid out in advance, directly on the sod along the entire length of the strip, after which the sod is carefully folded. The tubers are in the center of rather high furrows.
I have improved this method: I wrap each tuber in sphagnum moss soaked in a growth stimulant solution. Sphagnum protects potatoes from a variety of rot (in case of cold and rainy weather), and the stimulant helps seedlings and roots to cope with the harsh conditions of compacted soil. The edges of the furrows can be trimmed with a shovel, making sure that the turf surface is covered everywhere.
Planting in the turnover of the layer does not huddle and do not loosen, in order to prevent the germination of sods. The harvest is not a record one, of course, but it is quite comparable to the harvest early potatoes... They remove it at the usual time - In the end of August.
You will most likely see that the roots of this evil weed like wheatgrass, as if they died, but did not rot - they should be combed out of the soil with a rake or pitchfork. Surprisingly, such a seemingly delicate vegetable like potatoes perfectly loosens the soil. In autumn, "virgin lands" are simply unrecognizable: what seemed like concrete slabs in spring turns into loose soil at the end of summer. The ridges along the edges of the potato field are created according to the same principle, only in this case the turf is folded from both sides to the center along its entire length so that its edges dock tightly in the center.
It is more convenient to make the beds no wider than 60 cm and bend 30 cm of sod on both sides. This will create 30 cm clean paths around the garden bed. Under pumpkin crops you can fill the ridges with manure. The manure is laid out along the entire length of the bed with a layer of 10 cm, and then the sod is already wrapped. Of course, cutting, and especially the process of wrapping the layer itself, is also not an easy job. Long layers of turf can be cut across into sections that can be lifted by weight. The main thing is to make sure that the entire surface of the turf is covered with earth, so that all layers are joined as tightly as possible. Only then the sod will not germinate, but on the contrary, rotting, will enrich the soil even more.
What did I plant on the reverse bed? Zucchini and pumpkins - with seeds, two seeds per hole, followed by thinning. The result is excellent! Peas and beans: punching holes with a crowbar and planting soaked seeds. The result is good. Interestingly: for legumes less irrigation was required on the back of the seam than on conventional beds. White cabbage: I also stuck a crowbar into the circulation of the formation and made a funnel in a circular motion. She planted 30-day-old seedlings, deepening to the first true leaves. The harvest was magnificent, but, unfortunately, the goats of the same woman Katya were the first to appreciate it ...
Looking at the effectiveness of this old-fashioned method, you clearly understand: progress, of course, is good, but the experience of old people will still serve, sometimes it helps a lot.
A. Kremneva, agronomist Fig. V. Glotova
Preparing for planting potatoes
Potatoes grow almost everywhere, but it is preferable to plant them on fertilized, light, well-drained soil. To improve the composition of clay soils in summer cottages, experienced gardeners recommend adding sand. To obtain consistently good potato yields, manure, potash fertilizers or ash must be added to the soil.
In addition, according to agricultural technology, it is not recommended to plant potatoes on the same plots for several years in a row. Pathogens, Colorado potato beetle larvae and other pests persist in the soil. If you constantly fertilize the land, apply peat-mixtures, manure, periodically renew the seed material, you can plant potatoes for several years in the same place, but all these measures are not as effective as adhering to the principles of crop rotation. Best of all, a root crop is born on virgin lands.
With intensive cultivation of a summer cottage, legumes are the best predecessors of potatoes. It grows well after rye, legumes - vetch, alfalfa. Potatoes feel great after rapeseed and white mustard. The use of these crops as green manure not only enriches the soil with mineral compounds, but also prevents the spread of diseases and pests.
Research carried out at the Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev, showed that the introduction of a mass of green manure into the soil gives the same effect as half-rotted manure. Of the vegetables, root crops (carrots, beets, radishes), cucumbers and other pumpkin crops turned out to be the best predecessors of potatoes. Experts do not recommend planting potatoes after cabbage.
To harvest a good potato crop, you need to prepare the site and tubers for planting.
Regardless of the method of planting potatoes, you need to carefully select the tubers. Seed material must be exceptionally healthy, tubers clean and dry, without foci of decay. After sorting the tubers, they begin to germinate them. This is optional, but allows you to speed up the time of emergence of the first shoots after planting potatoes in the ground, and also makes it possible to select the best tubers again, discarding those that form eyes too slowly or give weak thin seedlings.
For germination, it is recommended to keep the tubers in a sufficiently lit room at a temperature of + 12–15 ° C for 2–4 weeks. At this time, some gardeners treat the tubers with growth stimulants and weak fertilizer solutions. Often, tubers are disinfected and treated with various means to prevent potato diseases.
The proven popular method of disinfection with ash has been successfully used to this day. A bucket of water is poured into 1 kg of ash, tubers are dipped into this solution before planting. There are many other ways of processing potatoes both before germination and before planting: for example, use a solution of phytosporin or complex preparations such as Prestige, Maxim.
Potatoes are planted in the ground only after making sure that the soil has warmed up to + 6-7 ° C 10 cm deep. Planting at lower temperatures, up to + 3-5 ° C degrees, is used only for germinated tubers. Early and super-early varieties of potatoes are also planted in cold ground, the result will be better than with a later planting.
In addition to the temperature, it is important to consider the arable suitability. The soil is considered ready if it crumbles well and its density is low, this provides good oxygen access to the germinating tubers.
Depending on the composition of the soil and the location of the site, the timing of planting potatoes may vary. More fertile lands need to be sown earlier, since tubers with high nutrient content develop more slowly and take longer to ripen. On light soils, southern slopes and on higher ground, it is also advisable to start planting potatoes earlier.
The process of planting potatoes is a sequence of stages:
- Prepare the soil according to the chosen method of planting potatoes.
- Pre-planting preparation of tubers (sorting, germination, processing of seed material).
- Planting potatoes, taking into account the maturity of the soil and the degree of its warming.
In the future, it is only necessary to provide the plants with adequate watering, regular loosening of the soil and the destruction of weeds.
We prepare the site in advance
The first thing to start with growing potatoes is to choose a site. It is good that it is even, otherwise moisture will be unevenly distributed during watering. Cultivated - potatoes like the soil to be clean from weeds and breathable. And the beds on it were located from south to north - this provides plants with uniform illumination.
In the fall, the selected area must be dug up. Once every four years, manure must be applied at the rate of 4 - 6 kg per square meter, followed by immediate incorporation into the soil to prevent nitrogen losses. If the soil is poor, manure can and should be applied annually, and even in the hole - under the tuber planted itself in the spring - several handfuls of rotted manure or the same amount of other organic fertilizer. In years when manure is not applied, it is recommended to sow green manure. Mustard is especially good in this matter, since it will not only enrich the soil with organic matter, but also drive the wireworm away.
If potatoes are grown in the same area for several years in a row, it is likely that the area is littered with pathogens. In this case, in the spring, before planting, in order to reduce the phytopathogenic load (the number of accumulated pathogens), it must be treated with one of the biological products to improve the soil. Such as, for example, "Trichoplant" or "Ekomik Urozhainy" from the Biotechsoyuz company.
"Trichoplant" contains in its composition living microorganisms of the genus Trichoderma, the same as healthy soil, which are able to suppress the causative agents of late blight, fusarium, gray rot and other potato diseases.
"Ekomik Urozhainy" contains bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Which also suppress pathogenic microflora, and also contribute to the breakdown of complex organic substances in the soil, transferring them from a form inaccessible to plants into an accessible one.
Biological preparation "Biospectrum"
"Biospectrum" is a unique product of modern biotechnology, produced on the basis of a highly effective BAS extract from the cells of a unique microorganism - Saccharomycopsis fibuligera.
Its use makes the soil healthier, reducing the environmental burden associated with the use of pesticides.
This is true not only if you yourself used them on your site, but also if your garden is located next to the fields, or your neighbors are intensively using these means of protection. Since the products of their decay migrate in the soil over fairly long distances.
Ways of planting potatoes for the winter
The method of planting potatoes in the fall depends on the type of soil and the location of the site. In the spring, the soil in the beds hardens, and the heavier the soil, the more difficult it is for young shoots to break through it. If the site is located in a lowland, there is a danger that it will be flooded when the snow melts in spring.
Planting potatoes in light soil
In the beds where potatoes ripen in summer, many pests remain after harvest. Therefore, a site for autumn planting should be chosen in a different place, preferably where legumes or cabbage grew.
Potatoes are planted before winter during autumn frosts, when the soil begins to freeze in the morning and thaws during the day. With the help of pegs and twine, double beds with a width of 70 cm are broken, the distance between them is 80-100 cm. It is important to adhere to such a width of the beds, since in the spring you will have to install greenhouses above them. The distance between the rows in the garden is 45-50 cm, between the plants in the row is 25-30 cm, the planting is checkerboard.
The tubers are planted in holes 15–20 cm deep. Compost, a handful of ash, and onion husks (from the wireworm) are thrown at the bottom. It is better not to use clean rotted manure: it attracts a bear. If there is no organic matter, mineral fertilizers are scattered over the bed at the rate of 30–40 g of potassium chloride and 40–60 g of superphosphate per 1 m², and then they are embedded in the soil with a rake.
The planting material is sprayed with clean water and powdered with ground red hot pepper (from mice). Spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid is also allowed. Then the potatoes are laid out in the holes and sprinkled with earth.
From above, the beds are covered with branches (best of all with pine or spruce), which will serve as drainage. A layer of organic matter 30–40 cm thick is thrown on the branches: hay, straw, sawdust. Poisoned cakes for rodents are laid out on top. The beds arranged in this way are covered with white spunbond (the film cannot be used, since the plants are mating under it).
In early spring, the mulch is raked, arcs are installed over the beds, onto which spunbond is pulled. Potatoes that have risen may need watering, as the soil dries out in the greenhouse. If the soil at a depth of 7–8 cm is dry, and there is no rain, you need to water it by adding a growth stimulator (Baikal EM-1) to the water. When the sprouts reach a height of 10-15 cm, the greenhouses are removed, and the bushes are either spud or mulched. This planting method is suitable for sandy, sandy loam or loamy soils.
Planting potatoes in clay soils
It is advisable to use this method on clayey, as well as on light soils, when there is a threat of flooding the beds. It will take a lot of hay to plant potatoes in the fall. It is mowed in several stages: in July, in August, in September. The plot allocated for potatoes is covered with a continuous layer of hay and straw at least 30 cm thick. Then the beds are broken: the distance between the rows is 1 m, the distance between the plants in a row is 70 cm, planting is staggered. Stakes in a continuous layer of hay punch holes 30 cm deep and 8-10 cm in diameter.
Fertile soil mixed with compost and ash is harvested separately. About a glass of the mixture is poured into each hole, a tuber powdered with hot red pepper is placed on top and sprinkled with a layer of mixture 3 cm thick. The hole in the hay "pillow" is plugged with tightly twisted bundles of dry grass.
If the weather is rainy, the beds are covered with black spunbond. When it snows, the covering material is removed. In winter, the hay warms the tubers. It generates heat, which melts the lower layer of snow, and an ice dome forms over the garden bed, protecting the potatoes from frost.
In the spring, the weeds are re-milled under mulch, and the potatoes sprout. It does not need to be processed or fertilized, and the hay stick contained in the mulch protects the tops from late blight.
Planting potatoes in furrows increases yields
I propose to get acquainted with the experience of my fellow countryman, an amateur vegetable grower N.F. Lesovoy, who believes that planting potatoes in furrows - firstly, increases the yield, and secondly, is the most effective in the conditions of the heavy black soil of the Kuban. One of the fundamental laws of agricultural technology asserts, and practice confirms that for the best development of potato bushes, obtaining a good harvest, up to 40% of the plant's habitat must be occupied by land, water and 20% by air. That is, in other words - the soil should be loose, airy.
Cutting furrows for potatoes from autumn
How can this optimum be achieved, especially in the central part of the region, where dense "fat" layers of chernozem lie, in which it is difficult to achieve airiness?
Still, this problem can be resolved. When N.F. Lesovoy learned about the above law, then he began to plant part of the rows using the old grandfather's method under a shovel, the square-nesting method with distances of 60 × 60 cm, and a new one (for him) - into the furrows.
The latter turned out to be more progressive, as it always gives a good, and most importantly, a consistently guaranteed yield of "second bread". What is the essence of this method? What furrows to make for potatoes?
Since autumn, he digs furrows for potatoes on a full bayonet of a shovel (about 25 cm) along a cord from north to south at a distance of 55-60 cm. You can cut the furrows with a motor-cultivator. By the spring, frosts, rains, thaws and snow loosen, and the heat that comes then warms the soil well.
In spring, with the sharp end of the hoe, along the furrow, he makes a groove 5-8 cm deep. It spreads the tubers at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other. Sprinkles them with a handful of nutrient mixture (a bucket of humus and sand + a third of a bucket of ash) and covers them with earth from the sides of the furrow. Such a soil mixture and planting potatoes in furrows doubles the yield, increases starchiness, and improves the taste of tubers.
Plants N.F. Lesovoy. tubers sprouted in the light three months before planting. If you have long sprouts on the tubers by the spring, they should not be broken off, as this reduces the yield by 20-30%. In such cases, the sprouts must be cut off, leaving 5-6 cm about the tuber.
The second method (but it is less productive than in furrows) is to plant tubers on already dug (plowed) land, better, of course, in the fall.
Its essence is as follows. At a distance of 55-60 cm from south to north, he makes grooves to a depth of 5-10 cm. On them he lays out tubers at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, sprinkles them with the above mixture. If it is not there, then dust it with ash and cover the potatoes with earth from the sides.
What is the advantage of planting potatoes in a furrow over planting tubers under a shovel in a square-nested way?
It was said above that not only moisture is important for the harvest. The presence of air in the ground is also important, and it can only be in loose soil.
What do we usually do? When planting potatoes under a shovel with a square-nested method, we make a hole, and put tubers on the bottom of it. That is, we remove the loose layer, and put the tubers on hard, cold soil, where there is no air. The root system must now overcome the resistance of the compacted soil in the airless space, losing strength to do so. The optimum guaranteed yield can only be achieved by planting potatoes in the furrows, after two hilling the plants with a hoe or one with a shovel. The soil between the rows is loosened with a shovel to a depth of 25 cm and poured over the planted potatoes, thus the crop is formed and accumulated on the ridge.
This ridge promotes the discharge of excess moisture after rains into the furrows of the row spacings. And in dry times, the plants on it, like a wick, raise water from the deep layers of the soil.
How to plant potatoes correctly: from north to south or from east to west? It is recommended to plant potatoes in furrows from north to south. Why? In this case, the rows are evenly illuminated, first at sunrise, then at noon, and then from the west side. The heating of the ground near the bushes is uniform. For the experiment, he planted several rows from east to west. And what? The southern side of the plants is illuminated most of the day, while the northern side is in shade most of the time.
The land on the south side of the bushes in June, July has a temperature 10-15 ° higher than on the north. Now tell me, how do you feel when these temperatures drop during the day? That's not comfortable, but potatoes are also a living organism. As a result of this experience, N.F. Lesovoy received 50% lower yield from these rows than from those located from south to north. You can check this on your sites.
And further. With the regular removal of green buds on the bushes, the yield increases up to 20%, since during flowering the plant consumes part of the nutrition, thereby depleting the tubers, that is, "stealing" what is intended for their growth. Now there are many varieties of potatoes that do not bloom. Naturally, this method of increasing yields is not suitable for them.
A particularly good harvest can be obtained if potatoes are planted after legumes, as they accumulate nitrogen in the soil.
So, the conclusion suggests itself from the above. A stable harvest can be obtained annually if furrows are dug in the fall, and tubers are planted in them in spring.
Then, of course, you will need the usual care: loosening the row spacings, hilling, feeding, protection from pests, diseases. But the beginning of everything is planting potatoes.
Finally, you have a good harvest. Now the problem is how to preserve planting material until next year, how to protect ware potatoes from germination and decay.
To preserve the harvest, prepare 2-3 buckets of boiling water, add 0.5 teaspoon of potassium permanganate to it and lower the tubers in the net for 4 seconds (one-and, two-and, three-and, four-and), and then remove, dry ... From such a font, the sprouts die, and the tubers will only benefit.