Read the previous part. ← Growing cucumbers and nightshades in a greenhouse
If tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, peppers and zucchini do not form, then they will continue to grow and branch out indefinitely, form very small fruits, most of which obviously will not have time to ripen (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants) or not bloom at all (cucumbers, zucchini). To top it all, in conditions of thickening, they are attacked by diseases and pests.
Make time for forming cucumbers and tomatoes will have at least once a week; with eggplants, peppers and zucchini, everything is easier - you can bypass them and break out extra stepsons and fruits about once every 10-14 days.
- once a week break out all the stepchildren, leaving 2-3 of the strongest and most successfully located at the very beginning of their appearance, provided there is a light space; - 3-4 weeks after
in the greenhouse, you need to start regularly trimming the lower leaves, up to the first brush at the moment - at one time you can trim no more than 1-2 leaves on the plant;
- at the beginning of August, the tops and flowers are pinched to give an opportunity to fill up and ripen the already set fruits.
- from the moment of the intensive appearance of the stepsons, the extra ones are removed, especially those located in the lower part of the stem;
- during the summer, remove all sterile and weak shoots;
- from the middle of August, small fruits are cut out and flowers that cannot be harvested either.
- immediately upon appearance, most of the stepsons are removed, leaving 3-4 shoots;
- when they appear, remove numerous flowers, leaving about 5-7 fruits on the plant;
- when the first flowers appear, remove all shoots located below the flowers;
remove yellow and diseased leaves.
In cucumber hybrids:
- at the very beginning of the growing season, the ovaries and stepsons are removed from the first four leaves;
- as the other stepsons grow, each side lash is pinched over the second-third-fifth sheet;
- during the entire growing season, remove the old leaves that fed the already removed cucumbers, and the stepchildren that bear fruit.
- at the very beginning of the growing season, the main stemcucumber plant
pinch over 3-4 leaves as soon as it appears; the first 3-4 stepsons are pinched over the fourth or fifth sheet. Further, all lateral branches are pinched over the 5-6th
- fruit, provided that the bushes are thickened. If there are barren shoots, then they are plucked out completely;
- during the entire growing season, remove the old leaves that fed the already removed cucumbers, and the stepchildren that bear fruit.
- with the growth of the bush, the flow of sunlight to its center decreases, and to restore the light regime, 2-3 old leaves are removed approximately once a week, near which the zucchini have already been removed.
How to feed properly
1. In cold weather (at temperatures below 10 ° C), liquid fertilizing is completely useless. Dry dressing can be done.
2. When carrying out root dressings, you should feed the fertilizer solution gently under the root so that the fertilizer solution does not get on the leaves, otherwise there may be leaf burns.
3. Top dressing with liquid fertilizers on dry soil leads to root burns, so you first need to moisten the soil with water and only then feed it.
4. In cold and rainy weather, the metabolism of plants is disturbed and the consumption of potassium fertilizers increases, so the dose of potassium should be increased during such periods.
5. In rainy weather on our podzolic soil there is a strong leaching of fertilizers, so you should not make large doses mineral fertilizers at a time - it is better to feed a little. This applies to the greatest extent to nitrogen and potash fertilizers.
6. It is necessary to carefully observe the condition of the leaves of plants. If you notice on them a sign of a lack of some battery, then it is most effective to carry out a complex feeding: with a more concentrated solution under the root and a weak one - over the leaves.
7. If by external signs you find it difficult to determine what the plant lacks, then, most likely, we are talking about some macro- or even microelements (the lack of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is quite simple to determine), then carry out foliar feeding with any liquid preparation with a complex of trace elements and huminates.
8. Do not abuse any fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, as they contribute to the accumulation of nitrates, reduce the keeping quality of vegetables and increase their susceptibility to diseases.
9. Liquid dressings are absorbed much faster and, as a result, turn out to be more effective than dressings in the form of dry mixtures. Liquid top dressing should be used only during the period of active plant growth - in late spring and summer.
10. Phosphorus fertilizers, due to their chemical characteristics, are never applied superficially, but are well embedded in the soil.
11. You should not feed diseased plants, it is better to wait with feeding and treat them with growth and root stimulants and drugs for diseases. And only after you are convinced that the plants "come to life", you can apply a weak feeding.
How often should you feed the plants?
- tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers - once a week until the end of August (subject to protection from diseases; otherwise it all depends on the circumstances - perhaps until mid-August);
- Once a week until mid-August;
- squash and pumpkin - every 2 weeks until mid-August;
- garlic and
- every 2 weeks until the end of July;
- every 2 weeks until mid-August;
- carrots and
- 2 times per season.
for cutting (parsley, perennial onions,chard
etc.) - after each cut;
and other early ripening vegetables are not fed.
How to avoid nitrate buildup
- Do not apply large doses of nitrogen fertilizers to the soil. Nitrogen fertilizers are necessarily applied in the spring, and then they are applied only as needed and in small doses.
- Give preference to complex fertilizers, and apply monofertilizers (separately phosphorus, potassium or nitrogen) only when the plants clearly lack the appropriate nutrients.
- During periods of prolonged rains, do not forget about potash fertilizers, the demand for which increases at this time.
- Try not to feed mullein, bird droppings or slurry salad,
, parsley, etc. (these plants accumulate nitrates to the greatest extent), and if necessary, do not harvest for 2 weeks after feeding.
- Use compound fertilizers with molybdenum, which prevents nitrate build-up.
- Provide regular watering and good illumination of the plants.
If the plant is missing something
With a lack of nitrogen, the lower leaves of plants turn yellow (nitrogen-poor plants transfer nitrogen from the old lower leaves upward, to the younger ones, and as a result, the lower leaves wither and turn yellow) and fall off, and the total vegetative mass is clearly insufficient.
Excess nitrogen leads to the development of too fleshy deciduous part of the crop, which, in turn, delays the formation of flowers (root crops or tubers) and reduces yields; in this case, the plants must be fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves become dark green or bluish with a red tint, drying out and almost black. Flowering and fruiting are delayed. Plants complete growth quickly. The harvest is minimal.
With a deficiency of potassium, the leaves of plants darken very much, and then their edges "burn" from the middle to the top of the plant. If the lack of potassium is not compensated for, then the leaves, including those that are just beginning to appear, turn brown and deform, shrink and fall off. The yield falls dramatically.
So that the ovaries do not fall off
Alas, pollen is able to pollinate flowers only under certain conditions (a certain temperature, a certain humidity). As a result, ovaries of cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkins and other crops fall off in large quantities either due to the fact that it is too hot in the greenhouses on sunny days, or due to the fact that the weather, on the contrary, is too cold and / or humid ...
But there is a way to force plants to set fruits even in unfavorable conditions - once every 7-14 days, spray them with fruit-forming stimulants (Gibbersib, Bud or Ovary).
How to improve the mood of plants in adverse conditions
Our Ural region belongs to the zone of risky farming: short and rainy summers, cold nights already in August, little sun and too little heat. Even cauliflower does not have enough heat, and even more so for tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers. Gardeners in many other regions of Russia are in the same conditions. How to be?
Growth stimulants such as Epin, Silk, Novosil, humic preparations and a number of others will help plants to better adapt to unsuitable development conditions for them, to actively grow and produce crops. Under their influence, plant cells will produce hormones of "good mood", which are formed in natural conditions only in very good weather. As a result, the plants will delight you with a larger and more delicious harvest.
It is necessary to spray heat-loving vegetables (cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes, etc.) with stimulants once a week, and in favorable weather - once every 2 weeks.
You can also spray less heat-loving crops, and not only vegetables - one or two sprays per season are enough for them:
- potatoes - at the beginning of flowering and at the time of active filling of tubers);
- in the phase of 3-4 leaves and at the beginning of the tying of the head;
- in the phase of 3-4 leaves and at the moment of active head formation;
- at the moment of active regrowth of the feather;
- apple tree,
and plum - in the budding phase and at the moment of dropping the ovary;
- flowers - before flowering, then there will be more flowers (however, the flowers cannot be sprayed after the buds appear, otherwise they will bloom very quickly).
Read the next part. How to accelerate the ripening of vegetable crops →
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Photo by E. Valentinov
Auspicious days for picking peppers in 2021 according to the lunar calendar
Pick rules Only healthy, strong seedlings are selected for picking. To easily remove the plants from the common box and not damage the roots, the seedlings are well watered. Seedlings should not be removed from dry soil. With this method, the roots are inevitably damaged. When all the soil in the seedling box is saturated with moisture, carefully pry the seedling with a stick and pull it out with a lump of soil. At the same time, they try not to pull on the stem, but simply support it so as not to break it.
The seedlings are transferred into prepared containers filled with nutrient soil. The surface is compacted and a small hole is made in the center. Its size must match the root system of the sprout. Seedlings are placed in it, deepening to the cotyledon leaves. The soil is carefully compacted at the stem and moistened with heated, settled water.
How to feed seedlings for good growth - the best folk remedies
Adding an article to a new collection
Folk remedies for feeding vegetable seedlings will allow you to get healthy plants that will give an excellent harvest in the future. Many of the products described can be found at home or you can easily buy them in a store or pharmacy.
In addition to naturalness, folk remedies have another plus - they are not so saturated, so if you prepared the drug correctly, then the likelihood of harming the plants is very small. Of course, in any case, do not water the seedlings with these fertilizers too often. Observe moderation and you will soon notice that the seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, eggplants, cabbage are full of juice and grow well.
Let's look at what folk remedies can be used at different stages of seedling development.
What to do if the seedlings grow poorly and are sick
Many gardeners, when picking and transplanting tomatoes and other seedlings into the ground, are faced with the fact that the root system is poorly developed, the plants are elongated, the lower leaves have either fallen off, or have turned yellow. What's the matter and how to fix it?
Seedlings do not grow
With a delay in the development of seedlings in the early stages, mineral fertilizers with a predominance of phosphorus are applied simultaneously with biological fertilizer Phosphatovite:
- Novofert root,
- Bona Forte.
|Biological fertilizers enhance the effect of mineral, |
doses of "mineral water" can be reduced by 30-50%.
Leaves turn pale
With slow growth, pale leaves, complex fertilizers with mineral nitrogen and microelements and biological fertilizers with nitrogen bacteria are applied:
Pale seedlings are sprayed 1-2 times with a solution Ferovita, make or spray with solutions trace elements with magnesium.
If the seedlings are stretched
When pulling seedlings, you need to lower the temperature, increase the illumination and add a solution monopotassium phosphate.
Phosphorus for budding
At the budding stage, fertilizers are applied with a predominance phosphorus... Fertilizers are applied according to the instructions, no more than 1 tbsp. l per 10 l of water when watering.
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Now there are already 2000 articles on the cultivation of tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers, caring for apples, pears and plums, sowing seeds for seedlings, in a greenhouse and in open ground, forming trees and shrubs, pinching and pinching vegetables, feeding flowers.
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Use for plants
As a top dressing and protection against pests, husks are suitable for all plants. It is completely harmless. What you should not do is to fertilize or treat the berry after the fruits begin to fill or color - they can acquire a bitter taste and onion smell.
Foliar dressing is most effective. Trace elements contained in onion husks are better absorbed by plants through the leaves and stems. When the soil is watered with a solution, nutrients reach the root system, and it better absorbs macronutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
When onion husks are used as mulch, laid in holes when planting potatoes or seedlings, it simultaneously acts as an insecticide and fertilizer.
From pests, diseases
Extracts from the husks obtained by peeling onions help to cope with the following pests:
- spider mite (for greater efficiency when preparing broth, hot pepper can be added to onion husks)
- Colorado potato beetle
- kidney mite
- cruciferous flea beetle.
The use of aphid remedy will have a short-term effect if the anthills are not dealt with.
The husk will help heal downy mildew, prevent rot or minimize the damage it causes. It is great that you can water the soil with infusion for healing - it is less costly and laborious than other measures.
Seedlings need to be said separately. Onion husks are useful for young plants, acting at the same time as a growth stimulant, safe feeding, and protection against fungal diseases.
It is important not to add soap to the infusion that can burn delicate young plants. The concentration is made so that the bitterness is barely felt.
As a stimulant
Onion husks are useful when the plants planted in the ground do not want to grow, have suffered from overflows, prolonged rains, and a sudden cold snap. Treatments with decoctions and infusions can successfully replace epin or zircon, they work better in conjunction with these drugs.
Extracts from onions are harmless to humans, cheap, easy to prepare, and the benefits are enormous. They fertilize the garden and vegetable garden, protect plants from diseases and pests, and stimulate growth. Onion husks can be used on almost all crops.
Planting eggplants and peppers
There are different planting patterns for eggplants and peppers. It is most convenient to grow eggplants in the open field with a row spacing of 55 - 60 centimeters and at a distance of 40 - 45 centimeters between plants in a row. You can also use a square-nesting layout 60x60 centimeters. At the same time, one eggplant plant and two pepper plants are placed in each hole, or according to the scheme of 70x70 centimeters, with such a distance between the holes, two eggplant plants are planted in each of them, and three plants are planted with pepper in each hole. By the way, since I mentioned pepper here, you need to remember that sweet and bitter peppers should be planted separately, at a distance of at least 20 meters from each other, in order to exclude the possibility of cross-pollination of these plants. Otherwise, the grown and re-pollinated sweet peppers will taste bitter.
You need to plant eggplants and peppers in the evening. It is necessary to deepen the plants up to the first pair of true leaves.
Shoots and leaves of eggplants and peppers are very fragile, delicate, break easily, so do not forget to put a peg on each plant when planting for further garters. The peg must be at least 60 centimeters above the ground.
Eggplant seedlings are planted in open ground from mid-May to June 5, with the obligatory cover of it with a film when there is a threat of night cold weather. The clean film is stretched over wire arcs, 1 meter high from the base of the bed. If you planted your seedlings in mid-May, then the bed should be covered with a double layer of film, because young seedlings of eggplants and peppers cannot withstand even a low above-zero temperature of +2 (+3) degrees. It is permissible to open the protective film only when the weather is really warm, usually from June 15. When growing eggplants in the open field, it is very important, even in summer, to monitor the air temperature and, at the slightest suspicion of a cold snap at night, cover the seedlings at night. Good results are obtained if the covering material is not removed from the garden at all, but only occasionally to lift the film from the south or west.
If film shelters are not supposed to be made, planting eggplants and peppers must be protected from the wind with the help of plant wings. These are plantings of tall crops such as leeks, Swiss chard, beans, beets, which are grown in seedlings in advance, especially for this, and are planted around the garden at the same time as eggplant and peppers are planted.
During the first two weeks after planting, the plants develop and grow very slowly. To help them at this time, shallow loosening should be carried out to improve air access to the roots. Also at this time it is worth postponing watering and giving the eggplants foliar dressing (1 teaspoon of urea and 1 tablespoon of "drops" per 10 liters of water).