The correct timing for planting potatoes and how to cut tubers

The correct timing for planting potatoes and how to cut tubers

When planting potatoes, it is very important not only to choose the right area with fertile soil, but also to prepare the seed. This procedure is responsible, it requires a lot of attention and dedication. Nevertheless, it is the prepared material and the correctly chosen planting dates that play almost a key role in the subsequent collection of a rich harvest. In the article, we will tell you whether you need to cut potatoes before planting and what crops can be planted next year.

Planting dates for potatoes

Traditional

Rich harvest of potatoes directly depends on the correctly chosen landing dates... After all, favorable conditions have a great effect on the growth of the plant and the formation of tubers.

As a rule, we have these procedures timed to coincide with the May holidays: thanks to weekends, people have free time, which is so necessary for working in the garden.

However, you should not start only from this factor, because by this period the soil may not have time to warm up yet, the threat of night frosts remains, which negatively affects the germination of tubers.

With an early planting, due to insufficient heating of the soil, the development of the plant will be slowed down, but if it is late, moisture will evaporate from the ground. All this will negatively affect the harvest.

If the planting dates are not followed, the potatoes are affected by fungal diseases, so you need to carefully choose the time for planting the tubers in the ground.

It is better to start work at a time when the soil warms up. up to 8 degrees to a depth of 10 centimeters... As a rule, at this time there is no longer a threat of severe frosts and the plant begins to fully develop. But the time when the earth will be warmed up to the required temperature directly depends on the climatic conditions of a particular region.

When to plant potatoes in the middle lane and Bashkiria

The optimal period for planting potatoes in the middle lane, as a rule, falls on end of the first decade of May... It can continue right up to the beginning of June. But the experience of gardeners shows that even with late dates it was possible to harvest an excellent harvest, but this requires accompanying weather conditions.

In Bashkiria, in the spring at the beginning of May, as a rule, there are sharp cold snaps, so there is no need to rush to plant tubers in the ground. It is recommended to wait for the onset of steady heat, which comes after the May holidays. Based on this, the period of planting potatoes in this region falls on by mid-May, the last one is for June.

Deadlines

The latest dates for planting sprouted potato tubers in the ground differ depending on the region. In some areas climatic conditions allow you to harvest two crops, but this is a separate topic.

In order to collect an excellent harvest and not waste energy in vain, they try to plant the planting material until mid-June. But in practice, there are cases of later planting. This can be done if it is possible to provide the plants with watering. Otherwise, good tubers will no longer grow in overdried soil.

If potatoes are planted too early, there is a risk of frost damage to seedlings or inhibition of plant development.

But with a late planting, due to a lack of moisture, the tubers will not be able to develop normally and reach large sizes.

Preparing for landing

You need to cut the tubers before planting

Ideal for planting tubers medium size... But it often happens that you have to plant rather large potatoes.

The question arises: is it necessary to cut it or is it better to use it whole? If you use too large planting material, then the result will be few tubers in the future harvest, but they will be just as large.

The fact is that the sprouts can feed on the supply of nutrients from the mother potatoes for a long time. Only this option is unprofitable. In order to optimize the future harvest and reduce the cost of planting material it's better to cut big potatoes anyway.

When using small material, the future crop will turn out to be just as small, since there will be few nutrients in the mother tuber and the plants will not be able to fully develop.

How to cut correctly

Potatoes with a weight of at least 60 grams are suitable for cutting.

The procedure will look like this:

  1. Immediately before the planting itself, healthy material is selected;
  2. The tuber is cut along or across in such a way that at least one eye-sprout remains on each part (it is better if there are 2-3 of them);
  3. Immediately after cutting, the potatoes are sent to the ground.

You can cut far before planting not all varieties... Some of them simply cannot reproduce in this way.

In order to prevent the development of diseases, the knife with which the tubers are cut is recommended to be periodically disinfected.

There are also opponents of what the tubers are worth cut exactly on the day of planting... These people argue that in this way, viruses and pathogenic bacteria can penetrate through a dry open wound.

In addition, the basal buds will not have time to awaken and such a plant will lag behind in its development from those for which the planting material was cut in advance. But it has not yet been possible to verify this from personal experience: in our village, no one does this procedure in advance.

How to plant correctly

Planting cut potatoes according to their scheme does not differ from planting ordinary small ones. The only thing to consider is that some of the slices may not sprout, so it is better do some thickening (5-10 percent). Even so, seed consumption will be significantly less than using whole potatoes.

Plants grown from lobules develop somewhat weaker. That is why special care is required for them. The soil should be fertile, warm well, loose. Weeds should be removed in a timely manner, top dressing and fertilization should be carried out.

It would be advisable to plant siderates on the site. Planting should be carried out only when the soil warms up at least up to +7 degrees... The planting depth is chosen slightly less than for whole tubers and is 6-8 centimeters.

Why is it necessary to alternate crops in the garden

Why does the earth need to rest after potatoes

Practicing gardeners have already noticed that if potatoes are planted in the same garden every year, then it the yield is significantly reduced, and the size of the tubers gradually leaves much to be desired. This can be explained by the fact that this plant consumes a large amount of nutrients and trace elements of a certain type.

Naturally, after each season, the amount of these substances decreases, and the next year's harvest has less and less nutrition. That is why it is recommended, after 1-2 years of potato cultivation, to plant in this place such crops that use a slightly different set of microelements for their development. It is important that the earth has time to rest.

With the constant cultivation of potatoes, viruses and pathogenic microbes that attack the root crop can accumulate in one place.

Subsequently, a significant part of the crop will be spoiled. If cultures alternate periodically, then such negative factors come to naught.

What crops can be planted after potatoes

Practice shows that after potatoes the next year, you can sow far not all cultures... The following are best suited for these purposes:

  • pumpkin;
  • beet;
  • spinach;
  • radish;
  • turnip;
  • cucumbers;
  • zucchini;
  • pumpkin;
  • onion;
  • squash;
  • legumes.

At the same time, it is also important that it grows next to the root crop. It will be best to occupy adjacent beds. cabbage, corn, garlic, beans, horseradish or eggplant... It's also a good idea to grow greens nearby.

What can not be planted

Some crops can be susceptible to the same diseases and pests as potatoes.

That is why you cannot plant them in the same place where this root crop was harvested last season. These crops include:

  • tomatoes;
  • pepper;
  • eggplant.

All other plants develop normally in areas previously occupied by potatoes. More details in the table above.

Growing potatoes, getting a rich and healthy harvest is a whole science. Indeed, for this you need to be able to accurately determine the timing of planting, select high-quality material and properly cultivate the soil. From cut tubers, finished products are obtained with the same indicators as from whole ones with the right approach.

You should also periodically do crop rotation on your site, the effectiveness of which has been proven by more than one generation of practicing gardeners.


When to plant potatoes: the right timing for a big harvest

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Planting potatoes

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What you need to know about planting potatoes?

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Favorable period for planting

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What is the result of planting potatoes at the optimal time for it?

Potatoes are an essential ingredient in many dishes, so it's not easy to do without it in the kitchen. It is also called "the second bread" and this is no coincidence. The diet of many inhabitants of our planet consists mainly of this food product. Of course, in order to always have this product on the table, it is necessary to get its rich harvest. And for this you need to know the exact time of its landing, because a lot depends on it. In this article, we will consider the most favorable time for planting this crop.


Factors affecting the ripening of potatoes

The manuals on agricultural techniques indicate the average data on the timing of digging up potatoes, corresponding to the climatic features of central Russia - this is approximately from 17-20 August to 10-15 September. However, it is necessary to adhere to these terms with an eye to a sufficiently large number of additional factors that can significantly move the period of potato readiness for digging in one direction or another.

The ripening time of potatoes depends on the following conditions:

  • the developmental features of a particular potato variety - to find out the details of planting dates and the period when you need to dig potatoes, you need to contact the seller of seed material
  • the time when the seed was planted in the ground - the earlier the seed potatoes were lowered into the holes, the earlier they should be dug
  • the degree of care, the presence or absence of fertilizing - the application of fertilizers in excess of the norm entails a violent increase in the green mass of tops to the detriment of the harvest, but the complete absence of additional fertilizing will negatively affect the harvest, because then there will be almost nothing to dig
  • the qualitative composition of the soil under the potatoes - the poorer the soil, the faster the tubers will be ready for digging, but the poorer the harvest
  • the amount of moisture maintained in the soil - in overdried soil, the tubers will ripen a week and a half earlier than the due date, but they will be small and rare.

It is important to remember that even the simultaneous planting of several varieties of potatoes similar in terms of ripening does not mean that the harvest will take place at the same time.


And we have?

In our country, when planting potatoes on personal plots, tubers were always cut in two cases: when there was a shortage of planting material and for the rapid cultivation of a new variety (however, they often obtained opposite results).

On the whole tuber, as a result of the so-called apical dominance (natural stimulants of germination are concentrated on the apical - apical part of the tuber, while inhibitors that slow down germination accumulate in the basal - umbilical cord part), one bud of the ocellus begins to germinate in the apical part, then the second, then the bud of the next eye, etc.

Most of the buds in the middle and lower parts remain dormant and die off with the remains of the tuber. But it is worth cutting the tuber into parts - and almost all eyes germinate on each of its lobes. Thus, when dividing a tuber, the potential inherent in it is fully realized, and a much larger number of vegetative plants can be obtained from the same material.

When sowing nightshades and other crops, we usually try to use the largest, healthiest seeds possible. When growing potatoes, as a rule, large tubers are used for food purposes, since it is unprofitable to get only one bush out of them, even if it is developed. Traditionally, medium-sized tubers are selected for seeds, which reduces the yield and leads to an accelerated degeneration of the variety.

The idea that, by cutting a tuber into parts, we deprive a fraction of the substances necessary for the nutrition of a new plant, is wrong. The necessary building material is protein, not starch, and 1 kg of tubers contains only 3 g of it.

The nutrients available in the fractions are not only enough for the normal development of the future plant, but also enough for its regeneration in case of early damage to shoots by frosts or pests (this is the advantage of cutting tubers over other methods of accelerated reproduction of potatoes, which involve complete separation of the sprout from the mother tuber).

Finally, the most important thing. When cutting a tuber, so-called wound reactions occur, which not only contribute to the healing of the sections, but also ensure the fight against various types of infections, including those accumulated in the planting tuber.

This is the essence of the problem of the ambiguous attitude of potato growers to cutting tubers - from complete negation to being raised to absolute. If it is possible to create optimal conditions for the normal course of wound reactions, then the yield of this variety, compared to planting with whole tubers, not only does not decrease, but with a 2-3-fold saving of planting material, it significantly increases due to the partial suppression of the infection contained in the planting material. If such conditions are not created, then some of the cut tubers become infected,

The tuber is divided into shares, each of which contains one apical and one (or several) other buds rots, seedlings appear sparse, and the yield decreases.

Therefore, when starting to cut tubers, a potato grower, as a surgeon, should be guided by the main commandment - “do no harm!”.


How to plant potatoes correctly

To the question of how to plant potatoes correctly, there will certainly be many answers from your friends gardeners, and from a host of sources on the Internet and in print media.

The main and indisputable factors and actions before planting for the correct cultivation of potatoes:

  • Excellent, healthy, selected in autumn during the harvest from the best bushes - seed material (tubers at least 5 cm). The more tubers you plant, the earlier and more productive your harvest will be. The recommended tuber size is about a large chicken egg.
  • Sprouting potatoes.
  • Preparing the soil on the site for planting.
  • Processing potatoes before planting to protect them from pests and diseases.

You can learn about all this from the article on preparing potatoes for planting.

It will be useful:

If the potatoes are sprouted and ready for planting, and the ground is still cold, do the following: dig grooves, cover them with sawdust with the ground, put potatoes there, cover with foil. In such a shelter, your seed germinated material will wait for planting for another week or two.

How often to plant potatoes

There are many ways to plant potatoes, by the way there is a good article about them here. And for each method, the planting process is very different.But if we talk about the traditional method of planting potatoes "under a shovel", then you need to adhere to the following recommendations:

  • distance between rows - 70 cm
  • distance between tubers in a row - 25-30 cm
  • but early varieties can be planted a little closer - 25-30 cm.

Thanks to this, optimal conditions are created for the growth of bushes, their processing and care.

Fertilizer for potatoes when planting

When planting, it is important to fertilize the hole to improve the growth of tubers. Experienced gardeners recommend adding to each hole for early varieties of potatoes: humus (rotted manure) - 1 glass, crushed eggshell - a pinch, ash - 1 tablespoon or roll a tuber well, onion husk - a pinch, superphosphate - 1 teaspoon. For mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties, the dose should be increased by 1.5-2 times, respectively.

It is strongly not recommended to apply fresh manure when planting, as the risk of putrefactive diseases of tubers increases.

It is advisable for spring plowing, preparing the soil for planting, to add the recommended amount of superphosphate and compost to a depth of about 12 cm. Only ash and onion husks can be added to the holes.

Methods for growing potatoes with land cultivation

  • Under the shovel (traditional method of planting potatoes) Usually potatoes are planted in beds or rows. The distance in the row spacing must be at least half a meter. This is convenient so that you can walk without touching the plants. Place the potatoes themselves at a distance of 35-40 cm. So the bushes will not shade from each other. Tubers should be planted to a depth of 7-10 cm, it is advisable to arrange the beds from north to south, adhere to the planting scheme 80 cm by 35 cm. Planted plants too close will interfere with each other during subsequent growth. And the susceptibility to diseases is greater in heaped potato bushes. Usually potatoes are planted sprouts up. This method is more reliable and stable.

But there are also supporters of an alternative option, which gives a tangible increase in yield, due to the development of a stronger root system. Potatoes are planted sprouts down, if sprouted potatoes are thick and short, no more than 1.5 cm in length. In this case, the soil should be very well loosened and mulched.

  • How to plant potatoes in ridges and trenches... The methods are good for fairly large areas for planting potatoes, in the presence of cultivators and other plowing equipment. Trenches are recommended for dry sandy soils, ridges for heavy, moist clay soils.
  • Meatlider method... Invented by an agronomist from the USA. Although our growers cannot get used to the recommended row spacing on their small lands, potato yields almost double in the same area!
  • The advantage of the method: high yield and minimal maintenance.

    Methods for planting potatoes without digging up the soil

    • Under the straw... From October, cover the planting area with straw, it is advisable to compact it in the holes to save moisture. But many gardeners simply lay out on a flat surface. The advantages of this method: no digging, weeding, feeding, pest control, high yield.

    But there is also a disadvantage: constant concern for the availability of cut grass.

    • Under dark agrofibre (film) or cardboard... This method of planting will be appreciated by lovers of early potatoes. A small preliminary plowing is still needed in order to introduce fertilizers (humus) into it. The advantage of this method: no need to huddle and weed. Watering is of course necessary at high temperatures. The new crop ripens three weeks earlier.
    • Landing in boxes... Ideal for planting potatoes if the soil on the site is flooded and very moist. The method of planting requires effort and dexterity at first, but then maintenance becomes minimal. After harvesting the potatoes, sow the boxes with green manure. In the spring, add organic matter and you can use these beds for planting again.

    Planting potatoes: Motoblock or shovel

    When planting potatoes, 2 methods are used:

    • With a shovel... The method is very simple. One person makes a hole, the other puts potatoes and fertilizer. Then everything is sprinkled with earth and leveled with a rake. This keeps moisture in the ground.

    The disadvantages of this method include significant expenditure of physical effort and time.

    • Using a walk-behind tractor... This is a new and modern option. The advantages are speed and little effort. With a walk-behind tractor, they dig trenches into which they lay sprouted tubers. Fall asleep with hands, a rake or a cultivator. This method is suitable for large areas and takes a minimum of time.


    Warming up

    There are situations when it is not possible to get potatoes from storage in time and prepare them for planting. But if you plant the tubers extracted from the cellar or pit without any preparation at all, you can wait for seedlings for quite a long time, and sometimes they do not appear at all. You can avoid such troubles if you warm up the planting material at least 3-4 days before planting.

    There is one subtlety. If you have a solid storage, where the temperature is not particularly dependent on external conditions, you can extract from it potatoes, which have not completed their period of natural rest. What does this mean in practice?

    Chilled potatoes are well stored due to the fact that the physiological processes in it are slowed down, inhibited. You got the tubers out of the hole - and they seem to have been dug out yesterday: no lethargy, no signs of awakening of the eyes. It is good if we plan to eat such potatoes, but bad if we need to plant them. Before boarding tubers should be "woken up", and for this - put in heat. But it is worth raising the temperature gradually - a sharp drop, instead of the desired awakening, can cause stress.

    Recommendations regarding the heating temperature are contradictory. I have come across advice to warm up potatoes 3-4 days before planting at a temperature of +35. +40 degrees, but with all due respect to the sources of information, I would not dare to take such extreme measures.

    From my experience I will say that such a "sleeping" potato, extracted from a cold vegetable pit at the very end of April, I kept before planting at a temperature of about +20. +22 degrees for several days, but did not immediately transfer to the heat - at first he “got used” for 2-3 days to the temperature of +10. +15 degrees. However, I am in no way claiming that this is the only correct technique. If you have your own experience in this regard, tell us about it in the comments, share some practical advice.


    Conclusion

    My main source of knowledge is practice - a shovel, a hoe, a flat cutter and kilometers of processed potatoes, from preschool age on factory land to my garden plot.

    The main purpose of the recommendations in this post is to share your experience and help you reduce the number of years of trial and error in finding your way to grow fruitful potatoes.

    If you still have any questions, ask them in the comments, share your experience and do not forget to subscribe to useful notes from the garden fields.

    A hassle-free harvest garden - Subscribe to new articles HERE.

    Thank you all for your attention, and see you sincerely, Alexander Utyshev.

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    Irina Alexander Utyshev

    Irina, thank you for your feedback. I invite all my friends who do not have their own plot to my garden for agrofitness classes - join)))

    Sergey Kuzmin (Ken Shin) Alexander Utyshev

    Sergei, all my garden notes are designed to be used as cheat sheets and not to keep all the norms, dates and times in my head. I will supplement a note on how to plant potatoes during the season with photographs for clarity.

    Irina Alexander Utyshev

    Irina, thanks for the recommendations. About siderates and which of them enriches the land with what is already a topic for a separate article. I mentioned only those siderates that I personally sow.

    Evgeny Alexander Utyshev

    Eugene, thank you for your feedback. My road to the garden plot in one direction takes 15 km and 30 rubles by minibus or by bus. I would not travel far from the city to grow potatoes either.

    Tatyana Alexander Utyshev

    Tatiana, thank you for your recommendations.

    sergey Alexander Utyshev

    sergey, treatment of potatoes before planting is rather a forced measure so that potato seedlings lose their attractiveness for the Colorado potato beetle. You bring it out on your site, so new ones will fly in from the neighbors, try what is not tasty and fly away.

    galina Alexander Utyshev

    Galina, bumblebees from all over the area flock to the siderates of honey plants (phacelia, sweet clover), pollinating strawberries along the way. I would be glad if you would like to share your results later.

    Vladimir Turikov Alexander Utyshev

    Vladimir, thank you for the additions. Potato disease prevention is a separate topic for a long article. I completely agree that onion peels scare away wireworms and are also fertilizers.
    On my own I will add, for other readers, that eggshells are not difficult to accumulate over the winter. So that it does not spoil, you first need to dry it, and then I twist it in a meat grinder.
    I do not have my own observations about the ash in the hole, but it will be annoying, with my own hands, when planting, contribute to the infection of potatoes with scab.
    How do you feel about the advice to powder the potatoes with ash before planting?

    Larissa Alexander Utyshev

    Larissa, thank you for your feedback. Low yields at dachas are due to the fact that the land is worn out. Previously, land plots were given out to summer residents on former collective farm fields, and labor must be invested in agriculture in order to restore fertility to the soil. Mulch and green manures structure the soil well and potato yields will not be long in coming.
    Why did you decide that you were not planting correctly, what could interfere with the growth of your potatoes?

    Olga Alexander Utyshev

    Olga, rather in the past lives, my ancestors were grain growers. The ancestral memory works, in the garden I have a rest with my soul.

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    Alexander Utyshev


    Watch the video: Planting Whole Potatoes or Pieces -- Which is Better?