The taste of the grape called Ladies' Fingers is known everywhere. The variety has its own advantages, as well as the subtleties of cultivation. and caring for him.
Description of grape variety Ladies fingers
Such a common name for grapes is actually just its popular name. Officially, the variety is called Husayne Bely. His homeland is Central Asia. From there, it spread to the Caucasus, Ukraine, and southern Russia. The heat-loving variety makes it unsuitable for cultivation in central Russia.
A feature of the species is the rapid growth of stems, but not every shoot is capable of producing fruits. For this reason, timely pruning is a must.
Maturation occurs in 140 days, which characterizes this species as mid-season.
Characteristics of berries
The reason why the plant received a second name, which took root behind it: the elongated shape of the fruit. The formed bunch reaches a length of eighteen to fifty centimeters. The maximum brush size grows in countries with a favorable climate for them: Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Georgia. The skin color is quite characteristic: yellow-green or yellow with a pinkish tinge. The taste of the fruit is rich and pronounced.
The berries of this grape are characterized by great sweetness. The sugar content of a ripe bunch exceeds the acidity level.
Advantages and disadvantages
Despite some difficulties in care, the variety Ladies fingers has long been loved by people. The reasons for this are:
- High yield (over forty kilograms per hectare);
- Pleasant taste berries;
- Used in production raisins;
- Benefits for the human body;
- It has flowers of both sexes.
This grape also has a number of disadvantages:
- The species is unable to withstand low temperatures;
- Demanding to care;
- Not resistant to diseases and parasite attacks;
- Not suitable for growing in regions with cold climate;
- The variety begins to bear fruit only at fifth season.
The listed disadvantages become a serious obstacle for some winegrowers, but nevertheless, the variety has been popular for more than one century. In suitable climatic conditions, it gives a rich harvest and is exported to many countries.
A heat-loving seedling is most comfortable to grow in a sunny area, protected from the winds. A fence or a natural slope is suitable as a fence. Groundwater should be located at a depth of at least two and a half meters from the surface.
Landing is carried out in several stages:
- Prepare a landing site (dig a hole, pick up a well-fertilized non-acidic soil).
- Without fail drainage is done.
- Cuttings are planted when the topsoil is heated to ten degrees... If the plant has been grafted, then the splice remains above ground level.
- The support is procured in advance (trellis, poles with wire). The distance between the stakes is 30 cm.
- Pour over.
- Execute mulching compost.
Light and fertile soil is considered ideal. The landing pattern is 3 by 5 meters. Disembarkation is carried out from spring to late autumn. The exact period is determined based on the planting method. Young cuttings are planted when warm weather sets in in spring or summer. It is recommended to plant the plant at the end of May. "Dormant" seedlings for which grafting is planned should be placed on the site from the first half of spring days or in mid-autumn.
Care of young and mature vines
The variety is quite capricious, therefore, novice gardeners may encounter certain difficulties. The greatest difficulty is the creation of optimal conditions and timely, correct pruning of the plant. The latter action is carried out annually in the spring to form the bush, providing it with comfort for better fruiting.
The culture should be periodically fed, as it vitally needs such a trace element as magnesium. Suitable fertilizers include mineral formulations, superphosphates, potassium and a small amount of nitrogen. The plant needs a lot of moisture, especially during dry summers. Excess water is removed using a drainage system.
In winter, the varietal species requires mandatory shelter, since it can hardly withstand even light frosts.
The grape vine grafted onto the rootstock of Ladies' fingers begins to bear fruit much faster.
Breeding methods for grapes Husain white
Husain White is recommended to grow from cuttings... Healthy strong branches are selected not too close to the base, cut off and laid for the winter. In the spring, the seedlings that gave the roots are placed in pots with soil.
Another effective method: breeding by branches (lateral processes). After sprinkling, they take root quickly enough, after which they are planted as an independent bush.
Option with growing grapes from grains longer and more time consuming. The result is also less satisfactory, since such a bush bears less fruit.
About diseases and pests
The main diseases of this type are:
- Powdery mildew damage;
- A false appearance of powdery mildew.
As a preventive measure, you need to carefully examine the plant and remove spoiled grapes and leaves... Plants are treated with drugs even in autumn. Also in spring and summer, branches are sprayed with a mixture of colloidal sulfur and Bordeaux liquid.
The main pests of grapes that threaten to destroy the berries and the bushes themselves include:
- Spider mite;
Also the crop should be protected from birds, arriving to feast on the juicy pulp of the fruit.
Airing the bushes is considered a good prevention of putrefactive diseases, but when performing this action, drafts and hypothermia should be avoided.
Huseine White or Ladies' fingers is one of the best varieties of table grapes in terms of taste and useful properties. And even that grapes are very picky about climate and care, does not detract from its popularity among experienced winegrowers.
Grapes are rightfully one of the most ancient products with which mankind got acquainted at the very beginning of the birth of its civilization. In antiquity, grapes occupied a significant place among fruit crops - they were used to make wine, which was called the drink of the Gods.
For several thousand years, people have been actively cultivating grapes, as well as breeding new interesting varieties. The most popular and in demand are red, black pink and white grapes. Each of these varieties has its own individual characteristics and characteristics.
Perhaps the most widespread and popular grape variety is the white grape. It is also known as table grape. It is characterized by a very attractive appearance and delicious taste. One of the important features of white table grapes is its bright and rich gustatory palette - in addition to the grape taste, the taste of currants, blackberries or mint can also be felt here.
There are several varieties of white grapes, and all of them are used by winemakers for the production of noble alcoholic beverages.
The most popular and favorite white grapes are Ladies Fingers, also known as Husayne White, and Shasla White. The types of white grapes that are used to make wine are called technical - this group includes Muscat, Aligote, Albarinje and Riesling. As a rule, the name of the wine completely coincides with the name of the grape variety that was used to make it.
The calorie content of white grapes is low - one hundred grams contains only sixty calories.
Useful properties of white and green grapes
We will consider the benefits of light grape varieties for the body further:
- White and green varieties contain a large amount of stilben enzymes, which reduce the content of low-density lipoproteins and increase the content of high-density lipoproteins, which leads to the normalization of blood cholesterol levels and liver function in general.
- The peel is rich in antioxidant substances that rejuvenate, cleanse the body from slagging, have antimicrobial, antifungal and healing effects.
- The seeds of sun berries contain healing oils and esters that can heal from bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diseases of the urinary system. Crushed bones are used in food as a dietary supplement to improve digestion, normalize the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Peel extract is included in anti-aging complexes of cosmetics for hair and face skin care. It is also actively used in sunscreens and anti-cellulite creams.
- With the frequent use of wine berries, especially white and green varieties with seeds, the level of vitamins E, A, B, PP, K, phytosterol in the human body is maintained at a normal level. They reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cancer cells, increase immunity, improve vision, and prevent the onset of strokes and heart attacks.
The real name of the grape variety Ladies' fingers Husayne
Apparently, many people associate this grape variety with the mysterious alluring East, with its luxurious bazaars full of exquisite sweets, abundant with the most exotic fruits and, of course, selected, stunningly beautiful and delicious grapes ...
Both with the East in general, and with the Husayne grape variety in particular, there are many mysteries, conflicting information, and discrepancies. In the reference manual of V.M. Stetsenko "Handbook of an amateur winegrower" The first has an average ripening period, the second has a very early one.
But in the textbook "Industrial Viticulture" M. Agropromizdat, 1991, only the Husayne white variety is described, moreover, it occurs according to the verdan edition, from Iran, and in different growing regions it is found under the names (synonyms for Husayne White): Husayne Chilgi , Vocal, Shah raisins, Itsaptuk. So with a variety or a group of varieties of Husayne, not everything turns out to be so simple and unambiguous.
Useful properties of grapes
Composition and calorie content
Nutmeg grapes contain (per 100 g): 
From the vitamin and mineral complex contained in grapes, it is difficult to isolate the elements that are present in abundance here. Of course, there are useful substances in the berry, but in relatively small quantities. But grapes are rich in simple sugars and carbohydrates, but proteins and coarse fibers in their composition are minimal. Note that the differences between different grape varieties (for example, with and without seeds) are insignificant.
But the situation changes dramatically when it comes to raisins. Dried grapes contain more minerals, fiber, and most importantly, much more sugar and carbohydrates, which leads to a sharp increase in calorie content. Thus, it is best to consume the berries fresh. And it is recommended to exclude raisins from the diet, especially for people who want to lose weight.
As mentioned above, grapes are not considered a vitamin bomb, but their nutrients still make a valuable contribution to the body's work. For example, copper is involved in the production of energy, and together with vitamin C, it is responsible for the formation of collagen. Potassium, in turn, is essential for cellular metabolism. A number of trace elements (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese) and vitamin K help to strengthen bones. By the way, 100 g of berries provides 28% of the daily intake of vitamin K, which the body needs not only for healthy bone tissue, but also for normal blood clotting. In addition, the berries contain small doses of beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, etc.
The antioxidants found in grapes help reduce oxidative stress in the body, which is known to be the root cause of many chronic diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Note that dark berries have a more powerful antioxidant effect, since they contain natural anthocyanin pigments.
In addition to reducing oxidative stress, the flavonoid complex supports the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system in several other ways. First, these substances reduce the risk of blood clots by preventing platelets from sticking together. Secondly, due to the production of nitric oxide, they dilate blood vessels, reducing the risk of heart attack and hypertension. In addition, there is a little phytosterol (a plant analogue of animal cholesterol) in grapes, which prevents the formation of plaques on the walls of blood vessels and, thus, protects the body from atherosclerosis.
However, the antioxidant substance resveratrol, which belongs to the group of polyphenols, usually attracts the most attention in the composition of grapes. It is credited with anti-cancer and anti-aging properties. In addition, resveratrol is believed to be able to protect the brain from damage that leads to various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Note that the amount of substance coming from grape berries is not so great as to prevent the development of a pathological process, but it can delay its occurrence.
As for the effect of resveratrol on cancer, experiments have shown that the use of juice from dark red grape varieties helped to reduce breast tumors in rats. Also, this antioxidant slowed down the development of agents that cause colorectal cancer.
Finally, resveratrol, along with zeaxanthin and lutein, has a positive effect on the health of the visual organs. This substance is involved in protecting the retina from ultraviolet radiation, thereby reducing the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and cataracts.
It should be noted that a large amount of biologically active elements (antioxidants, vitamin E) are concentrated in the seeds and skins of grape berries, therefore, it is recommended to eat whole grapes for maximum benefit. And by the way, do not believe the myths that pitted berries can lead to appendicitis. Moderate consumption does not provoke inflammation of the appendix.
Interestingly, all the beneficial properties of antioxidants are preserved during the fermentation of grapes, and, accordingly, they can be obtained from wine. However, we note that we are talking about a drink from dark varieties, since white wine is mainly made using grape juice without pulp (skin and seeds).
Due to the presence of P-vitamin substances in the composition of red grape leaves, their extract began to be used as the main active ingredient in a preparation called Antistax. It is used for chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoidal lesions of veins, hypertension, various dental pathologies, and also as a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent. This medicine does a good job at eliminating symptoms such as swelling, calf muscle cramps, and leg pain.
In addition, biologically active additives based on grape seed extract from dark varieties are now very popular on the phytopharmacological market. Manufacturers claim that, thanks to phenolic and tannins, as well as unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic), these supplements support the health of veins and blood vessels, reduce the risk of blood clots, activate lymphatic drainage, normalize blood pressure, provide nutrition to brain cells, and reduce age-related visual impairment.
In folk medicine
The grape berries, along with other parts of the plant, are used in folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments and diseases. There is even a separate direction - ampelotherapy (grape treatment). The plant is used for problems with digestion, vision and blood vessels, as well as for kidney disease, sore throat, bronchitis, periodontal disease, gout, migraine, etc. In addition, leaves, as well as decoctions and infusions from them are often used to treat skin diseases (boils, ulcers), wound healing.
Moreover, herbalists advise replacing cabbage leaves with grapes when preparing cabbage rolls. Such replenishment of the diet will help to establish the work of the pancreas and intestines. Surprising as it may be, even grapevine ash is used in folk medicine, helping with intestinal ulcers.
For rinsing the throat with sore throat or rinsing the mouth with periodontal disease, it is advised to make an infusion of grape leaves: 1 tablespoon of dry crushed raw materials is poured with one liter of boiling water and insisted for 2 hours. Then it is filtered and applied several times a day. The same liquid can be used to wipe wounds and skin ulcers.
Also, sore throat is treated with alcoholic tincture of grape seed. To prepare it, you need to wash 100 g of seeds of dark berries, blot with a napkin and crush in a mortar. Then pour 0.5 l of vodka, cover and leave in a dark place for 1 month, shaking regularly. After straining, add a few drops of the tincture to the herbal decoction and gargle with this mixture. You can also take this drug 1 teaspoon before meals. This helps to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, helps to fight varicose veins and prevents platelets from sticking together.
Traditional healers offer a decoction of grape leaves to treat gout, metabolic disorders and night blindness. To prepare it, you need to add 1 tablespoon of dry raw materials to 200 ml of boiling water and leave on low heat for 10 minutes. After straining, the medicine can be taken in 50 ml four times a day. In addition, to speed up the healing process of wounds, it is advised to wipe the affected skin.
In addition, the broth can be prepared using the seeds of grape berries: usually take one glass of boiling water per tablespoon of seeds, and then put in a water bath for 20 minutes. After straining, it is recommended to drink this liquid 1 tablespoon three times a day before meals. It has a strong diuretic effect.
Grape wines were used as medicines in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Then they were treated for both physiological ailments and mental disorders. In addition, for the purpose of disinfection, they were added to water. And by the way, it was not at all useless, since they are indeed toxic to certain types of bacteria.
Today wine is also actively used in folk recipes. For example, for headaches and migraines, it is recommended to mix dry red wine, honey and aloe juice in a ratio of 1: 1: 0.5. Take a teaspoon three times a day for a month. According to another recipe, you need to pour red dry wine over a jar filled with raspberries. Insist for 3 weeks in a dark place, and then take 50 ml three times a day 30 minutes before meals. By itself, red wine is considered a good remedy for insomnia. Usually, it is enough to drink 100-150 ml an hour before bedtime.
It is used in folk medicine and white wine. For example, to remove small stones from the kidneys, it is necessary to pour 100 g of marshmallow seeds with two liters of dry white wine and leave to infuse in a dark place for 4 weeks, shaking from time to time. Then you need to boil the liquid over low heat for 30 minutes, strain and use 50 ml three times a day before meals.
In case of problems with urination, one liter of boiling dry white wine is poured into 30 g of dry birch leaves and left on low heat for 15 minutes under a lid. Then the liquid must be filtered, add 3 tablespoons of honey and drink 70 ml three times a day one hour after meals.
During an exacerbation of bronchitis, it is recommended to put 4 large leaves of aloe in 0.5 liters of wine and leave to infuse in a dark place for 4 days. Then take 1 tablespoon three times a day.
Traditional healers claim that 1 glass of grape juice in the morning can relieve headaches. They are also encouraged to treat kidney disease. For a month, you should drink 1 liter of grape juice daily with the addition of 10-12 drops of lemon juice. With proteinuria (the appearance of protein in the urine), you need to drink such a mixture in one gulp, and the induced urination should flush the urinary tract.
In oriental medicine
In ancient oriental medicine, grapes (both the berries themselves and the rest of the plant) were highly valued for their medicinal qualities. The vineyard was attributed to the cold yin type and was considered a dry product in the II degree, but ripe berries were hot in the I degree and moist. Healers argued that if you knead young branches of grapes with leaves and tendrils, and then mix them with barley flour and apply to the body, you can get rid of hot headaches or hot swellings.
Juice from grape leaves helped to get rid of problems with a hot stomach: stopped vomiting, bilious diarrhea, healed ulcers. It was believed that it has a diuretic effect, saves from hemoptysis and increases potency. It was recommended for pregnant women as it strengthened the developing fetus. The topical application of the juice was supposed to stimulate hair growth. The gum of the vineyard, according to ancient healers, cleansed and dried nature. And together with wine, they cleared the spleen well and cured eczema.
Used in healing practices and grapevine ash. Mixing it with vinegar, they received a cure for hemorrhoids, and when adding vegetable oil and honey to this mixture, they prepared an antidote for snake bites.
Hot berries normalize the disturbed nature and strengthen the organs in the chest area. Grape juice is good for the stomach, kidneys, liver and bladder. Grape oil, in turn, warms up the body well and stops the development of tumors.
In scientific research
Grapes are often the subject of scientific research. Most of the attention of scientists is focused on its anti-cancer properties. It is believed that antioxidants, found mainly in the skins and seeds of berries, are effective both as a preventive measure and as an adjunct to cancer therapy if the disease has already developed. For example, resveratrol, according to scientists, helps to reduce oxidative stress and, thus, protects the rectum, breast, prostate and lungs from cancer .
But one of the latest studies has shown that the extract of grape juice with its phenolic composition significantly reduces the viability of pathogenic cells when the rectum is damaged. In the experiment, we used raw materials obtained from the berries of the Autumn royal and Ribier varieties. By the way, depending on the dose, the extract not only led to cell death, but also reduced their mobility, slowing down the process of metastasis . Another experiment demonstrated that in colorectal cancer, infected cells are vulnerable to proanthocyanids isolated from grape seeds .
There are also several scientific studies that support the effectiveness of various constituents in grape berry in the fight against breast cancer. Scientists claim that grape seed extract has a significant effect on cell motility in mice for breast cancer. Thus, they inhibit the formation of metastases in other organs . In another study, the process of metastasis was stopped, thanks to polyphenols extracted from the skins of grape berries. True, they influenced the viability of infected cells to a much lesser extent, mainly limiting their mobility .
As for the prostate tumor, after a series of experiments, scientists came to the conclusion that the anthocyanins contained in the dark grapes of the Muscadine variety have a destructive effect on pathogenic cells without affecting the healthy epithelium. They also help prevent the spread of bone metastases .
Note that in all the above studies, the anti-cancer properties of various components from the composition of the grape berry were studied, but each group of scientists focused on a specific substance, not considering it in combination with other components. On the one hand, this made it possible to learn in more detail about all the properties of a particular antioxidant. On the other hand, this did not allow to see the results of its interaction with other substances.
That is why scientists from the University of Wisconsin took as an object of research all the polyphenols found in grapes (resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, anthocyanins, etc.). So, they came to the conclusion that, getting into the body together with other antioxidants, the effectiveness of many of them is enhanced . This synergistic effect is important at the stage of preventing the development of cancer.
These studies were confirmed by an experiment conducted by a group of American scientists. For two weeks, 30 people at risk of developing colorectal cancer were given up to 450 grams of grapes per day. As a result, after the end of the experiment, the risk of developing the disease decreased, especially in people after 50 years . If the pathological process has already started, then, naturally, the amount of polyphenols contained in grapes, and in any other fruit or berry, will not be enough to treat the disease. To achieve the desired effect, it would be necessary to eat tens of kilograms of berries per day.
In addition to studies studying the effect of grapes and its individual components on cancer, a few years ago there was a scientific work in which Australian David Sinclair argued that resveratrol isolated from wine slows down the aging process of cells. This discovery quickly spread throughout the world media, but journalists often missed important nuances. For example, the fact that the experiments have so far been carried out only on mice. And the level of resveratrol in the rodents was so high that it would take several hundred glasses of wine to reach it.
By the way, the bioavailability of resveratrol is not very high, that is, it is poorly absorbed from food and drinks. Scientists have found that the highest concentration of this antioxidant is in the skins and seeds of berries of dark wine varieties. In addition, frequent rains during grape ripening increase the amount of bioavailable resveratrol in the skin, but does not affect the content of this substance in the seeds .
However, all this is still not enough for the body to receive a biologically active dose. Scientists from Johns Hopkins University have been monitoring the health of the elderly in the Chianti region of Italy for 9 years. Their traditional diet includes many foods that contain resveratrol. But researchers have never been able to establish a link between lifespan or aging rate and the level of resveratrol in the body.
But numerous studies of grape polyphenols have confirmed that these substances are able to maintain the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system. By lowering cholesterol levels and stimulating nitric oxide production, they help prevent the development of atherosclerosis and improve endothelial function .
In one experiment, 69 adults were divided into three groups. Participants in one of them were given 500 g of dark grapes every day for eight weeks, participants in the other - 500 g of berries of light varieties, and the rest were completely excluded from the diet. As a result, those who ate the dark varieties experienced significant reductions in their "bad" cholesterol levels. White berries were inferior in efficiency, but still led to an improvement in performance in comparison with the third control group .
Despite the high sugar content in grapes, scientists say it may be beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes. In a 16-week experiment, 38 men took 20 g of dark wine grape extract daily, after which their blood sugar levels decreased compared to the control group . In addition, resveratrol increases insulin sensitivity, which helps the body process more glucose and thus helps lower blood sugar .
There is no unequivocal opinion about the benefits of grapes for weight loss. Some nutritionists call these berries the most useless of all, others willingly include them in various diets. It usually speaks against grapes that they contain a lot of sugars and carbohydrates. On the other hand, its glycemic index is not that high - 45 units, which means that grapes do not cause a sharp increase in blood glucose levels.
In addition, some of the substances in these berries increase insulin sensitivity and, thus, help to improve the absorption of sugar in the body. Moreover, American scientists conducted an experiment in which people with significant excess weight took part. They were divided into 3 groups and took 30-minute walks every day for three weeks. The first group added grape juice to the diet, the second - grapes, and the third - no changes were made. As a result, after 3 weeks, the representatives of the first group lost an average of about 1.5 kg of weight, the second - about 2 kg, and the third - about 0.5 kg.
Nutritional researchers concluded that grapes improved insulin metabolism and inhibited fat storage. Berries had the best effect because most of the essential substances are concentrated in the skin, which usually does not get into the juice.Thus, grapes should not be discounted, because with moderate use and in combination with little physical exertion, it benefits the body and helps to gradually get rid of excess weight.
But all this cannot be said about raisins - one of the most terrible enemies of weight loss. It practically does not contain nutrients and consists of 60% sugar, not much different from sweets. The calorie content of raisins (299 kcal) is 4 times higher than the calorie content of grapes (67 kcal).
Note that when losing weight, they usually pay little attention to drinks, mainly trying to limit themselves in products. However, special care should be taken when drinking wine, as the average 175 ml glass contains 160 kcal. The calorie content depends on the variety of grapes used and even more on the amount of added sugar, but in any case it remains quite high.
Grapes are used in all cuisines of the world. In addition to the berries themselves, the leaves of the plant are used, from which, in the Middle East, for example, dolma is prepared. In addition, during the preparation of red wine, scallops (twigs to which grapes are attached) are often used along with berries. As for the berries themselves, they are dried, pickled, they are used to make jams, ice cream, compotes are cooked, fresh they are added to various desserts, salads and even served with meat.
Grapes are often used to make snacks. Since it goes well with cheeses and nuts, it can be dipped in soft goat cheese, then sprinkled with honey and sprinkled with chopped pistachios. These balls must be refrigerated for 45 minutes, and then can be served. By the way, if we are talking about cheeses, then grapes can be safely served with blue cheese. And the peculiarity of the French cheese "Arôme au gêne de marc", reminiscent of brie, is that it is kept in grape brandy for 30 days along with the seeds, skins and branches of grapes left after pressing.
Real balsamic vinegar is made from grape juice. First, it is boiled down to the consistency of a thick syrup, and then kept in barrels for at least three years. Also, from the juice of grapes in the Transcaucasus, a traditional sweet is prepared, which the Armenians call "sudjuk", and the Georgians call "churchkhela". The juice is boiled until its volume is reduced by 3 times, then a little flour is added and nuts strung on a thread are dipped in this syrup. Then the resulting "sausage" is dried in a cool dark place.
Special wine grapes are usually grown to make wines, but some winemakers go even further. For example, Tokaj wines in Hungary and several expensive wines in France are made from grapes covered with gray mold. This helps the berries to get rid of unnecessary moisture and increase the concentration of sugar. In addition, there is the so-called ice wine, which is made from grapes caught in the first frost. By the way, frozen grapes are often used as ice. They cool the drink without diluting it with water.
In cosmetology, grapes have been used for quite a long time and successfully. The beauty industry actively uses extracts and extracts from the skin and pulp of berries, seed oil, and the antioxidant resveratrol. You can find these ingredients in a wide variety of products: hand and face creams, cleansing foams, scrubs, anti-cellulite gels, shampoos, lip balms, lipsticks, nail coatings, and anti-aging products.
The most common and popular ingredient is grape seed oil. Due to the presence in its composition of vitamins A and B, tocopherols, flavonoids and polyunsaturated acids, it nourishes the skin well and does not leave any shine or film feeling on the face. Regular use of products based on this oil stimulates the regeneration processes of the skin and gives it elasticity.
Products containing grape seed oil are recommended for owners of problem skin. As a rule, they help to narrow the pores, normalize the sebaceous glands and eliminate acne. You can also make a care product at home.
- mix 2 tablespoons of dark grape juice with egg white and a little starch or flour. This mixture is applied to the face for 15-20 minutes, and then washed off with warm water.
- A handful of dark varieties of berries, mashed into gruel, are mixed with sour cream until a thick mass is obtained. Apply on face for 20 minutes and then wash off with a cotton pad dipped in cool milk.
- combine egg yolk, a tablespoon of honey, half a teaspoon of olive oil, a tablespoon of chopped oatmeal with a tablespoon of red grape juice. Apply on face for 15 minutes, then rinse with warm water.
- 400 ml of dark grape juice must be mixed with two tablespoons of honey and 200 ml of vodka. Store in a refrigerator in a glass container for no more than 7 days. Wipe your face twice a day.
Dangerous properties of grapes and contraindications
In moderation, grapes are extremely beneficial to the body. But too large portions can provoke an upset stomach and gas formation. In addition, some experts believe that grapes should not be consumed by pregnant women, since resveratrol becomes toxic when the hormonal background is unbalanced. In addition, it is not easy for a weakened digestive system to digest the skin of the berries. It may not be necessary to completely abandon grapes during pregnancy, but its inclusion in the diet should be done with caution.
In the situations listed below, it is better to refuse the use of grapes:
- exacerbation of stomach ulcers
- exacerbation of gastritis or colitis
- cirrhosis of the liver
- taking blood thinning drugs (for example, warfarin).
It is also necessary to give grapes with caution to children under 4-5 years old. The fact is that babies often swallow whole berries without chewing them. Grapes can get stuck in narrow airways and, due to their soft and smooth surface, create an airtight seal, blocking the flow of air. It is best to cut the berries in half before giving them to your child.
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Grapes are exported to almost all countries of the world, and recently breeders have done a lot to expand the geography of growing these berries. Interestingly, grapes were actively cultivated in many republics of the Soviet Union. At that time, his image could be seen on the coats of arms of Moldova, Armenia, Georgia and Turkmenistan. Unfortunately, during the anti-alcohol campaign, a huge number of vineyards were barbarously cut down. Nevertheless, today about 80 thousand square meters. km. the territory of our planet is planted with this plant.
Problems arose with the production of wine during Prohibition in the United States. However, no one destroyed the vineyards there, and enterprising Americans began to produce very hard concentrates of grape juice, which were called "wine bricks". To avoid problems with the law, sellers applied a warning to the briquette that the brick dissolved in water should never be stored in a cool, dark room for 21 days, thereby creating an excellent advertisement for their product.
As for the former Soviet republics, after the collapse, winemaking traditions were renewed with renewed vigor. Georgia and Moldova have been particularly successful in this. By the way, not so long ago, the remains of an ancient jug were found in Georgia, on the fragments of which clusters were depicted. Very old seeds of wild grapes were also found there.
The fact that in ancient times grapes were no less popular than they are now is evidenced by references to them in mythology, art and the Christian religion. For example, the Bible says that the first plant planted on Mount Ararat after the great flood was precisely the vine. The ancient Slavic goddess of fertility Zhivu was always depicted with an apple in one hand and a bunch of grapes in the other. The ancient Greek poet Homer wrote about eating grapes in the Odyssey. Also, images of berries often appeared on the coins of different states.
As for painting, in all eras, vines and bunches were depicted in still lifes. In addition, in the Middle Ages, these berries were often used as a symbol of the Holy Communion - the blood of Christ. In addition, grapes are found on the canvas of Karl Bryullov "A girl picking grapes in the vicinity of Naples" (1), Michelangelo Caravaggio "A young man with a basket of fruits" (2) and in the painting "Red grapes in Arles" by Vincent van Gogh (3). By the way, this canvas is considered the only work sold during the artist's lifetime.
Grapes are immortalized not only through painting, but also in other ways. For example, in 1913, the name Vinifera, which is Latin for grape, received an asteroid. And in France, Israel, Turkey, Russia, Tunisia and many other countries, monuments have been erected depicting bunches or the harvesting process. Also, themed festivals and celebrations dedicated to the collection of wine berries are held all over the world.
By the way, about the holidays and related traditions: in Cuba it is customary to pour water out of the window on December 31, wishing the new year a clean path, and right at midnight, to the chimes, Cubans eat 12 grapes - this is considered a guarantee of the realization of the wish. Portuguese New Year's tables are not complete without grapes. There, these berries are considered a symbol of abundance and happiness.
Selection and storage
When choosing grapes, it is necessary to give preference to bunches with whole dense berries without damage, rot and mold. Light brown dots on white grapes indicate that they are very ripe and ready to eat, but they will not be stored for a long time even in the refrigerator. You should not refuse to buy grapes if a slight whitish coating is noticeable on the berries, since this is their defensive reaction to external stimuli. Sometimes white traces of chemicals can remain on the berries after processing, so in any case, the grapes need to be washed well.
As for storage, usually ripe berries are in the refrigerator for about 3 days. It is best to put them in a plastic or glass container, as moisture accumulates in the bag, and fungal infections can develop in combination with the sugar released along with the grape juice. To preserve the harvest for the winter, it is necessary to remove the grapes from the bunch and, spreading them on a tray in one layer, send them to the freezer. After a while, they can be transferred to any container and stored until the end of winter. This method allows you to preserve the maximum amount of nutrients.
Pickling, canning, and drying robs the grapes of virtually all vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. In the case of raisins, questions also arise about the production process, since almost all dried fruits, to prevent spoilage and preserve their presentation, are treated with preservatives (for example, sulfur dioxide). If you still decide to buy dried grapes, then you need to soak it for half an hour in cold water and then rinse it well.
Varieties and cultivation
Grape varieties are striking in their variety, and breeders continue to work to improve their chemical composition, taste and make it possible to grow in different climatic conditions. Typically, grape varieties are divided into table (eaten fresh) and wine (used to make wines). Among the former, seedless berries (for example, raisins) are often found. Also, grapes are distinguished by color: white, pink, red and black. The most common varieties in our country are: Veles, “Adler, Jupiter, Muscat, Ladies fingers and Chardonnay.
Among the unusual varieties of grapes, one can note the "Witch's Fingers". These dark berries really resemble short fingers in their elongated oblong shape. And the fruits of the Cotton Candy variety outwardly do not differ from others, but the breeders have endowed them with a pronounced taste of cotton candy. They contain 12% more sugar and have almost no astringency, which makes them very popular with children.
It is impossible to ignore the variety "Roman Ruby", which is grown and sold at auction exclusively in the Japanese prefecture of Ishikawa. These red berries contain 18% sugar, so they are particularly sweet. Their size is also striking - each grape must weigh at least 30 g, and the entire bunch must weigh at least 700 g. In 2017, a sprig of such grapes was sold at an auction for $ 9800.
Of great interest are the so-called sea grapes and the Brazilian Jaboticaba grape tree. True, none of these plants has anything to do with the Grape family. They probably got their names solely for visual similarity. Moreover, under the name "sea grapes" is immediately hidden and the type of algae, which are used for food, and fruit-bearing evergreen trees. Jaboticaba, on the other hand, is the edible fruit of a plant from the Myrtle family.
As for the peculiarities of growing grapes, the choice of location is considered a key factor. The berries tolerate heat well, but they are afraid of the shade, so for planting it is better to choose the sunny side, protected from the wind. The soil can be sandy, clayey or black earth. With frequent precipitation, the plant can not be watered, but if there is a lack of moisture or drought sets in, then additional measures are needed. In the absence of rain, you need to water the grapes up to 10 times per season, but not too abundantly.
So, moderate consumption of grapes definitely benefits the body. Berries of dark varieties enhance antioxidant protection, support normal functioning of the cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, protect against the development of chronic diseases, and also provide activation of skin regeneration processes.
- US National nutrient database, source
- US National nutrient database, source
- US National nutrient database, source
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I have such a variety - very fruitful and tasty, the brushes are different from 1 to 3 kg. No phylloxera, bears fruit annually.
Lavrentieva Natalia, Volgograd
For all the time that Husayne is growing white in me, and I have had him for many years, the only drawback is that he is amazed by oidium. The taste is very sweet and delicate, which you so want to eat berry after berry.