Fruit and berry plants
Grapes (Latin Vitis) - a genus of perennial shrub vines of the Grape family. The name of the genus comes from the word vitilis, which means "climbing". In nature, there are about 70 species of grapes, growing mainly in the subtropical and temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The culture is cultivated cultural grapes (Vitis vinifera), a derived species from the forest grape growing in nature along the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea up to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. In the wild, cultivated grapes are not found.
Cultural grapes in favorable conditions can reach a length of 30-40 meters, in cooler regions - no more than three meters. Liana is attached to the support with antennae. The bark on young vines is reddish or yellowish, on adult trunks it is brown, with deep grooves, flaking. Leaves are petiolate, alternate, whole, three-five-lobed. The flowers are small, greenish, bisexual, gathered in a panicle, bloom in May or June.
Fruiting begins in August or September, and the late varieties ripen in October. Juicy grapes with seeds in an amount of one to four, and some varieties without seeds at all - green, yellow, black-purple or dark red - are collected in clusters of various shapes and sizes. Before phylloxera appeared in Europe in 1963, cultivated grapes lived up to 150 years.
Planting grapes in autumn
Planting grapes in autumn with seedlings begins in the first weeks of October and ends with the onset of cold weather. The latest date is 8-10 days before the onset of the first frost. The justification for preference for autumn planting over spring planting is that at this time the buds are still sleeping, and the root system is already developing, which is why the activity of young shoots begins in early spring of next year. Plus, if you've just bought a seedling, it won't need to be stored until spring.
Grapes are photophilous, therefore, when choosing a place for it for many years, try to find an open area, protected from cold winds and drafts. It is not recommended to plant grapes near large trees, which will not only block it from the sun, but also prevent it from fully developing, sucking nutrients from the soil with its roots.
Seedling care in autumn
It is advisable to purchase seedlings from well-established sellers in the market, but this is not the only warning. A high-quality seedling with an annual green shoot 40-50 cm high with a trunk thickness of 7-8 mm should have at least three light brown roots 10-15 cm long and at least 2-3 mm thick. The shoot should have well-ripened buds, and the roots should not be dry. Before planting, the shoots of the seedlings are shortened to 3-4 eyes, the roots are cut off at the upper nodes, and the remaining ones are slightly trimmed and placed in a heteroauxin solution for 12 hours.
How to plant grapes in autumn
Pits for grapes are dug in advance with a size of 50x50x60, a drainage layer of crushed stone or broken brick 5-7 cm thick is poured into them, thick paper is laid on top, a drainage pipe is installed under the wall of the pit, through which the bush is subsequently fed and watered. Then a couple of buckets of fertile soil, a glass of nitroammofoska, a handful of ash, a bucket of humus are poured into the pit, everything is thoroughly mixed and then the pit is filled to the top with earth. Fill only the upper, fertile layer of earth into the hole; it is better not to use the lower layer.
Now you need to water the hole abundantly several times, and you will see that the soil will settle in it. Let the pit stand for a couple of weeks after precipitation. It is impossible to plant grapes at once, because, settling, the earth will tighten the seedling deeper and tear its roots. It is best to start preparing the pit for the autumn planting of grapes in early August. If you are planting several seedlings, the distance between the holes should be at least one meter.
During planting, a bucket of earth is poured into the center of the pit, a seedling is placed on it, the roots are straightened and the hole is covered with fertile soil until it grows. Short seedlings are placed vertically on a mound, and those that are higher than 25 cm are placed in the hole obliquely - the main thing is that the heel is at a depth of 50 cm, and the base of the growth at a depth of 25 cm.After filling the hole, compact the soil and water the seedling abundantly with two or three buckets of water, then cover with a cut-off plastic bottle.
Grape care in autumn
How to care for grapes in the fall? If the weather is not too hot, then the grapes are not watered after harvest. In order to prepare the roots of the grapes for wintering, one plentiful sub-winter watering in October will be enough. If, when planting, you did not dig a pipe for irrigation and feeding into the hole, make shallow grooves around the bushes so that the water does not spread out during watering, but goes into the depths exactly where the roots of the grapes are located. Periodic loosening of the soil is imperative to avoid rapid evaporation of moisture and soil compaction.
Transplant in the fall
It is also better to replant grapes in the fall, after the leaves fall, but before the first frost. The main task is not to damage the fragile rhizome of the plant in the process. You already know how to cook a pit for grapes. Young three-year-old bushes are transplanted together with an earthen lump, without shortening the rhizomes, and so that the soil does not crumble, the bush is not watered for several days.
Five to seven-year-old bushes are dug in from all sides (radius of about 50 cm) as deep as possible, but it is unlikely that it will be possible to get the entire root, since sometimes the grapes go into the ground for one and a half meters. Remove the bush, very carefully free the roots from the ground, remove the old parts of the rhizome. Cut off excess vines, leaving no more than two sleeves with one or two vines each. Shorten the tops of the branches slightly. Seal the sections with wax. Dip the rhizome in a clay mash with the addition of potassium permanganate and lower it obliquely into the hole. Then proceed as described in the section on planting grapes.
When to replant grapes in the fall so that they have time to take root in a new place? Yes, at the same time as the initial landing.
After harvest, the grape bushes are weakened, and in order to prepare them for winter, fertilization must be applied to the soil. Fertilization of grapes in the fall is applied once every three to four years, and it is best to use organic matter for this purpose, for example, in the form of mulch around a bush from rotted manure or peat with the addition of ash. However, in feeding the grapes, it is necessary to show a sense of proportion, since this is exactly the case when it is better to underfeed the plant than to overfeed.
Autumn processing of grapes
As soon as the crop is harvested, it is necessary to treat the vineyard from various kinds of infections of both plant and animal nature, since it will be much more difficult to get rid of them in the spring. There are no berries on the bushes anymore, and strong drugs can be used.
Usually, the processing of grapes is combined with a shelter for the winter - the trimmed shoots are tied, treated with a five to seven percent solution of ferrous sulfate (500-700 g of the drug per 10 liters of water). This spraying will kill the infection on the surface of the vine, but pests and diseases of the grapes such as mites and oidium will not be particularly affected - to combat these problems, there is Tiovit or colloidal sulfur. If you find a grape leafworm on grapes, use Rovikurt against it, and you should fight against cercosporosis with Fundazole or Polychom.
Propagation of grapes
The easiest way to propagate grapes is cuttings, or shanks. During autumn pruning, you can prepare cuttings and put them in storage in order to plant them in a school in spring. Or you can try to root them at home in winter. But first you need to cut the cuttings from the matured vine: the thickness of such a vine should be at least 7 mm, it is dark or light brown in color, hard and crackling when bent.
Cuttings from green vines are not suitable. Choose an already fruiting vine, on which the "tails" from the bunches have been preserved, check that there are no mechanical damage and signs of disease with powdery mildew, mildew or phylloxera. Cuttings 30-40 cm long are cut from such a vine, on which there should be at least three buds. The most important task is to keep moisture in the shanks, otherwise they will never take root. Therefore, you need to cut it so that on both sides the shank ends with a mustache or a "tail" from the bunch - the membrane in these internodes will protect the cutting from moisture loss.
The cut cuttings are placed in water for 6-8 hours, then, after drying, they are treated with a "phytodoctor" and, having provided with a tag with the name of the variety, are tied into bunches. Store cuttings in a humid environment at temperatures between 0 ºC and 5 ºC - in the ground, in a basement or refrigerator, which is much easier. To do this, wrap the cuttings in a damp cotton cloth and place in a perforated plastic bag to allow air to flow. Check the fabric from time to time for moisture, and soak it if dry.
In the spring, the seedlings are rooted.
Autumn grape pruning for beginners
When to trim
Pruning grape bushes not only makes it easier to care for the plant and picking berries, but also allows you to get a rich harvest. And a direct relationship was found between the pruning of grapes and the number of berries harvested from a curious event: many centuries ago, winegrowers who supplied their product to the troops of the Roman Empire noticed that those bushes that a donkey had eaten last year grow better and bear fruit more abundantly. Since then, they began to carry out annual pruning, especially since it has a positive effect not only on the number of berries harvested, but also on their size and taste.
Autumn is the best time for the formation of grape bushes, especially if you are growing varieties that need to be covered for the winter, and you need to start the pruning procedure two to three weeks after all the leaves have fallen from the grape bushes. Pruning earlier becomes the reason that the root system and vines of the plant do not have time to receive the necessary amount of nutrients necessary for the grapes to survive the winter, and too late pruning of grapes for the winter can cause injury and damage, since grapes the whips become brittle. However, preliminary pruning should be done in September.
Spring pruning of grapes at the beginning of sap flow is not encouraged because the vine, on which the wounds always heal for a very long time, begins to "cry", that is, to drain juice, and as a result, you not only will not wait for a good harvest, but may even destroy the plant.
How to prune grapes in the fall (pruning scheme)
For those who do not yet know how to properly prune grapes in the fall, we offer a simplified pruning scheme. Pruning grapes in the fall for beginners is carried out in two stages.
First stage. Before pruning grapes for the winter in October, in early September, preparations are made for the autumn formative pruning. Unnecessary green growths should be removed on each perennial shoot below the first wire, stretched at a height of half a meter from the ground. On those increments that appeared on the sleeves above the lower wire, minting is carried out, that is, 10-15% of the entire length of the increment is cut off. Lateral shoots on growths are shortened to 2-3 leaves. This completes the first preparatory stage.
Second phase. Two to three weeks after the leaf fall, a fruit link is formed, which should consist of a replacement knot and a fruit arrow. Pruning begins with more frost-resistant varieties - from Isabella, December, Gift or Lydia. Varieties with low cold resistance are cut last.
Select two developed shoots at the height of the two lower wires of the trellis, the lower of which should be on the outside of the sleeve growing at an angle. This shoot is cut under the replacement knot, leaving no more than three eyes on it from the base. The next shoot, growing above and on the side of the sleeve opposite from the replacement knot, is cut under the fruit arrow, leaving on it:
- five eyes, if the diameter of the shoot is 5 mm;
- six eyes, if the diameter is 6 mm;
- seven to eight eyes with a shoot diameter of 7 mm;
- eight to nine eyes with a diameter of 8 mm;
- nine to eleven eyes with a diameter of 9 mm;
- eleven to thirteen eyes with a shoot diameter of 10 mm;
- twelve to fourteen with a diameter of 11 mm;
- thirteen to fifteen with a diameter of 12 mm.
If your grape variety gives bunches weighing more than half a kilogram, then leave the minimum number of eyes from those indicated in the list on the fruit arrow, and if the bunches are lighter than 500 g, then leave the maximum number of eyes. For example, if a bunch of your grapes weighs on average a pound or more, then with a shoot thickness of 12 mm, leave 13 eyes on the fruit arrow, and if the bunch weighs less than 500 g, then leave 15 eyes.
Pruning grapes in the suburbs
In the Moscow region, attempts to grow grapes were made back in the 17th century; at present, thanks to the work of breeders, a huge number of varieties of cultivated grapes have been bred, which, with good shelter for the winter, give excellent yields. Moreover, these varieties in the Moscow region practically do not need treatment for diseases.
Among these varieties, the most popular are Cardinal, Arcadia, Kodryanka, Delight, Timur, Kuban, Izuminka and others. As for the principles and timing of pruning in the Moscow region, they are no different from the same procedure and time limits for grapes grown somewhere in the south of Ukraine or in Crimea. But to cover the grapes for the winter will have to be more thorough.
Pruning grapes in Siberia
Pruning of grapes in Siberia is carried out only in autumn, because if you cover uncut grapes for the winter, in spring, when the temperature rises to 5 ºC under cover, the unripe vines will start to rot, and after removing the protection from the cold you will see an unsightly picture: most of the sleeves and vines covered with gray mold, or green from rotted buds. We have to start growing grapes from the very beginning.
In addition, after pruning, a grape bush takes up two to three times less space than an uncut one, it is easier to remove it from the support and cover it for the winter. For these reasons, the main task of the gardener in the fall is to accelerate the process of maturation of the wood of young vines, which do not ripen naturally before the onset of frost in Siberia. To this end, in the second half of September, the base of the grape bush is cleared and thinning pruning is carried out, after which the sun's rays gain access to each vine - they remove all the greens, which probably will not have time to woody before winter, cut off the antennae, crooked shoots, all the remaining stepchildren.
You need to start clearing the bush from above, gradually moving down. They do not pre-prune the plants of the first and second years of life: for seedlings planted in the current year, only the top is cut off, and for last year's seedlings, only stepsons and tops are removed. The final autumn pruning is carried out after the first strong frost, during which the grape foliage will freeze. After the leaves die, food stops moving from the shoots to the roots, so there is no point in pulling with pruning.
The final pruning, in contrast to the preliminary one, starts from the bottom of the bush and is carried out as already described - forming a fruit link.
As soon as the average daily temperature drops below -5 ºC, it is necessary to cover the grapes removed from the support with spruce branches and wait for the snow to fall. Fortunately, there is a lot of snow in Siberia every year.
Preparing grapes for winter
Preparation for wintering
If you do not know how to prepare grapes for winter, then follow our advice. In areas with cold winters, those grape varieties that painfully endure frosts are sheltered, especially if you do not snow every year in winter.
Before sheltering the grapes for the winter, it is treated for pests and diseases and pruned. From late October to mid-November, you need to prepare the grapes for shelter. Don't worry if the temperature drops to 7-8 ºC - grapes will only benefit from this hardening. Young plants are covered with earth for the winter, and if the frosts do not drop below -15 ºC, this will be enough, and in case of a stronger temperature drop, the seedling is covered with a wooden box covered with roofing felt.
Shelter grapes for the winter
Adult grape bushes are hidden under a plastic film tunnel: the grape lashes are removed from the supports, laid on the ground, covered with spruce branches on top, then greenhouse arches are installed over the grapes, on which polyethylene is pulled. The edges of the film are pressed down with earth or stones. The entrance and exit of the tunnel are left open, due to which the vine is ventilated and hardened, and young unripe vines ripen without hindrance. The holes in the tunnel are only closed when the temperature falls below -15 ºC.
If your winters are not cold and snowy, and you grow cold-resistant grapes, you will not have to cover it for the winter.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Grape
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Berry bushes Plants on V Grape
How to prune raspberries correctly?
Raspberries unpretentious berry shrub, but requiring annual pruning and some attention to get a harvest of large and useful berries.
Let's take a closer look: when is the best time to prune raspberries, how to prune raspberry bushes in spring and autumn, schemes and video of pruning raspberry bushes.
On one site, raspberries can be grown for up to 10 years, but the life of the plantings is 5-8 years. Therefore, after 5-6 years, they dig out the rhizomes of old bushes so that this place is filled with young shoots.
Raspberries berry bush with a two-year development cycle. In the third year, the berries become very shallow, so it is necessary to cut off all two-year-old shoots, adhering to certain rules.
If you have remontant raspberries, then pruning has its own characteristics: you can get a double crop or a single crop. In the first case, pruning is carried out in the same way as with ordinary varieties, and in the second, all the shoots are cut out in order to collect berries from annual stems in the fall.
Description of Everest grapes
Breeder E. G. Pavlovsky relatively recently introduced a new grape variety Everest. It was bred on the basis of grapes K-81 and Talisman under the working title B-12-1. He took only the best from the parent varieties: large sizes, marketability and environmental resistance. The study of this variety is still ongoing. The description of the variety, photos, videos and reviews will help to evaluate the Everest grapes.
The hybrid belongs to early or mid-early ripening varieties. From the moment the buds are pecked to the ripening of the berries, 110-120 days pass. The bush takes root well, quickly gives fruitful shoots and ripens along its entire length, overgrown with wood. It can be grafted onto other varieties. The leaves are five-lobed, dissected. From the moment of planting to the first harvest, 3 years pass, fruiting begins without the first signal brush.
Abundant flowering. The Everest grape has bisexual flowers, so it does not require pollinating varieties, on the contrary, it can act in this role. The ovary must be thinned out so that the berries are large.
The clusters are large, conical in shape. In the early years, they reach 0.5 kg, and after 1.2-1.4 kg. After ripening, they can remain on the bush for up to a month and gain flavor. On one vine, small and large clusters coexist in the absence of care.
The grape berry of Everest is large, oval, slightly narrowed on one side. In length it reaches 4.5 cm, and in weight up to 20-25 g. Inside, 2 bones ripen, which are easy to squeeze out of the pulp with a simple push. The rind is firm but not tough. The pulp is fleshy and juicy. The color of the berry after 15 g begins to become covered with a pink blush. After ripening, it is bright pink or brown, covered with a dense waxy layer that makes it lighter.
In terms of taste, the variety belongs to the table variety with a harmonious taste. It is not sugary sweet, but also without sourness and nutmeg aftertaste. Can be eaten raw or used to make jams, preserves, desserts.
Formation of grape bushes
There are many ways to shape the vine. Let's dwell on the simplest and most understandable form - let the shoots grow horizontally, not vertically.
Video - Grapes Pruning a bush
In accordance with the description of the variety, Frumoasa Albe grapes should be planted in a sunny area, on the southern side of any buildings, retreating one and a half meters from the wall. It is better to plant cuttings in spring, but autumn plantings are also possible.
- The distance between grape seedlings is at least 2 m
- Planting depth - 25-35 cm
- The seedling is placed in the hole, tilting to the north
- Sprinkled with earth, watered abundantly, then mulch the root circle
- The established stalk is planted 15 cm deeper than the size of the container where it grew.
In city conditions, amateurs plant vines in pots, carrying them out on balconies and loggias in the summer.
- Frumoasa alba grapes are grown in tubs, each year changing the container to a larger one.
- Attention should be paid to airing the room without creating drafts.
- The vine is fed with organic fertilizers
- Prophylactic treatment of grapes from diseases is permissible with drugs permitted on the premises.
Frumoasa grapes, as emphasized in the description of the variety, are easy to care for. Regular watering, vine rationing, preventive treatments and preparation for winter are the recommended cares for this grape variety. Each bush needs to be firmly supported and the trellis should be tightened.
The seedling is given more attention, watering it moderately, but constantly for better survival. The old vine is watered abundantly during the spring-summer drought. Especially grapes need moisture during flowering and ovary formation. All root dressings of grapes are accompanied by watering.
The harvest will be of better quality if you apply the fertilizers necessary for the plant at the root.
- For Frumoasa Albe grapes, it is advised to use water-soluble forms of fertilizers so that they are more easily absorbed by the roots.
- Take 50 g of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers for each bush, which fertilize the vines in the bud formation phase
- Top dressing will also be useful in the pea phase. Introduce complex fertilizers for grapes
- Doses of organomineral dressings are used according to the instructions.
Frumoasa vine produces many inflorescences, but does not tolerate crop overload. The next year, the berries are small and tasteless. First, one inflorescence is removed from the shoot. The term for removing an extra bunch comes when the berries grow the size of a pea. The best brush is chosen, the rest are cut off. Usually the cluster located below is less pollinated. Experienced growers leave only one bunch on one shoot.
Most often, for table grapes of the Frumoas Albe variety, a fan-shaped growth is used on a high trunk with a load of up to 22 shoots. Usually, a fan is first formed into four sleeves on a single-plane trellis. With this arrangement, the bunches receive the most optimal dose of sunlight, which they extremely need for high-quality ripening. In the fall, shoots are cut off to 8 eyes, or briefly, which is preferable, into two or three buds. The total load on a bush of this variety is up to 35 eyes.
Preparing for winter
In the first year of growth, a young vine leaves only one shoot. At the end of October or in November, grape trunks with lower eyes are sprinkled with earth and mulch, covering up to 30 centimeters from below. Such shelters serve as an additional guarantee for the preservation of the bush. Water does not penetrate through the ground to the root during winter thaws, and the grapes do not freeze. Old vines are bent down, laid on the ground, sprinkled with sawdust, leaves, spruce branches. When snow falls, it is scooped up to the trunk. In the spring, packed snow must be removed.
Reviews of the variety Delight are the most flattering: it is successfully cultivated by winegrowers from all over the country. This grape is suitable for both novice farmers and professionals involved in the processing or sale of berries. Wine yields will be stable, regardless of whether the owner chose the Black Delight grapes or planted the Perfect Delight grapes on his plot - all varieties are equally good.
You can learn more about this grape from the video:
Formation of grapes in the third year
In the spring, after the frost has passed, they remove the shelter from the vine. Tie long fruit arrows to the bottom wire of the trellis horizontally, with the tops in opposite directions.
Replacement knots leave to grow vertically. During the summer, stems will grow from all the buds. At the beginning of August, carry out chasing - cutting the stems by 10-20 cm. This will increase the quality and quantity of berries.
Do not mint before August, otherwise a lot of shoots will appear on the vine.
In autumn, after the fall of leaves, cut off the last 4 vertical shoots with a part of the sleeve that have borne fruit.
As a result, one link with two vertical shoots will remain on each shoulder. Prune them in the same way as in the second year. Cut off the shoot closest to the center, leaving 2 buds, leaving 4 buds for the distant ones.
All subsequent years of growth of the grape bush, pruning is the same as in the third year.
Attention: for greater reliability and stock, more buds can be left on the shoots, but no more than 10 on each. This is done in case of frost damage.
For example, the optimal number is 3 buds on replacement knots and 6-7 buds on fruit arrows. In the spring, if all the kidneys survived, the extra ones can be cut off.
Correct pruning of grapes, depending on its variety
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There are certain pruning rules, based primarily on the individual characteristics of the variety, the age and growth of the bush, taking into account the weather in the current year. I recommend pruning in the fall, in late October - early November, before sheltering the bushes for the winter.
The main meaning of cropping
Annual pruning of bushes regulates their growth and fruiting. When pruned correctly, the high yield of the plant is accompanied by its normal growth. With the wrong approach to pruning, this balance is violated, which leads to the strengthening of one of the processes at the expense of the weakening of the other. The art of the grower consists in the ability to maintain a balance between growth and fruiting. Thanks to pruning, the bushes are given a certain shape, preserve and maintain it throughout the entire life of the plant.
The pruning length of fruit vines and especially the load of the bushes most significantly affect the quantity and quality of the grape harvest. This is explained, on the one hand, by the difference in quality of the eyes along the length of annual shoots, which is manifested in their different ability to bear fruit and the quality of the crop, and on the other hand, by the direct dependence of the yield on the number of healthy eyes left when pruning, and later on shoots.
What is the weather in June - so is the harvest for the next year
As you know, grapes bear fruit on the growth of last year and only on it. The fruitful eyes of the next year's harvest are laid in June of the current year, and the weather at that time depends on how fruitful they will be. If at the beginning of the month it was warm, then even the first 3-5 eyes will be fruitful, and if it is cool, then the fruitfulness of the eyes at the beginning of the fruit arrow will be low, and the yield will be on the shoots that have grown from the 8-10th, or even 12- 14th peephole and beyond. This is a general rule. Now we turn to varietal characteristics.
Each grape variety has its own pruning
Varieties of Central Asian origin, and those bred with their participation, are the most thermophilic, it is customary to cut them longer - they are productive, as a rule, shoots that have grown from the 6th-8th and further eyes, and the first shoots are almost always sterile. Therefore, such of your varieties as Rizamat, in Memory of Negrul, need to be cut as long as possible, by 14-16 eyes.
For the varieties Strashensky, Lyana, Laura, Sashenka, Kodryanka, Muromets, medium pruning is enough - for 7-9 eyes. The rest of the varieties have high fruitfulness of the eyes at the beginning of the fruit arrow and allow short pruning, even 2-4 eyes. Of course, they can be cut even longer - by 6-8 eyes.
When pruning, you still need to take into account the shape of the grape plant you have chosen.
You also need to remember about the general condition of the bush. If the plant is young, it should not be loaded - let it gain strength. If the bush is sick, damaged or is weak, then it should also not be cut for a long time - a large number of shoots will weaken it even more. Such a plant, on the contrary, should be unloaded for one year, removing part of the set bunches so that it grows stronger.
Cases when grapes can be pruned by one bud
Another important pruning task is regulating the polarity and spatial position of the bush. The vine, like a liana, is characterized by a strongly pronounced polarity, which manifests itself in the greatest growth of parts of the bush remote from the base. The desire of the plant to change its spatial position is manifested in the exposure of the lower parts of the shoot, the intensive growth of shoots from the upper eyes of the whip, which reduces the number of inflorescences on the shoot, causes the ovary of the lower inflorescences to fall, and reduces the yield.
To neutralize the polarity, a short pruning of shoots at the base is used, pruning according to the principle of a fruit link, leaving a long shoot for fruiting and a short one - a garter of a fruit arrow is used on a replacement knot in a horizontal or close position to it. By cutting the shoot short, we force it to develop the lower eyes in spite of the polarity and give well-developed shoots from them.
Features of pollination of grapes
Grapes are a wind-pollinated plant, bees are not helpers to it, therefore varieties with a functional-female type of flower (Talisman, Laura, Victoria, Sasha and Red Rapture) should grow near bisexual varieties, the pollen of which will pollinate them. Good pollinators are considered to be profusely flowering varieties with large clusters or a large number of them, primarily raisins and technical ones, among the dining rooms there are good pollinators - Kodryanka, Strashensky, Arcadia and others.