Many gardeners are faced with the fact that over time, the berries on raspberry bushes become smaller. The reason for this is mistakes in care, which can badly affect the condition of the bush.
Raspberries need adequate lighting and space to produce a good harvest. To do this, the raspberry must be thinned regularly. First of all, all fertile, weak and small shoots are cut off.
The width of the bush should be no more than 40 cm, and the distance between the bushes should not be less than 70 cm.
Then the bush is additionally cleared, leaving 6-7 of the largest branches on it.
Loosening too much
Raspberries have a superficial root system, so you need to refuse from deep loosening of the soil under the bushes - this can damage the roots. It is not worth deepening the gardening tool into the soil deeper than 5 cm, it is even better to just mulch the ground in the raspberry tree. Straw works well for this. It is laid out under the bushes in a layer of 10-15 cm. Mulch protects the soil from drying out, maintains an optimal temperature, prevents the growth of weeds, and fertilizes the soil during decomposition. During the season, the mulch layer needs to be renewed periodically.
Do not feed the plant
Raspberries actively take nutrients from the soil, so they need to be fed regularly. The first fertilizers are applied in the spring. Superphosphate, containing a complex of necessary elements, is ideal. During flowering, the bushes are watered with a solution of nitrophoska, which is prepared at the rate of 50 grams of fertilizer per bucket of water. During fruiting, emphasis is placed on potash and nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen is added before the start of berry formation. You can use urea and ammonium nitrate. They are scattered between rows and buried in the soil.
Potassium sulfate is used for potassium dressing: 40 grams are dissolved in a bucket of water and poured with a planting solution.
Do not cure raspberries
Another reason for the shallowness of berries is disease. Raspberries can be attacked by fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. For their prevention and treatment in early spring, the bushes and the soil under it are treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid. A week later, spraying with "Fufanon" or "Aktellik" is carried out.
If raspberries are severely affected, re-treatment is carried out before flowering and after picking the berries.
Shoots that do not respond to treatment are cut out. New growth affected by diseases is also completely removed. All diseased branches are burned.
Raspberries love organic fertilizers. However, they need to be introduced limitedly and strictly before the flowering of the bushes. Otherwise, raspberries will give strength to the growth of greens, and not to the formation of berries. Fertilize raspberries with diluted slurry in a ratio of 1: 4.
Repaired Raspberry Ruby Necklace
The varieties of remontant raspberries are appreciated by gardeners for the opportunity to get a harvest much later than the usual species. In the fall, the number of pests decreases and the weather levels off. Therefore, it is easier for raspberries to bear fruit. The only difficulty is in the northern regions. There, gardeners manage to collect no more than 80% of the crop. The rest of the crop does not have time to please raspberry lovers due to the onset of frost. Repaired raspberry varieties are very popular, among mid-season species it is worth noting the Ruby Necklace.
An interesting variety for lovers of late berries. In our article, we will consider and present the main characteristics that the raspberry Ruby necklace possesses, a description of the variety, photos, reviews and an educational video.
Why are raspberries tied up
Tying raspberries is one of the stages of plant care. Why is it needed? It turns out that not tied raspberries develop worse, the berries become smaller, lose their unique taste.
What are the advantages of an agrotechnical method of caring for raspberry plantings:
- Provides reliable protection of raspberries from diseases and pests.
- The shoots on which flower stalks are formed are in the middle of the bush and develop better.
- Twigs and lateral shoots of raspberries break less often, even with strong winds and downpours, do not hang from the abundance of berries.
- Each twig receives enough heat and light so that ripening occurs evenly.
- Harvesting raspberries is more convenient, thorns do not interfere.
But there are more reasons why raspberries need a garter. The point is still in obtaining a bountiful harvest of berries of different colors and sizes. On tied up shoots, raspberry bushes are better illuminated, well ventilated.
Look at the photo, is it not a miracle raspberry!
The raspberry garter procedure is carried out in the spring after the shoots have been cut off. At this time, the stems should not yet have opened buds.
Insect pests also cause great damage to raspberry plantings. One of the most dangerous of them is the stem gall midge. This insect is a small mosquito. In spring, its females lay eggs in lesions or natural cracks in annual raspberry shoots. Orange larvae hatch from them, which, when fed, secrete various substances and pheromones, provoking the formation of growths on raspberry stems - galls.
3-4 generations of stem gall midge can develop in one season.
Shoots damaged by gall midge weaken, crack and often dry out. They do not tolerate frost well and suffer from winter desiccation. The quantity and quality of ripening fruits in bushes suffering from stem gall midge is significantly reduced.
Video: stem gall midge on raspberries
Raspberries and other pests are affected. Among them:
- Raspberry-strawberry weevil. It looks like a grayish-black beetle. In early spring, it feeds on the leaves and anthers of the buds. Weevil females eat out the holes in the buds and lay eggs, after which they gnaw on the pedicel. As a result, the future flower falls off or dries up. After a week, larvae hatch from the eggs, which feed on the inner part of the bud for 25 days before pupation. For the winter, the raspberry-strawberry weevil hides under fallen leaves, lumps of soil or in its cracks.
For the winter, the raspberry-strawberry weevil hides under fallen leaves or in lumps of soil
Leaf and shoot aphids. Sucking insects are green. Their size does not exceed 2 mm. They feed on cell sap, as a result of which the green parts of the bush curl and deform. In addition, aphids often act as carriers of viral diseases. Black eggs of these insects overwinter on annual shoots.
Aphid colonies usually appear on the stems and undersides of raspberry leaves before flowering.
Raspberry beetle. This insect appears on raspberry bushes in early summer. Adults feed on the pulp of young leaves, stamens and pistils. The larvae damage the berries by eating the drupes and gnawing the passages in the stalks. Wormy fruits lose up to 50% in weight, often rot and become unfit for human consumption. Beetles and their larvae overwinter in the soil near raspberry bushes at a depth of 10 cm.
Raspberry beetle larvae damage berries, making them unusable
Raspberry mite. Microscopic pest that settles on the lower part of the leaves and feeds on cell sap. The main sign of its appearance is the yellowing of the leaf blades and their acquisition of irregular shapes. Females of the raspberry mite hibernate under soil flakes.
Raspberry mite feeds on cell sap
Spider mite. Another sucking raspberry pest. It also settles on the lower part of the leaf blade and feeds on cell sap. You can distinguish it by the cobweb, which, with a large number of ticks, entangles all parts of the plant. In addition, in the affected bush, discoloration of the damaged parts of the leaf is observed, gradually turning into marbling of the entire plate, their drying and falling off. Spider mites are especially active on dry and hot days.
Spider mites are especially active on dry and hot days
Soil moisture, control methods
The land for growing raspberries should be moderately moist. Excessive moisture is permissible at the time of the formation and ripening of berries. For plantations of raspberry or blackberry bushes, it is beneficial to use drip irrigation. For competent planning of the irrigation system, instrumental methods are used.
The Soil Tensiometer is a tool for determining the moisture level in the soil. Consists of a pressure gauge and a tube with a ceramic probe. You need to take measurements after watering, setting the device in the midst of plants and immersing the tube to the depth of root germination. The counter readings are taken in the morning. For ease of measurement, the pressure gauge is divided into multi-colored zones:
- Red zone - dry soil, urgent watering
- Yellow zone - lack of moisture, additional moisture is required
- Green zone - optimal moisture
- Blue zone - excess moisture.
The prevailing plants on the site also show soil moisture. Willow, alder, reed, willow grow on the ground with excessive moisture. Thyme, saxifrage, sedum grow best on dry and scarce soils.
Preparing the soil for planting involves changing the composition of the soil. Heavy lumpy soil is mulched with peat and / or sand. The composition of excessively loose, low-fertile soils is enriched by the introduction of organic matter.
Raspberry processing in subsequent years
Despite the fact that your plants have already received their first protection, you shouldn't stop. At the first signs of disease and the appearance of pests, use the necessary drugs. If there are few insects or they are not very active, we recommend refraining from treatments and continuing observations.
Sprinkle raspberries before bud break
When treating plants, also spray the product into the trunks. Spray against pests if they were very active last year. To make the procedure more effective, carry out it at an air temperature of at least 12 ° C.
Cut the stems with outgrowths (this is evidence of the "work" of the raspberry stem gall midge) and burn.
Spraying raspberries at the beginning of leafing
During this period, pay special attention to spraying the lower parts of the shoots that are actively in contact with the ground.
Purplish and ulcerative spotting,
anthracnose, gray shoot rot
Spraying raspberries during full foliage
By increasing the green mass, raspberries become especially attractive to pathogens and pests. Don't give them a chance to destroy plants!
Escaping gall midge, leafhoppers, raspberry beetle,
mites, leaf-eating insects
Purple and ulcerative spotting,
powdery mildew, anthracnose
Sometimes you can see that gardeners have not tied up the bushes in the spring. What's the matter, maybe because of negligence or out of ignorance? It turns out that neither one nor the other. There are just a number of raspberry varieties that do not need this type of care. What's the matter?
Most often, yellow and red raspberries, which have rather powerful and strong erect shoots, are released into "free swimming". They do not grow taller than 180 cm, do not bend, even with high yields.
You can do without a garter if you grow raspberry varieties such as:
- Spirina white
But working with such a group of varieties has its own problems: it is necessary to correctly form a bush. Otherwise, you may fail.
- Replacement shoots are not pruned in the first year. By the end of the growing season, a wide strip of green stems is formed.
- In the spring, those shoots that are outside the ridge need to be cut out.
- Plants in the garden are thinned out. There should be at least 20 cm between the remaining shoots. As a rule, there will be just 20 shoots left on the square.
When growing some varieties, this technique is effective, the productivity of raspberries is high. But for novice gardeners, until they fill their hand, it is better to do a garter of shoots. The fact is that the slightest thickening of plants can cause diseases of those shoots that are inside the garden.