From Peter to the present day
Rich assortment of potatoes for our gardens
Today it is difficult even to imagine how people once did without such a universal culture as potatoes... It is needed both as a food product, as a raw material for industry, and as a fodder crop. But it was not always so.
Now it is cultivated in 130 countries of the world. As you know, the homeland of cultivated potatoes is South America, the territory of the modern Andean countries and Chile. Initially, man was not engaged in agriculture. Primitive tribes of wandering hunters, fishermen, trappers searched for edible plant roots in the ground for their food, among which they found wild potato tubers.
The process of domesticating wild potatoes can be imagined as follows. Nomadic groups of wild plant gatherers tore off and carried away larger and more tasty tubers. As a result, the thickets of wild potatoes were thinned out, and while searching for tubers, people loosened the soil, thus improving the conditions for its growth. With the advent of settlement, food residues of wild potato tubers gradually created thickets around the dwelling, which people used.
There are more than 150 known wild types of potatoes, which grow mainly in South and Central America. From the frozen tubers, the Indians prepared chuno - dried potatoes that could be stored for a long time. Among the Indians, this potato was such a popular and necessary food product that there was even a saying: "Food without chuno is the same as life without love."
The first to discover potatoes for Europe were the Spaniards, who discovered "mealy roots of good taste" in South America. It is believed that in 1565 he was brought to Spain, allegedly on the personal order of King Philip II. From there, he already got to Italy, where he began to be widely used not only for food, but also for feed purposes.
In 1587, potatoes from Italy were brought to Belgium. The mayor of the small Belgian town of Mons Philippe de Sivry at the beginning of 1588 sent two tubers and a potato berry to the Vienna Botanical Gardens botanist Karolis Clusius, who in 1601 described the potatoes in detail in his book Description of Rare Plants. The cultivated tubers were sent by Klusius to the Swiss botanist Kasper Bohen, who gave the new plant the botanical name Solanum tuberosum (tuberous nightshade). This name has been preserved for potatoes to this day.
Then the potatoes go to France, Poland, Germany, Hungary, Sweden. For a long time, potatoes in Europe were planted mainly in botanical gardens and pharmaceutical gardens. It took about 200 years until he came from botanical gardens and from vegetable gardens at pharmacies to the gardens of peasants.
Potatoes of varieties Spring white and Onega
There is no exact information about the appearance of potatoes in Russia, but it is associated with the Peter's era. According to the Free Economic Society, at the end of the 17th century, Peter I, while in the Netherlands on ship business, became interested in this plant and "for brood" sent a bag of tubers from Rotterdam to Count Sheremetyev. At the same time, he ordered the local bosses to send potatoes to various regions of Russia, imputing them the obligation to invite the Russian people to start breeding it.
In St. Petersburg, potatoes began to be grown in 1736 in the Pharmaceutical Garden. It was served in very small quantities under the name "tartufel" at the beginning of the 1840s at court ceremonial dinners. As follows from the reports of the palace chancellery, half a pound or 200 grams of "tartufel" was released for the banquet on June 23, 1741, 500 grams on August 12 of the same year, and only 100 grams for the festive dinner for the officers of the Semyonovsky regiment. And at the same time, at the table of Prince Biron during the reign of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730-1740), potatoes were already delicious and tasty dish.
The famous Russian agronomist, scientist and writer Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov, who participated in the actions of the Russian army in East Prussia during the Seven Years War (1756-1762), in the magazine "Economic Store" in 1787 reported that the participants of the campaign got acquainted with potatoes in Prussia, and officers - lovers of agriculture - brought tubers for cultivation. By 1764, potatoes were cultivated in some places in St. Petersburg, near Riga, in Estonia, in the gardens of some landowners in the Novgorod province, Arzamas, Yelets, Vladimir provinces, in the gardens of the Kievites, in Kargopol and Olonets, in the Kashirsky district, near Moscow.
The director of the museum-estate "Suida" AV Burlakov documented that the first potato field in the St. Petersburg province appeared in Suida, in the spring of 1760. At the origins of its creation was the owner of the local estate, the legendary Petrovsky arap Abram Petrovich Hannibal. In retirement, he diligently studied agronomic science and conducted the first experiments on growing potatoes on his manor. Now in the museum-estate "Suida" there is an old travel chest, in which, according to the stories of the descendants of Hannibal, the arap of Peter the Great brought the first batch of potatoes to his estate.
<>Potato variety Peter's Riddle
The initiator of the mass distribution of potatoes was the Medical College, whose president at that time was Baron Alexander Cherkasov. In its report to the Senate, this institution reported that in order to fight hunger, it is necessary to cultivate a new crop - potatoes or "earth apples", as is done in England. Empress Catherine II supported this proposal. As a result, on January 19, 1765, the first decree on the introduction of potatoes was issued, which was sent to all governors.
This had important consequences. The energetic Novgorod governor, Major General Yakov Efimovich Sivers, sent a report to the Senate on February 22, 1765, in which he made a proposal for a nationwide purchase of seed potatoes in Ireland for the purpose of its subsequent distribution to the provinces. The Senate considered the report of J.E. Sivers and instructed the medical board to purchase seed potatoes, allocating 500 rubles for this. To speed up the spread of potatoes, the Senate considered the introduction of this crop 23 times in 1765-1766 alone.
As early as April 12, 1765, the Senate, in response to the request of the Governor of St. Petersburg S.F. Ushakov: How to grow potatoes? - ordered the medical board to draw up a "Manual" on his breeding. “The instruction on the cultivation of earth apples called“ potetes ”was printed in the Senate printing house in the amount of 10 thousand copies and sent out to all governors free of charge at the rate of 50 pieces for each province or county, 25 pieces for each city and 100 pieces for the province. The Manual consisted of an introduction and 16 chapters.
It was a kind of encyclopedia of potato growing in the middle of the 18th century, which provided information about varieties, soil preparation, timing and density of planting, weeding and hilling, harvesting and storage, using tubers for food and livestock feed, breeding and other tips. In December 1765, an additional, special "Manual" was published on the transportation and storage of the received seed potatoes.
Senate decrees, agrotechnical instructions, and campaign materials made it possible in the fall of 1765 to obtain brilliant results in potato propagation in several places. In Novgorod, under the leadership of J.E. Sivers, about 40 kg of potatoes were planted on good garden soil. YE Sivers reported his success to the Senate, and the latter, by a special decree, informed all the governors of the empire and ordered to publish this in the first Russian newspaper "St. Petersburg Vedomosti", which was done on February 10, 1766.
Good results were also obtained in some villages with the landowners of the Petersburg province. Difficulties in transporting potato seed tubers over long distances forced the medical board to send seed potatoes to Irkutsk. Some of them, apparently, were collected in the St. Petersburg pharmaceutical garden, and some were purchased in Berlin and England. From Irkutsk, surprisingly quickly, potato seeds were sent to Ilimsk, Yakutsk, Okhotsk and Kamchatka for distribution to "curious bourgeois" and "good house building". Seeds were sent with instructions for growing seedlings.
In Ilimsk, the provincial office handed over the received seeds (2.5 zolotniks, or 15 years) to A. Berezovsky. The latter skillfully raised seedlings and received 12 pounds of tubers the size of a "Russian nut", and occasionally "the size of a chicken or duck egg." Without knowing it, he carried out the first potato selection in Siberia, and, perhaps, in Russia. This was the beginning of Russian potato growing.
Much of the credit for expanding the area under potatoes in Russia belonged to the Free Economic Society, which published articles by prominent scientists on potatoes. One of the founders of the school of scientific potato growing in Russia was the agronomist A.T. Bolotov, who published in 1770 the work "A note on potatoes, or earth apples." In this article, he outlined the agrotechnical foundations of reproduction of tubers, gave advice on the cultivation and harvesting of potatoes.
With the help of the Free Economic Society, the talented nugget breeder, St. Petersburg gardener and seed grower Efim Andreevich Grachev launched his activities. He demonstrated his varieties at world exhibitions in Vienna, Cologne, Philadelphia. For the development of vegetable growing E.A. Grachev was awarded ten gold and forty silver medals, and was elected a member of the Paris Academy of Agricultural Sciences. On his site, he planted and comprehensively tested more than 200 varieties. The best of them he intensively multiplied and distributed throughout Russia.
In addition, they bred about twenty from seeds by cross-pollination of flowers. potato varietiestubers differing in color - white, red, yellow, pink, purple; in shape - round, elongated, conical, with superficial and deepened eyes, as well as resistant to fungal diseases. The names of most of these varieties are associated with the name of Grachev. After his death, the business was continued for some time by his son, V.E. Grachev. In 1881, at the exhibition of the Free Economic Society, he demonstrated 93 varieties of potatoes. Among them were famous varieties - Early Rose, Peach Blossom, Snowflake, Vermont, Efilos, Light Pink, etc.
After the revolution, the Hero of Socialist Labor Alexander Georgievich Lorkh (1889-1980) is rightfully considered the founder and organizer of breeding and seed-growing work on potatoes. On his initiative, the Korenevskaya Experimental Station was created, reorganized in 1930 into the Research Institute of Potato Farming. He developed the first Soviet potato varieties - Korenevsky and Lorkh, and subsequently - Alliance, Aspiya, Bezhitsky, Belousovsky, Bryansk early, Bryansk red, Bronnitsky, Bryansk delicacy, Bryansk reliable, Divo, Vestnik, Golubizna, Desnitsa, Zhukovsky early , Zavorovsky, Kolobok, Krepysh, Krasnoyarsk early, Lukyanovsky, Moskvoretsky, Malinovka, Novousmansky, Nikulinsky, Autumn, Victory, Ramensky, Resource, Reserve, Zhukov's jubilee, Luck, Effect.
In St. Petersburg, Abram Yakovlevich Kameraz created potato varieties: Kameraz, Detskoselsky, Iskra, Bogatyr. A great contribution to the development of breeding was made by Konstantin Zakharovich Budin, who since 1979 headed the department of tubers at VIR. Together with leading potato scientists, Academician of the Russian Agricultural Academy, Hero of Socialist Labor Sergei Mikhailovich Bukasov, Abram Yakovlevich Kameraz, Vadim Stepanovich Lehnovich, Alexei Grigorievich Zykin, Natalya Antonovna Zhitlova Vavilya Natalia Alexandrovna ploidy of potatoes and the use of dihaploids in practical breeding. He created the most complex multi-species hybrids, which served as the basis for the creation of varieties Akzhar (Kazakhstan), Energia, Lena, Buran.
In subsequent years, a great contribution to the development of potato growing in the North-West of Russia was made by students of S.M. Bukasova - Elizaveta Aleksandrovna Osipova and Nina Aleksandrovna Lebedeva.
The long-term work of Elizaveta Aleksandrovna Osipova led to the creation of such well-known potato varieties as Nevsky, Elizaveta, Petersburg, the high adaptive potential of which ensures their distribution in various ecological zones. In 1978, at the Suida experimental station, she bred a new variety of dark pink potatoes and gave it the name Hannibal. It is still grown in various parts of our country, but unknowingly it is called Sineglazka for its characteristic bluish eyes on the tubers.
Now potato breeding is carried out in the direction of creating high-yielding, early-maturing varieties that are resistant to cancer, nematodes, phytophthora, scab, rhizoctonia and viruses. The success of breeding work depends on the availability of the original parental forms, their genetic knowledge, methods of hybridization, assessment and selection of promising varieties. The team of the Vsevolozhsk experimental station, headed by Olga Ilyinichna Zueva, a student of E.A. Osipova, created such promising potato varieties as Aurora, Rucheek, Ladozhsky, Ryabinushka, Radonezhsky.
At the Leningrad Research Institute of Agriculture, Zinaida Zakharovna Evdokimova, also a student of E.A. Osipova, with her team transferred potato varieties Pamyat Osipova, Sudarynya, Kholmogorsky, Lomonosovsky for state variety trials. Nina Aleksandrovna Lebedeva, and later her daughter Vera Aleksandrovna Lebedeva and her son-in-law Nadim Makhishevich Hajiyev created and are currently developing promising varieties and hybrids of potatoes. Among them: Spring, Spring white, Oredezhsky, Sorcerer, Bullfinch, Fairy tale, Naiad, Lark, Peter's riddle, Inspiration, League, Charm, Scarlet sail, Lilac fog, Russian beauty, Danae, Pearl, Peter's early ripening, Charoid.
Anatoly Osipov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Head of the Sector of Innovations and Agricultural Marketing of the North-West Research Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy
196608, St. Petersburg, Podbelsky highway, 7 E-mail: [email protected]
Photo by E. Valentinov
Potatoes on display
Reproduction by sprouts
To propagate potatoes using shoots, it is necessary to select medium-ripening tubers and germinate them in the light or in a dark room. The room temperature should be 15-18 degrees. Sprouting potatoes in the light, the shoots grow green or purple, when grown in a dark room, the shoots are white.
One tuber can sprout several times.
To prevent the tuber from drying out, it must be sprayed with water every three days. The processes break off when they grow in length from 3 to 5 cm. The process is separated as follows: with the right hand they hold the process at the root, with the left hand gently turn the tuber. The sprout must be kept carefully so as not to crush it, as a damaged sprout can rot in the ground. Shadow processes must be broken off carefully so as not to damage the underdeveloped ones.
The resulting shoots are planted in a box with fertilized soil at a distance of 5-7 cm in a row. The row spacing should be at least 10 cm. Boxes are installed in the light or in a dark room. The sprouts are buried so that 1/3 of the sprout remains on the surface. The aisles are watered with warm water and sprinkled with humus. Sprouts are accepted within 5 days. After 20 days, they should be planted in the beds. In the row between the seedlings there should be at least 20 cm, and the row spacing - 65 cm. It is recommended to plant seedlings in gloomy weather.
The first days after planting, the seedlings must be protected from direct sunlight!
When compiling the article, materials from the sites were used:
|Editorial office address||Moscow|
|Founders||Russian Society of Gardening Lovers|
|Date of foundation||1885|
"Garden and Vegetable Garden" (pref. Garden and Garden) (since 1911 - "Garden and Garden Journal") is a Russian magazine. Published by the Russian Society of Gardening Amateurs in Moscow. Continuation of the "Journal of Gardening" (Journal of Gardening), 1874-1876.
Publication of the Russian Society of Gardening Amateurs (since 1903 in the subtitle minor changes) since 1909 - Monthly magazine of decorative gardening, fruit growing, horticulture and sericulture. Organ of the Russian Society of Gardening Amateurs from No. 5-6 1909 without the first subtag. M. 1901-1916. Continue First year ed. 1885 (Lisovsky, No. 1769). 2 times a month from 1903 - 6 times a year. From 1904 monthly. Published since 1885, twice a month, under the editorship of VK Popandopulo. Serves as a continuation of the "Gardening Journal" (see).
V. K. Popandopulo with No. 3 I. I. Troyanovsky with No. 8-13 1902 N. Ye. Tsabel since 1904 A. N. Lebedev with No. 6 1906 S. L. Markov since 1909 A. S. Kartsov with No. 7 -8 S. L. Markova since 1911 V. A. Polyakov, vice-president. Islands, and A. I. Nenarokov, the ruler of affairs with No. 2 V. A. Polyakov since 1914 V. I. Ananin, President of the Russian Society of Gardening Amateurs since 1916 A. S. Piontkovsky. Ed. Russian Society of Gardening Lovers.
22-29 cm, annual pagination, 256-570 p. 1911 32-64 p. Fig.
History of Russian potatoes - garden and vegetable garden
OLD BOOKS ON GARDENING AND GARDENING
Schroeder R.I. Russian vegetable garden, nursery and orchard. Guide to the most profitable arrangement and maintenance of a vegetable garden and horticulture
Richard Ivanovich Schroeder is an outstanding pre-revolutionary scientist and practitioner, the chief gardener of the Petrovskaya (now Timiryazevskaya) Agricultural Academy. The book "Russian vegetable garden, nursery and orchard", which became the work of his entire life, was once awarded a gold medal - the prize of the Russian Gardening Society "3a the best essay in Russian on gardening and gardening".
The work of RI Schroeder combines thoroughness with the accessibility of presentation, contains traditional and little-known methods of increasing productivity and protecting various species and varieties of plants, tested by long-term practice. The recommendations are calculated in relation to the climatic conditions of Russia and neighboring countries.
Pavel Steinberg. Everyday recipe for a gardener. The gardener's golden book, time-tested
The book you are now holding in your hands has not lost its popularity for over 100 years! These pages concentrate the centuries-old traditions of Russian gardening. Compiled by practitioners for practitioners, combining the best tips and recipes for farming, caring for trees, shrubs, flowers and lawns, this collection has been and remains a treasure trove of folk wisdom. Whether you are gardening, growing indoor flowers or planting flower beds, you will definitely find tips here that will help you and your plants. I wish you a rich harvest and wonderful mood!
The book you are now holding in your hands was very popular even in pre-revolutionary Russia, since it was created on the basis of the best achievements of gardening practice. And for almost a hundred years, gardeners all over Russia have been using "everyday recipes". The book annotation stated:
The purpose of the publication of "Everyday recipes of a gardener" is to provide gardening enthusiasts and partly to industrialists with the opportunity to use the rich experience of well-known practitioners - gardeners and gardeners. To have at hand all the periodicals, moreover, for several decades, is hardly available to an ordinary amateur or industrialist. Meanwhile, in magazines over the years, you can find a lot of precious advice and recipes, the application of which in practice will undoubtedly bring significant benefits. This circumstance prompted the editorial board of the journal Progressive Horticulture and Horticulture to instruct a group of employees to make a selection of more valuable material from horticultural journals for previous years, group this material into departments and study it in relation to the latest requirements of science and practice, trying, if possible, to cover all horticulture and horticulture industries.
In view of the fact that the staff of the "Obihodnaya recipe of a gardener" were mainly gardeners of the practice, one can hope that only really practical and useful advice and recipes were included in the publication.
The editor of the journal Progressive Horticulture and Horticulture, P.N.Steinberg, took over the general edition of the "Obihodnaya Recipe of a Gardener".
Pavel Steinberg. How to grow an excellent harvest of vegetables and melons. Time-tested recipes
After reading the book, you will learn how to grow a rich harvest of vegetables and melons without the use of modern technical means and fertilizers. It describes in detail the recommendations of the famous Russian vegetable grower, which were successfully used in peasant farms and vegetable gardens of townspeople about a hundred years ago. Most of the techniques and tips are still relevant today. The collection includes four popular brochures of the author: "How to grow a pood cabbage" (1925), "How to grow a three-pood pumpkin and good cucumbers in the north. A Guide for Peasants "(1925)," How to Get 1500 Poods of Potatoes from a Tithe "(1925) and" How to Grow Large Watermelons, Melons, Pumpkins and Cucumbers "(1913).
For a wide range of readers
About this book and its author
Pavel Nikolaevich Steinberg is a famous scientist, polymath and encyclopedist. Since 1919, he worked at the Petrograd Agronomical Institute (now the St. Petersburg State Agrarian University). From 1922 to 1929 - the first head of the department of vegetable growing of this institute, gave a course on vegetable growing in open and protected ground Pavel Nikolayevich paid a lot of attention to publishing, was the editor of the journal "Progressive gardening and vegetable gardening" and in this capacity he did a lot for people working on the land.
PN Steinberg published the textbooks "Practical gardening" (1925), "Greenhouses" (1925), "Early potatoes" (1934), "Agricultural technology of a working garden" (1934), "Vegetable growing of an open and protected ground ”(1935) and many other books on which millions of farmers studied.
PN Steinberg's books are not outdated. They feel the time in which people lived, worked, grew crops and could process it, using the advice of a famous scientist.
Dear reader, taking this book in your hands, you will feel the taste of that time, a leisurely and thoughtful approach to the land and work of the farmer. This is the oldest occupation - to grow everything that the land gives. Man and plant - link through the millennia. You take a seed and put it into the ground - this is how our ancestors did from time immemorial. They have accumulated experience to get the highest yields of the most delicious vegetables. And scientists began to generalize their experience and the experience of other people, bringing it into books on agriculture.
I think Pavel Nikolayevich Steinberg was very fond of the earth and was anxious about plants. Only great love could give such books that do not age for more than a century.
Galina Osipova, Head of the Department of Vegetable Growing, St. Petersburg State Agrarian University
Pavel Steinberg, Nikolay Bogdanov-Katkov, Georgy Dorogin. Northern Gardening: A Practical Guide to Properly Designing a Garden and Growing Vegetable Plants in the Ground (2012)
The manual is based on 40 years of personal experience and observations of the author in the cultivation of vegetables in the open field. The features of the organization of the vegetable garden, its natural and artificial protection are considered. Crop rotation of crops in the garden is described. The features of spring and autumn tillage are shown. Fertilization of soil with manure, humus, bird droppings, sod, peat, etc. is considered. The device of nurseries and devices for thermophilic plants is presented. The features of growing about 60 species of annual and perennial crops are described. Harvesting and winter storage of vegetables, diseases of garden plants, as well as the main pests of garden plants and proven methods of combating them are considered. The 8th edition contains modern units of measurement.
For a wide range of readers.
Preface to the 7th edition
The first edition of my "Practical Gardening" was published in 1908 in the amount of 10,000 copies. The second edition in 1910 in the amount of 20,000 copies, the third in 1914 in the amount of 35,000 copies. The fourth edition of the Commissariat of Agriculture of the Union of Communes of the Northern Region, at the request of this institution, was reduced and adapted for broad strata of the population of the northern and, in part, the middle provinces: published in 1919, in an amount of 10,000 copies. At the end of 1919, the Rural Worker labor artel published the 5th edition of this manual in an even more abbreviated form, in the amount of 10,000 copies. In 1921, the Moscow publishing house Vozrozhdenie published the 6th edition of Practical Gardening, following the stereotype from the 4th edition.
This 7th edition of the Petrograd Branch of the State Publishing House comes out significantly supplemented and completely revised, under the title "Northern Gardening". This new title of my work shows that the processing was caused by the desire to give as complete a guide to gardening as possible exclusively for the Northern region of Russia.
This edition uses mainly personal, almost 40-year experience and observations. The literature on gardening up to 1916-1917 was also widely used. At the end of the manual, the most important literature on gardening is given in Russian and three European languages, mainly drawings are borrowed, since, according to the conditions of the time we are living in, the publication had to be illustrated with old clichés.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to prof. N.N.Bogdanov-Katkov and prof. GN Dorogin, who kindly agreed to write chapters for my leadership on pests and diseases of plants and on proven, practical ways to combat them.
For a soft Slavic nature, strong, sharp shocks are needed to quickly perceive something. The events that we were going through, which had torn the north away from the grain-growing provinces, forced us to sharply overestimate the importance of vegetables in nutrition and to expand the northern garden crops at an accelerated pace.
While vegetables have occupied one of the first places in the diet of the whole world from time immemorial, vegetables played an insignificant role in our diet until 1918. The peasantry always considered vegetable gardens a "woman's" business, and the intelligentsia looked at vegetable gardens as a necessary evil. But thunder struck, and in one year we became "convinced" vegetarians: vegetables became the main product of our diet.
In order for a person to be able to eat quite satisfyingly and variedly throughout the year, receiving a little bread and fat a day, a garden of 75 square meters is needed. fathoms (340 sq. m). From this amount of land, you can get: 20 pounds (330 kg) of potatoes, 8 pounds (130 kg) of cabbage, 8 pounds of root crops, onions, garlic, pumpkin and cucumbers, and 3 pounds (49 kg) of peas and beans. A tithe of land (about 1 hectare) occupied by vegetables could feed up to 30 people, and the entire Northern Region would easily feed the population of all of Russia!
Vegetables are reproached for the low percentage of proteins: while in meat on average, about 20% of proteins, in vegetables only about 2.5%. At the same time, they forget that peas, beans and beans are also grown in the garden, and these vegetables contain over 20% protein! They forget that the protein in meat was very expensive before, but now it is completely inaccessible to the majority of the population. It is forgotten that fats and carbohydrates are needed to maintain warmth and to generate muscle energy, while vegetables contain from 3 to 21% carbohydrates.
The latest studies of German physiologists, in addition, have shown that the human body assimilates especially well the protein containing amino acids, which are found in abundance in fresh vegetables, especially in potatoes, spinach, cauliflower and kohlrabi.
Ho amino acids are not found in dried vegetables. Therefore, if the food is more or less normal, and a person receives daily rye or wheat bread, not weeded out, which is rich in amino acids, then dried vegetables can be quite recommended for nutrition.
But if vegetables are the staple food, in the absence of bread, fresh vegetables certainly deserve preference.
Steinberg P.N. - Earthen greenhouse and its use (1914)
A book from the Garden Library series published by the famous Russian publisher Pyotr Petrovich Soikin in 1909-1916. Free supplement to the magazine "Progressive gardening and horticulture".
A practical guide to the construction of a profitable vegetable garden for the northern strip of Russia (1916)
Setting up a garden and growing root vegetable plants.
Varieties of vegetable plants.
Treatment and fertilization of the soil — land in the garden.
The device of the ridges.
Sowing and caring for vegetable plants.
Growing early potatoes in the garden.
Growing onions and onions.
Growing white cabbage.
Salting white cabbage.
Harvesting vegetables from the garden and storing them.
Growing vegetable seeds.
Bettner, Johann - Garden and Vegetable Garden: Pract. A beginner's guide to gardening and horticulture: With lots of pics, 1915
Bilimovich A.V. Peasant garden. Conversations on gardening at Moscow Old Believer courses in 1913
A.S. Kartsov - What a gardener needs to know for a profitable gardening (1915)
V.V. Sumskiy Nursery, orchard, vegetable garden and flower garden (1914)
Nursery, orchard, vegetable garden and flower garden: Krat. guidance for pupils teaches. seminaries and for villages. teachers
Guzhavin T. How to use the harvest of the garden and vegetable garden at home, 1918
Pros and cons of the variety
For table purposes, the Delight variety is highly suitable for crispy French fries. By the properties of the pulp, it is not inferior to the Navigator potato variety. In terms of maturation, the subspecies is classified as a medium early type. Harvesting is carried out 65-80 days after germination.
Characteristics of the positive properties of the Delight potato:
The Delight variety is susceptible to nematode infestation. On poor soils, yields fall. If the rules for caring for potatoes are not followed, tubers can be affected by late blight.
Variety of potatoes moisture-loving Delight. Water is required for the development of the aboveground part of the bush and the formation of tubers. Potatoes receive moisture from the topsoil. Untimely watering or an excess of water leads to a decrease in yield.
The number and timing of irrigation is influenced by the characteristics of the soil, temperature and air humidity. Before the beginning of tuberization, the soil moisture level should be at least 70%, at the stage of crop formation - at least 80%.
Planting potatoes Delight is closely watched throughout the growing season. The condition of the tops and shoots is assessed. In hot, dry weather, watering is carried out in the evening. The rate of water consumption per 1 m² is 6 liters.
Surface loosening begins even before the emergence of seedlings. Loose soil is saturated with oxygen, warms up faster. The seed tubers of the Delight potato germinate faster and build up the root system.
After the rains, the soil is loosened again. The process restores gas exchange in the soil. On heavy soils, the crust is destroyed by frequent, gentle blows to avoid damaging the young shoots.
With the emergence of seedlings, the aisles and the soil near the plants are loosened. The dry period requires shallow penetration into the soil and a reduction in the amount of loosening of the Vostorg potatoes.
The agrotechnical method creates an additional soil layer. They use organic materials or artificial ones.
Positive characteristics of mulch:
- inhibits the growth of weeds
- evenly distributes moisture
- keeps warm
- protects against frost or heat
- accelerates the maturation of tubers.
Humus is great as an organic shelter. For poor, sandy soils, the material is used because of its high nitrogen content. On oily soils, straw or hay is used. An excess of nitrogen leads to an intensive growth of the Vostorg tops and a slowdown in tuberization.
The procedure is not performed on loose, sandy soils. Water with nutrients will quickly drain along these ridges.
Useful properties of hilling potato varieties Delight:
- forms strong, resilient stems
- prevents tuber exposure
- develops the root system
- reduces trauma to tubers when processing the site
- facilitates harvesting.
Potato varieties for chips and frying
Quite severe requirements are imposed on the varieties of French fries. Potatoes should be starchy, shock-resistant and not darken. In addition, it must be stored throughout the winter without losing its taste. Only 2 varieties meet these conditions, which are now on the Russian market.
The Dutch variety is resistant to most diseases, has yellow flesh, but, alas, it tastes only for chips and fries - it will not be very pleasant to eat it in a different form. But its smooth tubers look beautiful and can attract the eye of the buyer.
Another "chip" variety, the exact opposite of the previous one. It is soft, melts in the mouth, moderately starchy and slightly sweet. It is stored for six months even without special conditions, but closer to spring it loses some of its taste.
Hope in its qualities somewhere in between Saturn and Lady Claire - it is quite starchy, tasty and well stored. Suitable not only for fries, but also for cooking. In addition, this variety is resistant to most diseases, and therefore almost does not need chemical treatments and will appeal to supporters of ecological farming.
There is a lot of starch in the potatoes of this variety, they are hard like wood, do not have a bright taste and are well stored. It is almost impossible to make mashed potatoes from it, but for fries it is perfect.