Probably, for every greenhouse owner, tomatoes occupy one of the most important places of the whole variety of vegetables. Mikado tomatoes (red) are very popular among gardeners and breeders. There are also subspecies - Pink and Black Mikado.
Description and characteristics of the Mikado tomato variety
This type of tomato takes root very well in greenhouses. The tops reach fairly high sizes. Have mid-late ripening period.
The growing season according to the characteristics lasts from 135 to 150 days... After you have planted the crop, the fruits will ripen in 95 days. Bush grows up to 1.5-2.5 meters in height... The leaves of the bush resemble potato leaves, with a dark green tint.
Fruits are described as very fleshy, large, with dense skin. The weight of the fetus is also surprising in its performance, usually the fruits reach up to 400-600 grams... Gardeners call this type of tomato imperial, since in appearance the fruit resembles the crown of an emperor. One bush can grow up to five to eight tomatoes.
The fruits are very well kept at home.
Origin of the species
It is difficult to say about the origin of tomatoes, since this issue is controversial. Some believe that the predecessor of the Mikado tomato is the ShahMikado variety, which grew in America, others argue that the variety appeared in the USSR on Sakhalin.
In addition to red tomatoes, the pink look has also worked well. This species belongs to the early maturing. The first fruits can be seen as early as 90 days after the shoots have appeared.
The bush reaches a height up to 100 centimeters... The greatest weight of the fetus reaches up to 250 grams... The fruits look slightly flattened, have a rounded shape.
Advantages and disadvantages
- fast ripening of fruits
- tomatoes give good harvest
- have excellent taste
- contain a fairly large amount of sugar
- well kept at home
- tend to lose taste when salted
- require sufficient care
- high requirements for fertilizers
- low self-immunity
How to grow tomatoes
This crop can be grown in any region of our country, in addition to the north and Siberia.
In a climate unsuitable for tomatoes, it is best to grow them in greenhouses, and in the south - in the open field.
The optimum temperature for growing a crop and for the best yield is considered 20-25 degrees... Under the condition of frost, when the temperature reaches +16 degrees, the flowering period may stop. If the temperature drops even lower, then the growth of the plant will stop altogether.
It is also not recommended to increase the optimum temperature, as the pollination process will stop.
Mikado Tomatoes hypersensitive to light... They should grow in a very bright place, this type of tomato is a heat-loving plant. With a lack of light, yield drops.
Also tomatoes whimsical to the composition of the soilwhere they grow. If you are expecting a high yield, then the plant should be grown in sandy loam or loamy soils.
Do not forget about adding organic fertilizers to the soil. You need to be careful with the addition of nitrogen, since the overuse of this fertilizer can delay ripening.
The most suitable time for planting seedlings is late evening or cloudy day... This is necessary in order for the plant to take root as well as possible and adapt to new conditions.
The strongest and largest bushes, at least 35 centimeters high, are planted in the ground.
Weak bushes do not take root well and are most susceptible to pest attacks. For transplanting plants, boxes, flower pots and other containers are used. The soil can be used either ready-made or you can prepare it yourself. When preparing the soil, you need: 7 parts of fresh peat, 1 part of sod land, 0.5 parts of sawdust.
This kind of soil is most suitable for this type of tomato. As mentioned earlier, Mikado tomatoes are very tall plants, so the holes should be made further from each other, approximately, 50 × 50 centimeters.
It is worth sticking a large stick (4 meters) into each hole, so that as the plant grows, you can tie up his. After that, make the approvals of phosphorus, a little ash. Stick to these rules and plant your tomatoes safely.
How to care for tomatoes
The area where the tomatoes were planted loosen in a couple of days, and the plants spud.
Further, three times per season, you also need to loosen the soil, weed from weeds, huddle and, as necessary, tie up the plant. It is worth watering tomatoes as the soil dries out. Watering should be done abundantly, but water stagnation should not be allowed. This can lead to decay of the root system.
If tomatoes are grown in a greenhouse, then it will be useful to carry out airing after watering... Thus, we get rid of the formation of condensation.
You can already feed the plants 8 days after transplant... This period is considered optimal for adaptation to new conditions. First you need to fertilize with organic substances. If, nevertheless, you decide to use inorganic fertilizers, then you must definitely add potassium salt, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate to the mixture.
Mikado tomatoes do not have strong immunity.
This means that for the prevention of diseases, you need to take care of the treatment of the bushes with special means. For the prevention of fungi, it is necessary treat the bushes with fungicides three times.
You can also turn to folk methods. Prepare a 1:10 solution of fresh milk, add a glass of wood ash and a few drops of iodine to it. This method gives a number of advantages, firstly, we will provide protection, and secondly, foliar feeding of the plant is provided.
Plant has a risk of being hit by bears and slugs... To prevent unwanted diseases, it is imperative to loosen the soil as often as possible. A little red pepper can be added to the soil, this will prevent pests from infecting the bush.
Mikado tomatoes are very popular among gardeners. This type of tomato will bring you more positive impressions than negative ones.
Description of Mikado Black tomatoes
As soon as it gets warm outside, people go out into the gardens and plant various vegetables. Some have already decided which varieties of cucumbers, peppers and blue to plant. But often people have a question, which variety of tomato to choose. Today there are many different species that differ in color and shape. But there is one unique variety, this is the black Mikado tomato.
Description of Mikado Black tomatoes
The tomato of this variety has a red-black color, but you can find Mikado yellow and pink. But many people prefer black tomato. This is due to the fact that the fruits of this plant are large enough, and inside they are not watery, but fleshy.
Characteristics of varieties
Tomato Mikado, according to the description from manufacturers, refers to indeterminate (with unlimited stem growth) varieties. These are mid-ripening tomatoes, 110-115 days pass from planting to ripening of the first harvest. The variety is not a hybrid.
In fact, there are several varieties of the Mikado tomato cultivar that have a common name, but differ in the characteristics of the fruit, ripening time, plant height:
- Mikado pink
- Mikado red
- Mikado yellow
- Mikado golden
- Mikado black
- Mikado Siberiko.
Experts note that only Mikado pink (2015) is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. The origins of the other Mikado are unknown.
The variety is recommended for growing in film greenhouses. But the Mikado tomato, according to reviews, shows excellent results when cultivated in the open field, especially the red Mikado.
Description of the bush
The bush of Mikado tomatoes reaches a height of 1.5-2.5 m. The exception is Mikado red: in the open field the bushes are 80-100 cm high. Tall plants need support and tying up. Vegetable growers form it into 1-2 stems. The first brush is usually laid over the 9th leaf. And then it is formed every 2-3 leaves.
It is necessary to pinch the plant during cultivation in order to avoid thickening and get a good harvest. When a bush is formed into two stems, one stepson is left in front of the first flower brush, and all the rest are removed. Passion-picking is carried out about once a week.
The leaves of this variety have a characteristic shape and dark green color, which makes them look like a potato.
Description of fruits
The fruit of the Mikado series tomatoes is large, round, flattened, slightly ribbed. The exception is Siberiko berries: they are heart-shaped. Weight reaches 250-350 grams. With proper care, the formation of a bush, giant fruits weighing up to 600-800 grams are obtained. Under adverse weather conditions, improper watering, the vegetable may crack.
Mikado tomatoes - salad, they are appreciated for their taste.
The color of the Mikado series tomatoes is different, information about it is contained in the name of the variety (Siberian fruits are red). The pulp is juicy, firm, sweetish. The yellow and orange color of the fruit indicates the content of a large amount of beta-carotene. The yield of the variety is average, 6-8 kg. from the bush. Plant seed producers advertise high yields for Mikado rosea and Siberico.
Fruits are valued for their taste.
Since the variety is large-fruited, tomatoes are mainly consumed fresh, for making salads, snacks, processed into juice, and sauces are prepared. Smaller fruits are used to prepare preparations for the whole winter.
Agrotechnics grade "Mikado"
Seedlings begin to be sown from the second half of March, adhering to the lunar sowing calendar of the gardener. You can always buy soil in most stores, during the season they sell soil for seedlings of flowers and crops from various outlets that are not even related to the garden and vegetable garden. Such land has an optimally balanced composition, you do not need to make any additional feed while the seedlings grow in it. It is better to buy ready-made pots made of cardboard or peat for purchased soil, they will help you save time on picking and protect the root system during transfer to a permanent place, since they are planted in the holes directly with this pot.
If you want to use your land, it must be garden soil, humus and sand. Here you pour a spoonful of superphosphate, spill it with boiling water from parasites in advance, and also add a handful of ash. You can pour such soil into separate pots or into a common container. Do not forget that there must be holes in the containers for drainage. Now we turn to pre-sowing treatment.
First you need to select seeds for germination, this is done simply with the help of water. Seeds that have not drowned and are empty do not need to be planted. For crops to sprout better and for additional immunity, you can soak the seed in aloe juice. Then the seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5 cm at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other, this is if the container is common. Further, the soil is watered, covered with a film. After about 7-10 days, all the seedlings should sprout, remove the film, watch the lighting, watering. A pick is carried out when 3-4 real leaves appear on the seedlings.
The room should be warm, if the temperature is below 17 degrees, the seedlings inhibit their growth.
The transfer to the greenhouse will be from the beginning of May, to the street in the third decade of the month or in June. The soil is prepared in advance and the supports too. Planting should be 50/50 cm. A high, solid support is immediately placed in the hole. Mikado tomatoes love light, so choose the sunniest area. If the summer turned out to be cloudy, then lamps will be needed. The soil is first spilled with boiling water to kill the pathogenic environment, after which, when it is moderately dry, dig holes, pour a spoonful of superphosphate. Saplings are planted in moistened soil, gradually they begin to be tied around the support. A week after planting, the seedlings are spud.
As it grows, it will be necessary to remove the lower branches, all stepchildren, in order to form one stem. Stepsons need to be plucked when they reached 5 cm, do this either in the morning or in the evening. You will also need to pinch the main stem to restrict growth. Apply fertilizers for the first time 10-14 days after planting, it should be feeding with a high nitrogen content to build up green mass, then such feeding should be canceled, replaced with complexes with phosphorus and potassium. You can spill seedlings with infusion on mullein, droppings, weeds, yeast. The first two are prepared at the rate of 1:10 and 1:20. Weed infusion is prepared in an arbitrary volume, while yeast is taken in a 10 gram sachet per bucket of water.
The variety loves abundant watering, but is rare, and does not tolerate weeds, so keep the beds clean.
In the characterization of the Mikado pink tomato, we have already mentioned that tomatoes are disease-resistant. Therefore, they should not get sick, but you can carry out prevention a couple of times with a weak solution of manganese. Spraying is carried out in the morning or in the evening. Also remember that if you are growing seedlings in a greenhouse, then it must be regularly ventilated.
All these steps will help you get great and, most importantly, delicious tomatoes. You will see that they are worth it.
Features of growing varieties
Compliance with the rules and nuances of growing directly affects the amount of the crop. For the Mikado variety, it is important to take into account the sowing time for seedlings, to provide full care for the seedlings and to transplant the plants to a permanent place in time.
Seedlings are planted 50-60 days before being transferred to a greenhouse or open ground. It is recommended to sow Mikado tomatoes for seedlings in the second half of March and no later than the first days of April. Sowing in advance is necessary so that the seedlings have time to grow to the desired level by the time the warm season begins.
For sowing seedlings, a common container is used and fertile soil with a low acidity is poured into it. Seeds can be placed in separate holes 1-2 cm deep or spread out on the surface of the seed and sprinkled with a thin layer of earth. In order for the seedlings to germinate faster, it is recommended to cover the container with the seedlings with glass or plastic wrap.
During the entire period of seedling growth, regular watering is required, which is performed as the soil dries up. As a rule, it is enough to moisten the soil 1-2 times a week. Intensive development is facilitated by soil loosening after watering and top dressing.
Open ground transplant
The seedlings are transferred to a permanent place after they reach a height of 25 cm and the weather has stabilized. If the seedlings were planted in peat pots, then the seedlings, without removing them from the container, are placed in the dug holes and sprinkled with soil. The seedlings grown in other containers are carefully removed from the container and placed in the pits, without disturbing the earthen lump.
If the weather is cloudy, it is better to plant seedlings in the morning. On sunny weather, the transfer is carried out in the evening.
Immediately after transferring seedlings to open ground or a greenhouse, it is necessary to compact and water the soil.
Sowing seeds is carried out 60 days before planting young plants in a permanent place. The optimal time for the procedure is February and March. In the northern regions, sowing is allowed until mid-April.
Preparatory work with seeds is carried out if they were purchased from hands.The material is treated with a manganese solution and a growth stimulant.
For disinfection, it is enough to immerse the seeds in the solution for 15-20 minutes, then dry on a napkin
The container needs to be rinsed, provided with ventilation holes, and filled with soil. Make grooves in the soil up to 1.5 cm deep, keeping a distance of 1-2 cm between them. Place the black Mikado tomato seeds in the grooves, then sprinkle them with earth.
The seed tray should be covered with foil and transferred to a warm room, on the windowsill. As soon as shoots appear, the shelter should be removed. Seedling care consists in watering, airing. Two weeks before transferring the seedlings to a permanent place, they need to be hardened: they must be taken outside for several hours.
As soon as the first two true leaves appear, the plants can be dived into separate containers: if you leave the tomatoes in one container, then the culture will not have enough space for full development
The plant can be transferred to a permanent place 90 days after sowing: as soon as the first flower brushes are formed.
Mikado black tomatoes prefer fertile, light loamy or slightly acidic soils. You cannot place seedlings on the site of potatoes that grew last season. Onions and carrots are good predecessors.
In the evening or cloudy weather, young tomatoes should be transferred to open ground or a greenhouse. The distance between the bushes should be at least 50 cm. Place no more than 4 plants per 1 m 2. The seedling must be placed in the hole, sprinkled with soil and watered. It is recommended to cover the planting material in the first few weeks to allow the Mikado black tomato to adapt and take root in the soil.
- until the plant takes root, it is necessary to water as the soil dries up, and in the future it is recommended to moisten the soil up to 3 times a week
- periodically mulch the ground around
- shape Mikado black tomatoes into 3 stems
- remove stepchildren regularly
- every 10-14 days, apply mineral or organic fertilizing to the soil.
Without the organization of a support, tomato stems will creep along the ground, the crop will die from an excess of moisture or will attract the attention of pests.
The best option is the construction of a trellis
Wooden stakes, metal pins, arcs can also be used as supporting structures. Additionally, it is recommended to tie up the brushes so that the stems do not break off under their weight.
Pest and disease control
The following diseases are most common:
- Late blight - affects plants grown in greenhouses. To prevent late blight, it is necessary to control the humidity and regularly ventilate the greenhouse. Seedlings are treated with Bordeaux liquid.
- Dry spot - to combat this disease, the drugs "Tattu", "Consento", "Antrakol" are used.
- Fungal diseases - copper oxychloride and cuproxate are used for treatment.
If the bushes are damaged, the plant is treated with "Hom".