Sweet peppers with a complete lack of bitterness have long been called Bulgarian, although they all come from South America. And just like relatives in the common family of nightshades, potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco, peppers were introduced to Eurasia after the discovery of America. Over the centuries, these plants have adapted, moved far to the north, and thanks to breeders, new varieties have appeared that have long and deservedly been considered local.
General properties of sweet pepper varieties
Many are surprised to learn that pepper is a perennial plant. The fact is that pepper is thermophilic and in Russia its growth in the fall is stopped by the cold, so in our country peppers are grown in open ground exclusively as annuals. Figuratively speaking, the further south you go, the more at home he is, in his native element. Everywhere, always, regardless of the region:
- ideal temperature for growth - 22-30aboutС, soil temperature - 15–20aboutFROM;
- constantly moist warm, loose and fertile soil is his element;
- the plant is moisture-loving, but does not like overflow, bogs under the bush, therefore, rare and abundant watering is not for him.
It must be remembered that +5aboutWith for the seedlings of sweet peppers, they are already frozen. With a delay in cooling for several days, growth is inhibited, the leaf turns white and falls off, the plant gets sick and then even lags behind in development in the warmth. But by the end of summer, an adult plant adapts to external conditions and even tolerates slight cold snaps.
The calorie content of sweet pepper is low, in 100 g there are only about 29-37 kcal, and vitamin C - 200 mg (at a daily rate for an adult of 70-100 mg)
You can only count on a pepper crop if you allow the plant to develop at a suitable temperature for at least 150-180 days. In most of the territory of Russia in open ground, this is possible only using the seedling method.
Growing pepper seedlings
It makes no difference in which cool regions the pepper is grown - in the Moscow region, Siberia, in the Urals or in the Black Earth region, the problem is the same - a short warm period for growing in open ground. And all the difference in the regions comes down to only one thing - to precisely maneuver the timing of planting seeds for seedlings and planting seedlings in open ground. In different regions, the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings differs.
Dates of planting seeds of bell pepper
In Central Russia, a generally accepted date has been developed - February 10. This has nothing to do with the lunar calendars of summer residents or other reasons, it's just the optimal time. Of course, plus or minus 7 days from this date is perfectly acceptable.
By the time of the onset of stable heat in mid-May, developed pepper seedlings should be ready for planting in the ground.
From February 10 to May 15, in favorable conditions, seedlings grow up to 25-30 cm in height and manage to form buds and even flowers. In less favorable conditions, seedlings grow by 15–20 cm, do not have time to bloom, but give 5–7 true leaves. In this case, the size is not critical, the age of the seedlings is important.
Size matters: if the seedlings have not grown by at least 15 cm in 2 months, this is a sign of depression and further developmental lag
In cold regions, for example, in Siberia, in the Urals, it may be too early to plant seedlings in mid-May. Therefore, the dates for planting seeds are postponed to late, for example, February 20. If there are suitable conditions for the seedlings in terms of temperature and, first of all, in terms of illumination, you can also plant it on February 10, but in a pot with a larger food area. Seedlings from February 10 to May 15 will have a capacity of 0.5 liters, and seedlings from February 10 to June 1 will need 1 liter.
Preparing pepper seeds for planting
Pepper is a rare slow-witted for germination, the seeds sprout slowly, uncommonly. Therefore, before planting, the seeds must be soaked in a disinfecting and stimulating solution. It is simple to prepare it:
- 3 cloves of garlic are crushed with a garlic or pusher.
- Garlic is poured over 70-100 g of hot water (about 50aboutC) and stir.
- Seeds wrapped in cloth or gauze are immersed in the solution for 30-60 minutes.
Bell pepper seeds can be bought, or can be obtained from existing peppers, only the fruits must be selected fully ripe
Raw seeds stick when planting, so they are dried to a loose state and immediately planted. Unsoaked seeds germinate in about 21 days, soaked in this way - in 7-8 days.
Ground for planting sweet peppers
There are several dozen recipes for preparing soil for seedlings of any crops, including pepper. But the seedlings will develop quite well on ordinary garden land. The main thing is not to use soil from under pepper and other related nightshade crops - the substances necessary for these plants have already been selected from it. It is even better to use virgin land, turf, forest. But excessively nutritious soil can be harmful - the plant will "fatten", drive the green mass, outgrow. And there is such a rule - the soil at a permanent landing site, in a vegetable garden or greenhouse, should be better than in seedling containers. This makes plants easier to tolerate the stress of transplanting.
In the open ground in which the peppers are planted, you need to add a small amount of manure so that it warms up the soil, then the pepper will grow better
It is better if the soil for seedlings, including purchased in bags, will winter in the cold. Frost will destroy mold, pathogenic fungi and microorganisms, larvae and germs of pests. But before planting, the soil needs to be kept warm for several days in order to warm up the entire massif to a temperature of 18–20 ° C.
There are recommendations to sterilize the soil with high temperatures, in ovens or steam. The operation is time consuming, energy consuming, meaningless and even harmful. The result is a dead land, in which there are not only harmful, but also beneficial bacteria. With regard to humans in medicine, this phenomenon is called dysbiosis. Justified for rooting cuttings of some species of disease-sensitive crops and flowers. There is no point in growing peppers at home on such a substrate.
Containers suitable for planting pepper seedlings
Pepper is also an individualist. Under absolutely equal conditions, with the same feeding area, it will grow better in separate containers than in a common box, even if you put it there very spaciously.
Container for growing pepper seedlings without picking
If you need a small amount of seedlings, it is better to use a cut dairy pack with 2-3 holes in the bottom for drainage. Their capacity will be from 0.5 to 0.8 liters, this volume is ideal for growing pepper seedlings. But the main secret is that the remains of lactic acid bacteria will create a favorable environment in the soil.
The advantage of seedlings in packs of dairy products is that square containers compactly become to each other and do not fall, unlike round cups
If you plant pepper in boxes, you need to give it about the same area and amount of food. There should be 6–8 cm and 0.5–0.7 liters of soil between plants and rows for each seedling. This is only possible in a deep box with a side height of 10 cm.
This method allows you to bypass an additional operation during growing - picking. The plant is planted directly into open ground without transfer to intermediate containers.
What to grow pepper seedlings with subsequent picking
With a great need for seedlings and a shortage of warm light areas, seedlings are sometimes grown with a pick. To do this, first, the seeds are densely sown in a shallow, 5–7 cm high container. When 2-3 true leaves appear, the seedlings are dived (planted) into a large container (see the section "without picking"). At a later age, seedlings tolerate transplanting worse.
It is necessary to carefully plant peppers with an open root system, the roots of the plant are weak, poorly regenerate, easily torn during transplantation
It takes about 30 days from sowing to picking. This method saves the scarce warm and light area on the windowsills or balconies in February. By mid-March, by the time of the dive, there is already much more light and solar heat.
How to plant pepper seeds for seedlings
So, when the soil and container for planting are prepared, and a suitable place is also freed, you can proceed directly to planting sweet pepper seeds for seedlings. This is how it works:
- The prepared container is filled with soil, lacking the soil mixture to the edge by 3 cm.
- The covered earth is moistened with pre-settled water.
- The seeds are laid out so that there is 6-8 cm between the plants, and each has 0.5-0.7 liters of soil. Only if you plan to dive the seedlings in the future, the seeds can be planted closer to each other.
- The seeds are deepened into the ground by 1 cm. Shallow seeds tend to dry out, and very deep ones give weak and elongated seedlings.
- The finished crops of bell pepper are covered with foil and placed in a warm (even if not the brightest) place.
- Periodically, the greenhouse is watered and aired.
- After emergence, the film is removed and the seedlings are exposed to light.
Recently, the method of growing pepper seedlings, and other vegetables, in "snails" has become very popular. Many farmers have already said goodbye to seedling boxes and packs, appreciating this method.
The main advantage of growing pepper seedlings in "snails" can be attributed to obtaining high-quality planting material: so the plants are less likely to be stretched and sick.
Video: planting pepper in a "snail"
Bell pepper seedling care
Care is reduced to providing the plant with optimal conditions for soil moisture, temperature and lighting. Seedlings may start to stretch out due to lack of light at too high a temperature. In this case, it is necessary to take it out to a cool and bright place. You can do this in parallel with hardening, taking it outside or an open balcony for several hours at a temperature of at least +10aboutC. Hardening is especially necessary if the pepper will be planted in open ground, and not in a greenhouse.
Conditions for the proper development of pepper seedlings
Pepper will not grow in cold ground and cold ambient temperatures. The air temperature before emergence should be maintained at a level of 20-25aboutС, and soil 18–20aboutC, so the boxes can be kept not in a cool window, but in a warm place. Before the first shoots, the boxes can be left in the dark, but immediately after the shoots, the seedlings are placed in the light, otherwise it will stretch out.It is possible to grow pepper seedlings at home if there are windows facing southwest, south or southeast. By early April, plants need sunlight for about 12 hours a day.
It is difficult to grow normal seedlings on northern windows without illumination with special lamps, it will be pale, thin and elongated
What to do if pepper seedlings have bloomed
If the seedlings stayed in a warm room due to cold weather, they may begin to bloom. In this case, the first crown flower should be removed, which often forms on the main trunk at the first branch of the branches. If you leave it, you get a dwarf bush with one huge fruit. And they also cut off the first ovaries, which appeared before the plant took root in a permanent place.
The bush must first take root, build up the green mass, develop the root system, and then it will be able to normally develop the fruits.
In the first fork of the main stem, the crown flower always opens, if you remove it, the plant will branch better and its productivity will be higher
Top dressing of bell pepper seedlings
Top dressing is required extremely rarely, only if the soil was poorly chosen and the plant lacks, for example, nitrogen, which is evident from the pale anemic appearance of the foliage and a weak weight gain under normal environmental conditions. But even in this case, it is impossible to feed shortly before the transplant. The plant will catch up with the green mass, and when transplanted, it will be difficult for the still weak root system to provide a large number of leaves with nutrition. Small seedlings take root better. If in the middle of the growing period it became clear that the soil is unsuitable (sawdust, scant peat, etc.) and the plant does not develop, you can feed a little with urea in a proportion of 4 g per 1 l of water, i.e. 40 g per 10 l ...
Pepper in the open field
Having 65-90-day-old pepper seedlings by the beginning of the stable heat, the farmers of the northern regions find themselves in approximately equal conditions with the farmers of the southern (even Bulgaria, Turkey and Azerbaijan). Of course, in the fall, southerners will again have an advantage due to the long growing season and fruiting, but the average Russian summer heat is enough for an adult pepper.
Planting sweet pepper seedlings in open ground
Pepper tolerates transplanting worse than other crops, therefore, it is initially preferable to seedlings not from boxes, but with a closed root system from separate containers. Before planting, the seedlings are not watered so that the earth dries up a little, decreases in volume and easily leaves the container without damaging the roots.
It is recommended to plant peppers in areas where onions, carrots, pumpkin crops or cucumbers were previously located; it is undesirable to plant it after potatoes, tomatoes or peppers
Pepper is planted in a sunny place in loose fertile soil according to the scheme 60 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants, or 50 cm between rows and 25 between plants. Can be planted in paired rows or ribbons - between rows 40 cm, between ribbons 70 cm, between plants also 20-25 cm. Paired rows are more convenient to work - you can loosen with a motor-cultivator, drive with a wheelbarrow, walk with water or mount drip irrigation without trampling plants.
Video: how to plant peppers in open ground
Pepper care at their summer cottage
After the final planting of the pepper in a permanent place to form a bush, no more action is taken. Peppers are not stepchildren, their leaves are not cut off, because due to lateral shoots and especially leaves, the plant receives additional nutrition and the ability to survive.
Watering bell pepper
When watering, it makes no sense to pour excess water, soaking the soil to a great depth, it is enough to keep the top layer of the soil moist. Watering is not needed in rainy weather, and on dry days it can be minimized if the soil is well mulched right after planting the seedlings. It is better to use fertile mulch, for example, humus, from which, with irrigation and rain, nutrients will gradually flow to the roots.
Water the seedlings after planting, as needed, only with warm water, preventing the soil from drying out and waterlogging
Any mulch reliably closes soil moisture, protects the soil from drying out under the sun, prevents the earth from crusting and cracking. The soil under the mulch remains moist and soft for a long time, watering is required much less often.
Top dressing bell pepper
Bell peppers can not be fed or reduced feeding when grown on full-fledged black soil or on other soils filled with a large amount of organic matter, manure or humus. If the soil is not so fertile, after planting the plants must be fed:
- The first feeding is carried out two weeks after planting the seedlings with one of the following compounds: organic matter - mullein with water in a ratio of 1:10, bird droppings 1:20; mineral fertilizers - 10 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium fertilizers per 10 liters of water.
- The second feeding is carried out 3-4 weeks after the first. Organic matter is taken in the same composition, but the amount of mineral fertilizers changes: 7 g of urea, 40 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium fertilizers per 10 liters of water.
- A month after the previous one, you can make a third top dressing: the same organic composition and 15 g of urea, 25 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium fertilizers per 10 liters of water.
Wood ash is considered one of the best organic fertilizers, it contains phosphorus, potassium and many trace elements in a form that is easily absorbed by plants.
Top dressing during the season, except for nitrogen, can be replaced by wood ash introduced into the soil before planting in an amount of at least 200 g per bucket of soil. There is no nitrogen in wood ash, it burns out when burning wood.
Pepper in greenhouses
In different greenhouses, pepper is grown, one might say, using fundamentally different technologies. Greenhouses are:
- year-round, with constant heating and lighting, they can be considered industrial;
- with spring and autumn heating, significantly lengthening the growing season;
- ordinary home greenhouses without heating and lighting, extending the growing season by 40-60 days.
It is a perennial crop and peppers can grow in year-round greenhouses as long as the decline in yields due to age makes the process unprofitable. In such greenhouses, peppers, starting from seedlings, are grown on specially prepared substrates, and sometimes without soil at all, in hydroponics - aqueous solutions of mineral fertilizers and special chemicals. Hydroponic technologies were known in the USSR as early as the 60s of the last century, but they did not receive wide development due to the lack of benefits from the harvest and almost equal costs with traditional soil production.
Most of the troubles in the industrial cultivation of pepper are associated with the root system - even a short-term drying of the soil can have dire consequences.
Home greenhouses with spring and autumn heating allow you to grow seedlings in the early spring period and extend the growing season until late autumn. But even in ordinary greenhouses without heating, you can plant seedlings 15–20 days earlier than in open ground. They protect plants from recurrent frosts, create better conditions for growth and harvest during the summer, and prolong fruiting by 20–40 days in autumn (depending on the weather).
Planting peppers in a greenhouse, with and without heating, is started as soon as the temperature conditions allow - the soil warms up to 15-18 ° C, the air up to 18-25 ° C.
Most often, peppers are planted in the same greenhouse along with other crops - cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, etc. Of course, according to strict agro-technological rules, this is undesirable, because each crop requires its own conditions in terms of humidity and temperature. But experience shows that such a neighborhood does not interfere with getting good harvests of all crops.
One way to grow multiple crops together indoors is to maintain intermediate conditions in which all species can grow.
Just remember that pepper loves dry air - humidity should be about 70%, while cucumbers need more. Pepper does not like watering with irrigation on the leaf, like a cucumber, but only at the root. In pepper, flowers can be sterilized and do not set the ovary at temperatures above 30-35aboutC, while cucumbers will tie even at 40aboutFROM.
Video: what you need to know to grow pepper in a greenhouse
Pepper in a bag, bottle and other containers
It makes sense to grow peppers in bags with a soil capacity of 5–7 liters per plant. With such a volume of soil, he will not only easily tolerate any transplant, but he can not even be transplanted, this amount of land will be enough for him. The advantage of this method is that the plant can be moved to a place with more suitable conditions. Usually pepper is planted in a bag in the following cases:
- if the soil in the greenhouse is not warmed up enough, the soil for the bag can warm up on an elevation in the greenhouse in one sunny day;
- if the seedlings for open ground outgrow, and it is still cold outside.
With this method, the main thing is the amount of land sufficient for normal growth for the whole summer. And what it will be placed in (in a bottle, wooden or plastic box) is not important.
Best of all, sweet pepper roots in breathable containers - burlap, wood. In sealed walls (plastic, cellophane bags) it is much worse, the roots in them receive less air, excess moisture can accumulate and rotting can begin.
Choosing a variety of bell peppers for planting
As the saying goes, don't expect a good tribe from a bad seed. Always and everywhere you need to use suitable varieties, this is especially important for greenhouses. If in the open field it is possible to increase the yield by increasing the area and the number of seedlings, then in greenhouses on a few square meters it makes sense to plant only advanced and high-yielding varieties.
Breeders all over the world introduce new varieties into circulation every year, their number has long exceeded a thousand items, most of them are on sale. In order not to get confused in a huge list of varieties, let's pay attention to some of them.
Sweet pepper elf
The variety is suitable for both open ground and greenhouses. Mid-season, fruits begin to ripen 110–120 days after germination. About 50 cm in height, it grows strongly in width, therefore it requires a more rare planting - between the bushes there should be at least 30 cm. Heat-resistant, drought-resistant.
The elf is resistant to diseases, has good seed germination, tolerates low temperatures, but it is better to plant it in a greenhouse to get a second wave of harvest
Fruits are red, cone-shaped, growing upwards. The thickness of the walls is average, 4–5 mm, weight up to 60 g. The color is green in technical ripeness, in biological ripeness - dark red. Fruit yield is 2-3 kg per sq. m. Good taste, it is used fresh for salads, stuffing, and in home cooking and cooking lecho.
Bell pepper variety Pritavit F1
The cultivar produces round red fruits similar to tomatoes. Thick-walled, fleshy. The diameter of the fruit reaches 10 cm, and the length is up to 5–7 cm. The weight of one pepper can reach 120–140 g, the wall thickness is 5 mm. One of the best in taste. Coloring in technical ripeness is green to dark green, in biological ripeness - red to dark red.
The Pritavit pepper variety has a thin wall, which makes it very easy to cut into summer salads and eat fresh
Medium early. You can get an earlier harvest in greenhouses and under a film shelter, in the open field it bears fruit at normal times. Outdoor yield - 7.1 kg per sq. m. Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus.
Pepper varieties Ivan da Marya F1
A tall hybrid, grows up to 1.7 m. The bush is powerful, requires a more rare planting - according to the scheme 40 cm by 60 cm or 3 bushes per 1 sq. m in the greenhouse. Recommended for cultivation throughout Russia in greenhouses and open field. Disease resistant.
Pepper Ivan da Marya grows in the middle lane in a greenhouse up to 1.5 m and gives a bountiful harvest that can be actively preserved for the winter
Valuable for a rare combination of early maturity and high yield. Fruits are fleshy, prismatic and conical, wall thickness can be up to 6–7 mm, weight - up to 100–130 g. The color is yellowish in technical ripeness, and red in biological ripeness. The yield under film shelters is 4.1 kg per sq. m. Good presentation and taste.
Bell Pepper Snowwhite F1
Early ripe, productive variety. Fruits are conical, elongated, fleshy, weighing up to 110–120 g, with walls up to 6 mm thick. Coloring in technical ripeness is light green, in biological ripeness - red. Outdoor yield reaches 4.6 kg per sq. m.
Snowwhite variety is a participant in the review of the best early peppers in open and closed ground, according to the producers of the Supermarket Semyan magazine No. 7
A bush of medium height, but powerful, is planted according to the scheme of 3 bush per 1 sq. m, or 40 cm by 60 cm. Resistant to viral diseases. Recommended for both open ground and greenhouses.
Pepper varieties Marshal Zhukov F1
Mid-season variety. Differs in the mass of fruits, reaching up to 400 g. They are 18–20 cm long with a wall thickness of more than 1 cm, fleshy. The peppers are cuboid, yellow when fully ripe. The yield is average due to the smaller number of ovaries than in other varieties - it loses in the number of fruits, wins in their large sizes. In the open field, the yield is 8–8.5 kg per square meter. m.
Pepper variety Marshal Zhukov - one of the newest in the line named after the commanders, is characterized by increased resistance to disease and stress
Unpretentious in care, hardy, resistant to adverse conditions and diseases. It is used both fresh and for conservation.
Bulgarian pepper varieties Ural thick-walled F1
Early maturing, hardy and unpretentious variety. Recommended for growing both in greenhouses and in open ground, including in areas of risky farming, in the Urals and regions similar in climate.
Ural thick-walled is distinguished by the thickness of the walls, which are also called pericarp, this is what determines the value and profitability of the pepper variety
Fruits are red, up to 18 cm long with a wall thickness of about 1 cm, fleshy. The bushes are powerful, tall, planted according to the scheme 40 cm by 60 cm or 3 bushes per 1 sq. m indoors.
Sweet pepper varieties Red Miracle
Mid-season, tolerates cold better than other varieties, hardy and unpretentious. Recommended for indoor and outdoor cultivation. The bush is quite high, up to 80 cm. The yield of marketable fruits under film shelters is 5.5 kg per sq. m.
Red miracle pepper can be removed in a state of technical ripeness, green, after 20 days it will ripen and acquire a red color
Fruits weighing 100–130 g. Wall thickness 4–5 mm. The fruits are red, in the form of a cube, the shape is well suited for stuffing. It is used for fresh consumption and for conservation.
Varieties of indoor, decorative and bitter peppers
Some varieties of pepper are grown at home as a spice and as an ornamental plant. The multi-colored fruits that change color during the ripening process give special beauty to the bush.
Decorative pepper varieties Window miracle F1
Sweet peppers, which can be successfully grown both in normal conditions outdoors or in a greenhouse, and in a room. Indoors, it will require lighting by the window from the sunny side and a capacity of 5–8 liters. The bush grows up to 60–65 cm high.
Variety Window miracle pleases all autumn with bright pot-bellied fruits, and when they dry, the plant can be cut off, it will give new shoots and by spring it will bloom again
Produces large orange fruits weighing 100–150 g. The yield is high, the bush is strong, does not require a garter.
Pepper variety Treshur red F1
Decorative variety, grows small, up to 12 cm in height. Indoors it is grown as a perennial in pots with a diameter of about 10-15 cm and a capacity of 1 liter. As an annual, they are planted on the street in flower beds. White flowers look beautiful at the beginning of summer, and the fruits are closer to autumn.
Treshur red is very beautiful - at the same time there are fruits of two colors on the bush: unripe cream-colored and ripe red
Agrotechnics and requirements for conditions and soil are the same as for sweet peppers. The only difference is that seeds for seedlings are sown much later, in late March or early April.
Hot peppers of the Indian finger variety
Very hot chili peppers. It gives ripe fruit of a dark red color up to 12 cm long, it is well dried and stored, it is indispensable in cooking. The color changes from green to red when ripe, the edge is pointed and curved.
Pepper variety Indian finger is the most popular pepper in India and is used as an ingredient in the famous curry.
The variety is tenacious, grows well in rooms, and in greenhouses, and in the open field. The only requirement is a lot of light and the temperature is not lower than +1aboutC. Perennial in a warm climate and indoors, but yields a crop even with a vegetation period of 5–6 months. The bush is compact, takes up little space, no more than 50 cm high.
Pepper variety Mandarin duck for decorative and not only use
Weak pepper. The bush is 30–40 cm high, branched, dense, beautiful, therefore it also has decorative value. It grows in any room suitable for temperature and illumination, outdoors in open ground, in greenhouses.
Pepper Mandarin is a beautiful, abundantly fruiting and unpretentious variety for growing in open and protected ground, winter gardens, on balconies and window sills
Bears fruit for a long time and abundantly. The fruits grow in a fan, stick up. They reach a weight of 50 g. As they mature, they turn from green to beige, then to red. They are used in cooking, canning and as a seasoning for soups, sauces and meat dishes.
Pepper varieties Aladdin
Hot pepper with a good aroma. The fruits are small but numerous. Fully ripe pepper turns red, during ripening the color is the most diverse - green, dark yellow, purple. Fruit weight - up to 25 g. The shape is long, conical. Very early ripening, the fruits ripen already on the 90th day from germination.
The value of the Aladdin variety is that it does not require special care, sufficient illumination or ambient temperature, besides, the plant is very decorative
It grows in any room with suitable conditions, is unpretentious, less picky about lighting than other varieties. It is also grown outdoors and in greenhouses. At home, it grows up to 40 cm in height. The fruits are used as a spice for canning and as a seasoning in cooking.
Reviews of summer residents about growing pepper
Sweet peppers hold the record for the vital vitamin C content, even outstripping lemons and black currants. They contain a whole list of other useful substances. Of course, it is convenient to have such a product “within walking distance”, in your garden.
How to properly grow eggplants outdoors
In the wild, the vegetable grew many centuries ago, but appeared in Russia only in the 17-18 centuries. The usefulness of eggplant was not immediately appreciated, but alertness soon gave way to great popularity. And not the least role in this was played by the product's ability to lower cholesterol levels, improve heart function and regulate water balance in the body. For successful cultivation in the open field, you must follow the rules of care - you need to love and care for the eggplant, grow seedlings under necessary conditions, add top dressing or cover it in frost.
Preparing tomato seedlings for planting
The first thing to do with tomato seedlings as a preparation before planting in open ground is her temper... It is optimal to do this 2 weeks before the expected date of transplanting to the garden. For example, you can take it out to a balcony or a heated greenhouse, where the temperature does not drop below +10 degrees. On the first day, seedlings will be enough half an hour stay in new more severe conditions. Next, increase the time proportionally and gradually bring it up to a full day.
Important! The seedlings should not be allowed to get sunburn from the too bright spring sun, so try to put the seedling containers in partial shade or somehow shade it.
7 days before planting in the ground, tomato seedlings should be fed, it is optimal to have time to do this in the morning or evening hours. Experienced gardeners advise using exactly foliar feeding by spraying the drug over the foliage with a spray bottle. This is because foliage is already able to absorb nutrients and trace elements. For example, for better survival, you can spray tomato seedlings with a growth stimulant solution. epin extra (based on 1 ml per 5 liters of water).
Root dressing also allowed. For example, you can feed a fertilizer such as gumistar (liquid vermicompost). The fertilizer must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 50, for example, 10 ml of the product in 0.5 liters of water. Gumistar, in principle, is also suitable for spraying the leaf surface of tomato seedlings (foliar feeding), but in this case the amount of the drug should be reduced by 4 times, in other words, 1 to 200 or 5 ml of the product per 1 liter of water.
Advice! If you are growing seedlings tall tomatoes or is she just very stretched out a lot, but the lower leaves turned yellow, then in 3-5 days it is necessary remove all lower leaves (including cotyledons), and then also feed.
Finished appearance for landing in open ground tomato seedlings should be as follows: 25-35 centimeters in height (measured from the root collar), 6 to 10 true dark green leaves, the first bud ovaries.
Advice! If possible (if you have a lot of seedlings), it is worth discarding all non-standard seedlings that stand out from the general mass. For example, they are too small or too tall. Most likely, there is something wrong with them.
It is also possible in advance (one day before disembarkation) process seedlings tomato from pests. It is optimal to do this long before the appearance of fruits, so that by the time of harvesting, the entire preparation has long been removed from the plant. According to experienced vegetable growers, the drug "Antichrushch" shows itself well, which protects against beetles, wireworms, bears, whitefly in a greenhouse.
The procedure for processing seedlings with an open root system (if your seedlings grow in a common container) is as follows: just immerse the plant roots in the solution for 1 hour. You need to prepare the solution as follows: take 10 ml of the drug and dissolve in 1 liter of water.
With a closed root system: water each glass or pot of seedlings with 30-50 ml of solution. The solution is prepared in a lower concentration: 10 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water.
Video: preparing tomato seedlings for planting in open ground
Sowing beet seeds for seedlings
If you want to get an earlier harvest, then you can plant beet seeds for seedlings. The main specificity of sowing is that the planting capacity must be high enough, because we are planting a root crop.
By the way! Beets grown through seedlings will not require thinning in the future, for obvious reasons.
The agrotechnology of growing beets through seedlings is quite simple: watering is necessary as the soil dries up, as well as a bright place. When the seedlings have 2-3 true leaves, then a small root crop can be planted in open ground.
On a note! If you want to get a little confused and try to get an earlier harvest, then sow beets for seedlings. If not, then it grows beautifully and in a reckless way.
4 proven varieties of thick-walled sweet peppers. Harvest for everyone to envy!
Pepper is a thermophilic and tasty culture. Summer residents especially love sweet and thick-walled peppers. They are good in salad and in any dish. However, not all peppers that are planted in vegetable gardens grow with thick walls. The reason lies in the climate. Pepper is a thermophilic culture, and in order to get the wall thickness declared by the seed manufacturer, and to grow really early sweet thick-walled peppers, you need to strictly monitor agricultural technology and temperature conditions. And of course, you need to plant certain seeds of early thick-walled sweet pepper, tested by summer cottage experience.
Proven varieties of thick-walled sweet peppers for open ground
This is one of the most popular and reliable mid-season large-fruited pepper varieties for growing.
It takes 100-120 days from germination to technical ripeness. Differs in high productivity, attractive appearance, good taste and marketability. The plant is medium-sized, 60-75 cm high. The fruits are cuboid, very large, weighing up to 160 grams, with a wall thickness of up to 7 mm. The color is deep red, bright. Sweet, with a strong peppery aroma, great for salads and stuffing. The yield reaches 8-10 kg per 1 sq. m. Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus.
Sowing for seedlings is carried out 60-70 days before planting plants in a permanent place. The optimum constant temperature for seed germination is 26-28 ° C. When landing in the ground for 1 sq. m place up to 5-6 plants. The variety responds well to watering and feeding with complex mineral fertilizers.
To accelerate the germination of seeds, improve plant health, improve fruit set, it is recommended to use specially designed plant growth and development stimulants, for example, Epin.
Reviews about growing the best thick-walled peppers in gardens:
- Several years ago I planted the California miracle red. I collected seeds and germination from home seeds was perfect. Then I tried different varieties. But this year I will return to this. And thick-walled, and fruitful, and does not get sick (almost). I advise, you will not regret it, just water at least
- Many gardeners “passed” the California miracle before it was very popular ... I liked it too, this variety gave a guaranteed harvest any summer. I refused only because in technical ripeness it is dark green, in our family they do not like it.
thick-walled California Miracle pepper
This variety of thick-walled sweet pepper belongs to the fruits of medium ripening, large and sweet. From the seedlings of pepper seedlings to biological ripeness, 150-160 days pass.
The plant reaches a height of 45 -5 5 cm. Fruits are flat-rounded, 5-6.9 cm long, 7-9 cm in diameter, weighing 110-180 g. When fully ripe, the Golden Jubilee peppers ripen a pleasant yellow color and are very tasty ...
These varieties of thick-walled sweet peppers, according to the manufacturer, have a fruit wall thickness of 8.5 - 10 mm.
- I had a very thick-walled up to 1.5 cm Golden Jubilee, it began to ripen on a bush and was stored the longest. The yield is about 20 pieces per bush, even the branches broke. I really like the seeds of the yellow thick-walled pepper.
Thick-walled bell peppers Golden Jubilee
These pepper seeds cannot be fully attributed to thick-walled, but these varieties of thick-walled sweet peppers for open ground and film greenhouses, according to the manufacturer. However, in cold summers, the walls of the fruit will not be thick when grown outdoors.
From germination to fruiting, 120 - 130 days should pass. The bush grows to about 70 cm in height and has an elongated, conical, smooth fruit. Often they do not wait for reddening on the bush, dark greens are removed in technical ripeness. The average weight of peppers is 115-140 g, sometimes up to 220 g. Wall thickness is 5-7 mm.
These varieties of thick-walled sweet peppers respond well to watering and feeding with complex mineral fertilizers. It grows very juicy and tasty.
- Pepper's ear at first gave just the same huge fruits, 20 cm in length, then they became smaller, smaller and reached only 6 cm.
These are very promising seeds of early Siberian thick-walled sweet pepper.
From germination to technical ripeness 120-125 days. The plant is semi-determinate, of medium height, the bush grows about 60 cm in height, densely leafy. Mid-season hybrid.
Fruits grow prismatic, beautiful, red, weighing up to 100 g, high quality, wall thickness 6.5-7.5 mm. The sweet pepper hybrid can be grown in heated greenhouses and outdoors.
Differs in good fruit setting until the end of the growing season, long-term fruiting and resistance to a number of diseases. Sowing seedlings in early March, picking in the phase of one true leaf, planting 70-day seedlings in a permanent place according to the scheme 50x35 cm.It perfectly sets fruits under unfavorable conditions.
Reviews about sweet pepper Titan and Sibiryak:
- Titans have grown like mammoths. The walls are thick, the pepper is huge, cuboid. I also liked the Siberian. Also thick-walled, and there was a frost, from this variety not a single pepper was damaged. Its size is smaller than Titan, but it is more fragrant and the walls are already reddened.
thick-walled cuboid pepper Siberian
Another variety of thick-walled sweet peppers recommended by gardeners for the Moscow region and central Russia:
- Cup to the winner (sooo thick walls !!)
- Gogoshars are very thick-walled, that's what stuffing is for!
- I am harvesting "Ombrone" - very happy! Huge, tasty, thick-walled!
- They planted Jerusalem, a pepper of the VASKHNIL selection. Cool grew up. despite its small size, it is very prolific, juicy and thick-walled. And his smell is amazing. They would have brought him out larger. We will also plant the Siberian, behind the walls and fertility
Ultra-ripe and early varieties of peppers: top 20
Early varieties of pepper are primarily bred for cold regions with short summers, where late-ripening cultivars in open-air beds may not have time to ripen. They can be sown later than conventional varieties, but they can be harvested much earlier.
Among experienced gardeners, such early ripening and unpretentious peppers as Swallow and Belozerka have proven themselves. However, there are many new and not very well-known species that, in terms of their characteristics, are in many ways superior to these time-tested varieties.
Super early maturing cultivars
Solanaceous crops are considered to be ultra-early varieties of pepper, which yield their harvest in 3-3.5 months from the beginning of the growing season. Below are the best early maturing species intended for cultivation in open land and under shelter. The ripening period is indicated when the vegetables reach technical (milk) ripeness. This means that they have reached the size characteristic of the variety, but have not yet fully ripened. Despite this, they can be plucked from bushes and eaten.
Ruddy cheeks belong to ultra-early ripening varieties of pepper. You can remove fruits from the bushes after 75-80 days. An early cultivar thrives in any growing conditions: be it open beds or land with shelter.
With incomplete ripeness, the vegetables have a yellow-orange color with a slight blush, due to which the variety received such an interesting name. When fully ripe, the color of the peel changes to dark red.
The weight of one specimen varies from 80 to 100 grams, the thickness is at the level of 5-7 mm. From one bush, you can get up to 1.5 kg of the crop. Medium-sized stem does not grow more than 80 cm in height.
Health belongs to the earliest varietal peppers. Suitable for plots with protective shelters. Pepper reaches technical maturity 3 months after germination.
The bush is 140-170 cm high, semi-spreading. The plant is not prone to apical rot.
Vegetables are small, cone-shaped, weighing 50 grams, they do not stand out in thickness, which is within 4 mm.
Recommended cultivation on a trellis with formation of 2 stems. From 1 sq. m. get an average of 10 kg of vegetables.
A feature of an early and productive cultivar is its undemandingness to light. Therefore, it is suitable for planting in places where the sun's rays are rare guests.
An ultra-early cold-resistant representative of the nightshade, cultivated in open and protected ground. Before the onset of technical ripeness, 3 months pass from the moment of the growing season.
A low, spreading bush grows up to 50 cm in height. Egyptian vigor has good resistance to major nightshade diseases.
The fruits are thick-walled (0.8-1 cm), compact cone-shaped, weigh about 130 grams. Ripe peppers are delicious, sweet, juicy and aromatic.
An early maturing Eaglet is quite suitable for a temperate climate. It feels good enough in open ground. The first "eagles" reach technical maturity after 97-107 days.
The eaglet is distinguished by abundant fruiting and unpretentiousness to growing conditions. The nightshade rarely has problems inherent in this culture, due to strong immunity.
The bushes of the plant are compact, do not exceed 30-40 cm, have a bouquet arrangement of fruits. Cone-shaped peppers are rather large (on average 100 grams) and walls up to 0.5 cm thick.
The ultra-early ripening variety Venti is guaranteed to ripen even in unprotected beds in areas with short and unfriendly summers. Some gardeners cultivate it in a greenhouse, getting a rich harvest with stable fruiting.
The stage of milk ripeness begins in 95-100 days, after the seedlings appear on the surface of the seedling soil.
The plant is small, not exceeding 55 cm in height. Conical peppers reach 15 cm in length, and gain about 100-110 grams in weight.
The early cultivar differs from its kind by remontant. This means that the plant is able to bear fruit several times during one season.
A very early ripe variety of peppers, Fakir, was bred by West Siberian breeders. Specially created for the Siberian summer for cultivation in open and closed soil.
The first vegetables can be harvested after 90-100 days, the countdown is traditionally carried out from the moment of emergence.
Fakir perfectly tolerates low temperatures, has good resistance to mosaic virus and fusarium.
Small cone-shaped peppers of red color, when fully ripe, weigh 60-65 grams. They cannot boast of a good wall thickness, which is only 3-3.5 mm.
The ultra-early pepper variety Pervenets Romantsova is valued for a stable harvest, which it gives when any weather conditions. Open ground is suitable for the cultivation of this representative of the nightshade.
The vegetables are ready to be removed from the plants 80-112 days after the seedlings are fully grown.
Small conical fruits with an average weight of 65 g grow on compact bushes 45-55 cm high, the largest specimens reach 150 g.
The first-born Romantsov has good immunity, therefore it is not very susceptible to nightshade diseases.
One of the earliest varieties of bell peppers, Medal, is more suitable for cultivation in greenhouses in regions with short summers. In the south, peppers can be planted outdoors.
The crop is harvested as soon as 90-112 days have passed from the moment the seedlings appear. A compact semi-spreading bush grows in a greenhouse up to 1.2 m.
Requires compulsory shaping: removal of stepsons and leaves before the first fork. Miniature elongated fruits weigh about 50 g, and do not have a good wall thickness, which is only 3-4 mm.
The medal stands out for its weather resistance, an abundance of peppers on one plant and a long fruiting period.
The early cultivar is immune to gray mold.
The early ripening varieties of pepper, which are successfully cultivated in the open field, include Taezhny. It reaches the stage of milk ripeness in about 100 days. The plant is remarkable for the dwarf type of bush, not exceeding 30 cm.
From 1 sq. m. early variety brings up to 4 kg of yield. Vegetables of medium size, red in color when fully ripe. In mass, they usually do not gain more than 60 g. Cultivar is distinguished by an amicable fruitful return.
Taezhnoye has good resistance to root rot. It is also slightly susceptible to powdery mildew.
The name of the vegetable crop speaks for itself: the plant is suitable for cold climates and tolerates lower temperatures.
One of the richest varieties in terms of yield, pleasing with the early return of vegetables. Fruits, ready to be removed from the plant, are formed in 90-100 days. The thick master is suitable for growing in open beds and in greenhouses.
This early pepper is prized for its high taste characteristics with a pronounced aroma characteristic of this vegetable culture. The fat master is a real giant: cuboid fruits can reach 400 g in weight, while the thickness of the pulp with the peel is about 0.9 cm.
Early maturing cultivars
Early varieties of sweet peppers, in contrast to ultra-early ripening varieties, ripen on average 10 days later. The following is the best ten early-maturing cultivars, which have proven themselves among gardeners.
The early ripe pepper Dobryak gives its first harvest 98-115 days after the appearance of the first seedlings.
The variety is successfully cultivated in protected structures and in open ground conditions. The type of bush in the variety is standard, closed.When grown outdoors, it does not need to be tied to stakes.
The good man has a spherical slightly flattened shape. The fruits are very thick-walled - up to 1 cm with an average weight of 100 g of one specimen. Fully ripe vegetable is tasty, juicy and pronounced peppery aroma.
The early variety provides gardeners with a stable harvest even under unfavorable growing conditions. It tolerates low temperatures and poor lighting conditions. Endowed with persistent immunity to the tobacco mosaic virus.
Winnie the Pooh
Dwarf early variety of peppers for open ground Winnie the Pooh ripens on 107-110 days. This is one of the few cultivars that is able to reach the stage of biological maturity right on unprotected beds, even in the northern regions of the country.
A compact bush 25-30 cm high, strong, with a bouquet arrangement of fruits. The average weight of one pepper is 50 g, the wall thickness is average, varying within 5-8 mm. The plant stands out for its resistance to aphid damage.
The cultivar belongs to large-fruited varieties with an early return of the harvest. Suitable for outdoor cultivation even in cold and short summers. Technical ripeness occurs 106-114 days after the emergence of seedlings.
When cultivated in the garden, the average yield is 3 kg per sq. m. In conditions of protected ground, plants give 2 times more from the same area. Red conical fruits with juicy and fleshy pulp gain an average of 200 grams.
An early variety of sweet pepper Spanish sweet is not afraid of either cold or heat and is distinguished by disease resistance. The plant is cultivated in greenhouses and in the open field.
Fruits can be harvested in the milky ripeness phase, which occurs 110-115 days after germination. Even at this stage of maturity, they taste good.
Large elongated prism-shaped peppers weigh 200 g and have a thick, juicy wall. The cultivar gives a stable harvest throughout the growing season. The average height of the bushes is 0.7 m.
High-yielding Snow White with an early ripening period yields a harvest at the stage of milk maturity in 105-110 days. Suitable for growing in film greenhouses.
The bush is compact, closed, relatively low (no more than 0.5 m). Fruits of a triangular elongated shape reach a length of 12 cm with an average weight of one specimen of 80-100 g. Wall thickness is good - from 5 to 7 mm. Snow White's yield from 1 sq. m is 7 kg.
Early ripening Morozko, when fully ripe, gives off thick-walled and juicy fruits. Harvesting is possible on 112-115 days in the phase of milk maturity. Designed for open ground and film structures.
Standard bush, closed, up to 67 cm high, has an average foliage. One plant can set up to 29 fruits weighing up to 110 g.
Morozko has strong immunity to nightshade diseases. Due to its resistance to unfavorable climatic conditions, it is ideal for growing in northern regions.
An early ripe cultivar with fruits of an interesting shape, yellow-lemon color. In the southern regions, Golden rain can be planted in open beds, in the northern regions, it is wiser to place it in a greenhouse.
Vegetables reach technical maturity approximately on the 116th day from the moment of germination.
The type of bush is determinant, up to 0.8 m high. The average weight of one vegetable is 60 g, the largest specimens can gain weight of 0.1 kg.
The early variety has good thickness (up to 7 mm). The vegetable has an excellent taste with a pronounced peppery aroma.
The merchant is gaining technical ripeness by 111 days after the emergence of mass shoots. Early peppers have a pyramidal appearance of fruits with an average weight of 70 grams. The taste of vegetables is not inferior to late-ripening kultivars. They are very juicy, aromatic and thick-walled. The bush is compact, but tall (up to 85 cm).
The merchant can be grown in the middle lane, southern and northern regions.
The Dobrynya Nikitich variety with an early ripening period is included in the State Register for the Russian Federation. Can be cultivated in unprotected and closed ground. Dobrynya gives off the first peppers in the phase of milky maturity on day 95-110.
The bush is undersized, standard, closed type. Per sq. m. you can plant up to 12 plants. At the same time, the yield is up to 4 kg from this area.
Fruits of red color have a trapezoidal shape, in average they reach 120 grams in weight. Good taste, but with a mild peppery aroma.
Dobrynya Nikitich is resistant to such a disease as verticillosis.
Early ripening pepper White filling for open and closed ground reaches technical ripeness 95-110 days after the appearance of seedlings. Pepper seeds for seedlings are planted in early March.
Adult plants are compact, reaching a height of 45-55 cm. The average weight of one fruit is 60-70 g with a wall thickness of 6 mm.
The early variety White filling is appreciated for its good yield and the formation of numerous ovaries, even when cultivated in cold climates. Long-term fruiting, resistance to verticillium and tobacco mosaic virus also make the cultivar interesting for growing on land plots in regions with unfavorable climatic conditions.