Doronicum (lat.Doronicum), or goat - a genus of flowering plants of the family Astrovye, or Asteraceae, common in regions with a temperate climate and in the mountains of Eurasia at an altitude of 3500 above sea level. One species of goat can be found in North Africa. Sources call a different number of Doronicum species: from 40 to 70. The scientific name of the genus comes from the Arabic name of an unknown poisonous plant.
In culture, the doronicum flower appeared in the 16th century and quickly gained popularity among flower growers for its attractiveness and unpretentiousness.
Planting and caring for doronicum
- Landing: sowing seeds in open ground - in May or before winter, in October, sowing seeds for seedlings - in April, transplanting seedlings into open ground - in late May or early June.
- Bloom: from May for 30-40 days, then the ground part dies off, but with good care and favorable weather conditions at the end of summer, the plant can bloom again.
- Lighting: bright diffused light or partial shade.
- The soil: loose, moist, but not waterlogged.
- Watering: frequent but moderate.
- Top dressing: in spring and before flowering - with a solution of organic matter or complex mineral fertilizer.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, gray rot.
- Pests: thrips, aphids.
Read more about the cultivation of doronicum below.
Doronicums are herbaceous perennials with basal and stalk-enclosing leaves arranged in regular order. Representatives of the genus bloom as single or collected in shields of 2-6 pieces with broad-bell-shaped or hemispherical baskets. The leaves of the wrapper of the inflorescences-baskets are arranged in 2-3 rows, the middle tubular flowers are bisexual, yellow, located in several rows, and the marginal reed flowers are female, yellow, single-row. Doronicum fruits are obtuse oblong ribbed achenes.
Growing doronicum from seeds
Seed propagation of doronicum is carried out both by sowing seeds in open ground in May or before winter, and by a more reliable seedling method. Doronicum seeds are sown for seedlings in April, in a cellular tray filled with a soil mixture of equal parts of peat and coarse sand. 2-3 seeds are laid out in each cell, after which the tray is tightened with a transparent film or covered with glass and kept under bright diffused light, covering from direct sunlight. Crop care consists in airing, removing condensate from the film and moistening the substrate from a fine spray as needed.
In the photo: Doronicum flowering
Under favorable conditions, seedlings can appear in 10-14 days, and as soon as this happens, the cover is removed from the tray, and the lighting is intensified, while preventing direct rays from falling on the seedlings. If there is a lack of natural light, install artificial lighting sources in the form of phytolamps or fluorescent lamps above the seedling box at a height of 20-25 cm. Do not use ordinary incandescent bulbs, because they overheat and emit the wrong rays that are needed for seedlings.
When the seedlings reach a height of 4 cm, leave in each cell only one, the most developed plant, and carefully cut the rest with scissors at surface level. At the stage of development of 3-4 true leaves, pinch the seedlings to stimulate tillering.
Planting doronicum in open ground
When to plant
Doronicum seedlings are planted in open ground with the onset of stable heat, when the night return frosts will no longer threaten young plants. Usually such conditions develop by the end of May or by the beginning of June. However, before planting in a flower garden, seedlings must undergo a two-week hardening: seedlings should be taken out into the open air every day, gradually increasing the duration of the session. At first, the seedlings should be protected from direct sunlight, gusts of wind, drafts and precipitation.
How to plant
The doronicum plant is light-requiring, but shade-tolerant, and if you want the baskets to be large, set aside a semi-shaded area for the plant. However, doronicums will not grow under trees near the trunks.
The plant needs soil that is loose, moist, but not damp. The plot is dug up in advance with manure to a depth of 20-25 cm.When planting seedlings, keep in mind that after 2-3 years the clumps of plants will grow up to half a meter in diameter, if not more, so the holes are dug at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other. The depth and diameter of the hole should be such that a seedling with an earthen clod on the roots fits into it. After filling the holes, the surface is slightly compacted and watered abundantly.
Caring for doronicum in the garden
Planting and caring for doronicum is within the power of even a novice gardener. Doronicum blooms twice a season - in spring and in the second half of summer, although the re-flowering is no longer as abundant as the first. After the inflorescence withers, the arrows must be cut off so that they do not reduce the attractiveness of the plant.
In the photo: Growing doronicum in the garden
Late September or early October doronicum is rejuvenated by dividing the bush: in one place it can grow for years, but over time, its baskets become small, and the old shoots in the center of the bush die off, and the flower garden looks sloppy. The dug out bushes are divided into parts, after which the delenki are seated. It is enough to carry out rejuvenation once every 3-4 years, but if you want to have plants with large baskets for cutting, then divide the bushes annually.
Doronicum does not require shelter for the winter.
Watering and feeding
Doronicum yellow chamomile has a superficial root system, so it needs frequent watering.
However, waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed. For irrigation, use settled water heated in the sun.
Loosening of the doronicum must be carried out carefully, and it is better to weed the weeds manually. To preserve moisture in the soil, the site is mulched with wood chips, shavings or simply mown grass: mulch not only slows down the process of evaporation of moisture from the soil, but depressingly acts on weeds and prevents the formation of a crust on the surface of the earth. Plus, you won't need to loosen the mulch area frequently.
At the beginning of the growing season and before the beginning of flowering, it is advisable to feed the doronicum with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer or organic matter in liquid form.
Pests and diseases
Doronicum can be annoyed by aphids and thrips, feeding on the juice of their terrestrial organs. As a result of the vital activity of these sucking pests, yellow stripes and spots appear on the leaves of the plant, and the baskets are deformed and fall off. You can destroy parasites with insecticides such as Actellik, Akarin, Agravertin or Karbofos. However, the doronicum suffers more from gluttonous slugs that devour its greens. You can save the flower garden from gastropods by sprinkling the ground with dry mustard or ground pepper.
As a result of adverse weather conditions or improper care, doronicum can develop rust, powdery mildew or gray mold. To avoid damage to the doronicum by fungi, balance its watering, prevent waterlogging of the soil and regularly remove weeds from the site.
At the first sign gray rot diseased bushes should be removed and destroyed immediately so as not to jeopardize healthy plants and pathogens powdery mildew and rust will die after 2-4 treatments of the flower garden with Topaz, Fundazol, Oxychom or another drug of a similar effect.
Keep in mind that plants are more often affected by fungal infections in those areas that have been regularly fertilized with fresh manure.
Types and varieties
We offer you an acquaintance with the most popular types of doronicum in culture.
Doronicum austrian (Doronicum austriacum)
A Mediterranean plant with straight, branched stems in the upper part, reaching a height of 70 cm. Its leaves are ovoid and oblong on the upper part of the stem. Bright yellow heads up to 5 cm in diameter are collected in shields. In culture, the species has been since 1584.
In the photo: Austrian Doronicum (Doronicum austriacum)
Doronicum Altai (Doronicum altaicum = Doronicum bargusinense = Doronicum schischkinii)
Originally from Siberia, Central Asia, East Kazakhstan and Mongolia. It is a rhizome perennial from 10 to 70 cm in height with a naked, straight, branched or simple, finely ribbed stem, which can be colored brown or red-violet. The stem can be leafy or leafless, and under the baskets it is covered with dense glandular pubescence. The basal leaves of the plant are long-petiolate, the lower ones are stalk-embracing, scaly, and the middle and upper stem leaves are spatulate or obovate, stalk-embracing or pierced. On peduncles up to 30 cm long, inflorescences of 1-4 yellow baskets with a diameter of up to 6 cm are formed.
In the photo: Doronicum altaicum
Or doronicum Caucasian (Doronicum caucasicum), or heart-shaped (Doronicum cordatum = Doronicum pardalianches) in the wild, it is found in Central Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Ciscaucasia and is a perennial up to 50 cm high with a horizontal rhizome, light green ovate-rounded basal leaves located on long petioles, and ovate-elliptical sessile stem leaves. Single baskets up to 5 cm in diameter with pale yellow ligulate and yellow tubular flowers are formed on long peduncles. After flowering, the bushes sharply lose their attractiveness, so plants of this species are usually planted in the background. In the culture of the eastern doronicum since 1808. The best varieties:
- Gold Dwarf - early variety up to 15 cm high;
- Spring Beauty - a plant up to 45 cm high with double bright yellow baskets;
- Little Leo - compact plant up to 35 cm high.
In the photo: Doronicum orientale
A plant with a long tuberous root from Asia Minor, Central Europe and the Balkans, forming shrubs from 40 to 80 cm high. Almost naked peduncles bear heads up to 6 cm in diameter with narrow ligulate flowers. Best grade:
- Gold Ostrich - a plant with branched stems, and due to this it blooms more profusely than the main species.
In the photo: Doronicum columnae
Doronicum Clusa (Doronicum clusii)
A pubescent plant with a height of 10 to 30 cm from the subalpine and alpine belts of highland meadows in Europe. This doronicum with a thin creeping and short rhizome forms single yellow baskets up to 6 cm in diameter, under which the peduncles are covered with strong pubescence. The hairy leaves are shaped like a jagged spearhead.
In the photo: Doronicum clusii
Grows in the southwest of Europe. It is a perennial plant up to 140 cm high with oval-ovate basal leaves, indistinctly toothed along the edge, narrowed into a long petiole. Yellow baskets with a diameter of 8 to 12 cm open from the end of May, and the leaves die off by the end of June. The plant has been cultivated since 1560, it has such popular varieties:
- Excelsium - a plant with stems up to 150 cm in height and baskets with a diameter of about 10 cm;
- Miss Mason - bush up to 60 cm high.
In the photo: Doronicum plantagineum
Grows on rocky talus, alpine and subalpine meadows and along the banks of streams in Siberia, Kazakhstan, mountainous regions of Central Asia and the Caucasus. This perennial grows in height from 12 to 50 cm. It has a short rhizome, a single winding stem, thickened and densely pubescent under the baskets and sometimes colored in the upper part in a reddish-purple color. Basal leaves are long-stemmed, elliptical, obtuse, lower stem leaves are oblong, obovate, sitting on petioles with wide wings, upper stem leaves are small, pointed, oblong. Single baskets up to 5 cm in diameter with pale yellow ligulate flowers are located on a long peduncle.
In the photo: Doronicum oblongifolium
Doronicum turkestan (Doronicum turkestanicum)
Perennial rhizome plant up to 75 cm high, growing in nature in Siberia, Kazakhstan and eastern regions of Central Asia. Its stem is single, in the lower third covered with sparse glandular hairs, strongly thickened and densely pubescent under the baskets, covered with leaves by 2/3 or half the height. Leaves gradually decreasing towards the top of the stem can have a rounded, obovate-lobed, oblong or elliptical shape. Single baskets with a dark yellow center and light yellow ligulate flowers reach 3-4 cm in diameter.
In the photo: Doronicum turkestanicum
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Asteraceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Compositae (Asteraceae) Plants on D
Growing anemones from tubers is much more convenient and easier than fussing with seeds. Shortly before planting, dormant nodules are soaked in warm water for 3-4 hours to swell, after which they are planted in pots with a peat-sand mixture for germination. There is another way to prepare the planting material: a cotton napkin is moistened with the Epin solution, the tubers are wrapped in it and the bag is placed in a plastic bag for 5–6 hours. After this express procedure, nodules can be planted in a flower garden. This is done like this:
- Dig holes 35–40 cm in diameter and 12–15 cm deep in the area. Add a handful of ash and garden humus to each of them.
- Place the anemone tubers in the holes with the blunt end up.
- Sprinkle soil over the plantings, compact it slightly and water it well.
To protect the soil from overheating and drying out, the soil on the site after planting is recommended to be mulched with a layer of peat 4–5 cm thick or fallen leaves of fruit and berry crops.
Doronicum: outdoor care
Growing doronicum does not present any particular difficulties, even a beginner can cope with this. The flowering period of this plant occurs twice in one season. The first time the doronicum blooms in the spring, and the most abundant and luxuriant, and the second time this plant gives color from July to the end of August. To preserve the decorative qualities of the plant, the arrow of the plant should be removed after it has faded.
The perennial plant Doronicum needs frequent and constant watering, since its roots are located rather superficially. But only this must be done intelligently and carefully so that moisture stagnation does not form, otherwise the doronicum can suffer quite a lot. Watering this flower is carried out with settled warm water, which was heated all day under the sun. Loosening the soil must also be carried out carefully enough so as not to accidentally damage the roots, which is why we advise you to manually weed the area near the plant. Experienced growers advise to mulch the surface of the earth with wood chips, mown grass or wood shavings so that moisture in the ground can persist for a longer time, as well as slow down the growth of weeds, plus a crust will not form in this place.
At the very beginning of the growing season and right before flowering, the plants are made liquid fertilizing with organic or mineral complex.
- Shrub rejuvenation procedure
In late September and early October, the doronicum flowers rejuvenation procedure is performed. For this, the division of the bushes is used. Although this plant can grow quite well in the same place for a large number of years, but after a while you can notice that the inflorescence baskets have become much smaller, and old branches die off in the center of the bush, which naturally has a very bad effect on the decorative qualities doronicum. Initially, they carefully dig the plant out of the ground, after which they are engaged in dividing it into several parts, which will subsequently be planted in another place in different planting holes. Often this procedure is carried out once every three years. But if you want the inflorescences of this plant to always remain large, then it is worth rejuvenating it annually. Before wintering, you should not do the insulation of such a plant.