“Sweet” is the name given to the pepper by the inhabitants of Bulgaria. It is also a juicy, fleshy, colorful, aromatic and healthy vegetable. Contains few calories and many vitamins such as A, C, E, PP, B9, H, as well as carbohydrates, fiber and proteins. With proper care, growing bell pepper seedlings is easy.
What harm or benefit a vegetable brings, useful properties and contraindications - you need to know this only when you can grow and get a good harvest.
Proper cultivation of bell peppers
Growing a plant is quite laborious. This is culture thermophilic and demanding on the composition and structure of the soil.
Peppers love soil with neutral acidity and high moisture content. The land should be fed with manure or ammonia-potassium fertilizers, clean of weeds, it must be looked after in advance.
The ripening of the fruits of this culture is long, therefore, the seeds are planted in pots at home... It makes no sense to plant and plant seeds directly into open ground due to this feature.
In northern regions, cultivation is preferable in greenhouses, because here the required temperature regime is observed around the clock so that the vegetable can grow well.
The complexity of cultivation does not scare summer residents, nevertheless, they reap the harvest of a whimsical culture.
Sweet peppers - popular types
There are many varieties of sweet vegetables. Planting type subdivided into greenhouse and open field, and are also divided according to the period of fruit ripening into early maturing, mid-early, late and hybrid.
The most popular variety for open ground, very beloved by novice gardeners "Lumina", As it is unpretentious in care, resistant to numerous diseases and bears fruit early. Variety "Ivanhoe»Is also early maturing, its bushes are not high, therefore, plucking and tying of the stems is not required.
Bulgarian pepper "Funtik»Ripens by 110 days from the day of planting, compact, well resistant to verticellosis and can be grown both outdoors and indoors.
From mid-season beginners in vegetable growing, a disease-resistant variety is suitable "Cow's ear", The harvest from small bushes is obtained on day 130, with little effort for watering and feeding.
From hybrids, gardeners distinguish a red high-yielding variety "California Miracle F1"Requiring a minimum of labor and a large-fruited hybrid"Atlantic F1", Yielding crops even in adverse weather conditions.
How does the landing at home begin?
Peppers are planted on seedlings in February or March depending on location and weather conditions. The first step in planting is to test the seeds by sampling in salt water (30 grams of salt per liter).
In salted water, weak and damaged seeds will float, while heavy ones capable of germination will remain at the bottom.
After drying, the seeds are soaked for several hours in plain water, then placed in a humid environment, for example, in a wet napkin or plastic bag until germination.
Also, to accelerate the ripening of fruits and prevent diseases, the seeds must be treated with a disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate, and then a growth stimulator. Since the culture does not like transplants, it is better to immediately place the seeds in large 500 gram plastic cups, in loose, moist soil. to a depth of 1-2 cm, 2 pieces per cell.
When several shoots appear, the weak one is removed. Cups with seedlings are placed in a bright and warm place, moistened regularly and, if necessary, warmed up.
Transplanting seedlings and timing of planting in the soil
On the stage 3-4 leaves peppers are transplanted into open ground. For planting, the earth must warm up to +15 degrees. Seedlings are planted in May, after the end of the frost.
Before planting, loosen the soil, spill and fertilize with 1 tablespoon of potassium. Leave the distance between the bushes equal 30 cm.
The level of the planted sprout should correspond to the depth of the seedling material.
Post-plant care for a good harvest
When properly planted, the first new leaf appears approximately on day 10... If the plant has a lot of leaves and stems, then by pinching a crown is formed, and each stem is tied to a peg. The main thing is to remove the first flower during flowering, this will increase flowering, pollination and fruiting in the future.
During the growing period, you need to mulch the soil under the pepper, weeding the weeds in order to provide oxygen to the roots of the plant. To water 1-2 times a week, depending on the weather, the water consumption per bush is 1.5 liters for planted seedlings, and 2.5 liters for fruiting bushes.
During flowering and 2 more times during the fruiting period, fertilizing is carried out with a solution of manure (1: 5) or chicken droppings (1:10), as well as mineral fertilizers.
Bell pepper does not like coolness, therefore, when the air temperature drops, they must be covered with a film, rags and fumigated with smoke during the frost period.
Pest and disease control
Pepper often wilts outdoors. The reason for this is the disease and insects that feed on vegetables.
Damage to the plant is caused by:
- colorado beetle; the spread of the beetle can be avoided by collecting the larvae and destroying
- aphid; destroyed by chemical attack
- naked slugswho are afraid of dry mustard, tobacco or lime dust
- spider mite loves leaf juice, so the affected plants are burned, and the untouched ones are sprayed with an alcohol solution, soapy water, garlic or onion infusion.
Diseases also often affect peppers:
- a fungal disease in a humid environment, affecting stems and leaves in the form of brown spots with a pale green zone is late blight; 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid can save pepper
- the most common is verticillary wilting, appearing due to the penetration of the virus into the damaged roots, the leaves fall off and, as a result, the plant dries up. It is necessary to burn diseased parts to stop the spread of the fungus.
- among diseases are distinguished white, gray and apical rot... White appears on the stems in the root part from a lack of fertilizers, gray appears against the background of an incorrect water balance and affects the entire fruit, and the apical often affects the tip of the pepper with spots and arises from both bacteria and planting conditions. To avoid exposure to rot, plantings are fertilized with calcium and watered abundantly.
Difficulties of growing bell pepper
To obtain a large yield of bell pepper, you need to regularly loosen and water the soil.
You also need to know that fertilizers are the main part of nutrition, the lack of vitamins immediately affects the appearance of leaves, stems and fruits. When planting seedlings, it is important to try avoid windy areas, plant a bed with tall, wind-proof crops.
Choose your neighbors carefully for culture: the neighborhood with fennel, beets is unfavorable, and tomatoes, lettuce, onions, carrots will have a positive effect, repelling pests.
After the end of the summer season, plant the barley in the place of the pepper and dig up the ground after the grown cereal, get the humus saturated with vitamins, which is necessary for growing the next season's harvest.
Pepper is a southern plant, but in the conditions of our climate, it requires careful attention to itself. Abundant watering, creating a favorable soil for plant growth and protection from the cold contribute to obtaining a well-deserved high yield. This means that you will provide yourself with vitamins and macronutrients of sweet bell pepper until next year!
Growing colorful bell peppersThe author of the article: Pravorskaya Yulia Albinovna, 69 years old
Agronomist, over 45 years of experience in gardening How to grow heat-loving peppers? The technology of obtaining seedlings from seeds, planting, caring for plants, diseases, pests of sweet peppers - the reader will learn about all this from an informative article.
The content of the article:
- Seed preparation before sowing
- Sowing seeds
- Seedling care
- Seedling growing technology
- Plant care
- Diseases and pests
Sweet bell peppers can be eaten fresh, they make lecho, salads, stuffed with it. This vegetable is also included in other dishes. Therefore, it is not surprising that it is grown by the owners of personal plots.
How to properly plant pepper seeds for seedlings
To plant the seeds of this vegetable crop for seedlings at home should be about a couple of months before transplanting it to a permanent place. In most regions of Russia, the grown seedlings of this plant are transplanted to the garden beds in the last decade of May - the first decade of June (in greenhouse conditions, the transplant procedure can be done 10-12 days earlier), so the seed can be planted in February (for transplanting into greenhouses) or in March, if the seedlings are then planned to be transplanted into the garden.
If the seeds of this vegetable crop were bought in specialized stores, then it is possible not to carry out pre-sowing preparation with them - this has already been done by specialists from the manufacturer. You can only soak the seeds a day before planting so that they germinate faster in containers.
Seeds collected on their own must be placed in a saturated saline solution before planting - viable seeds will sink to the bottom of the container, and empty ones will float to the surface. They are removed, and the rest of the seeds are washed under running water and immersed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection for half an hour - an hour.
At the same time, containers and soil are prepared for planting seed material. The containers should be rinsed with a potassium permanganate solution and dried. There must be drain holes in the bottom of the containers.
The soil can be bought in specialized stores, or you can prepare it yourself. For this, garden soil, high peat and river sand are mixed in equal proportions; a glass of wood ash can be added to such a nutritious substrate.
The resulting substrate is filled into containers, watered and seeds are planted. they should be deepened by 1-1.5 cm. On top of the container, cover with plastic wrap and put in a warm shaded place until shoots appear.
Top dressing after planting
You can endlessly determine the optimal place for planting bell peppers. But your efforts to grow a bountiful harvest of peppers shouldn't end there. Particular attention should be paid to the regular replenishment of the soil with mineral fertilizers. Moreover, this must be done not once, but during the development of the plant, ripening the fruits. What kind of fertilizers are suitable for bell pepper, and in what proportions should they be added to the soil?
Among the variety of modern fertilizers, urea and phosphates are most distinguished for this agricultural crop. But that's not all.
Today, many summer residents use potash and phosphorus fertilizers for feeding, as well as folk remedies (cow dung or bird droppings). It is best to feed the pepper with natural mixtures.
For example, cow dung is recommended to be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. As for poultry droppings, the proportions here are 1:12. These types of dressings are considered the most versatile for bell peppers.
If you prefer to feed a vegetable plant as a preventive measure for diseases and in order to strengthen the vegetative part of agriculture, you can safely use universal fertilizers. However, if for some reason you did not feed the soil in advance, or did it, but noticed certain deterioration in the appearance of the bell pepper seedlings, you must act immediately. First, identify the problem and then quickly fix it. For example, if your plant is not sufficiently saturated with nitrogen, over time, the vegetative mass begins to turn yellow. In the case when burns appear on the edges of the leaves of seedlings, the cause is in most cases a deficiency of potassium in the soil. It happens that the bell pepper bushes acquire a purple hue: this means that it is necessary to apply phosphorus fertilizers to the substrate.
How to grow quality seedlings at home
Summer residents grow seedlings on the windowsill, in pots. This time is considered significant, since the plant is formed during this period and is gaining strength. Modern hybrids bred by breeders, with proper care, will help optimize work on the site and, as a result, collect a good harvest, by the standards of the region.
The best time to sow seeds
If you plant a seed in open ground, then you will not get a harvest. Therefore, initially it is worth preparing seedlings. It is better to plant it in mid-February, early March. The seed can take a long time to germinate, up to several weeks, so hurry up.
Preparing the soil mixture container for planting
If you are planting seeds in a common box, then when 3-4 leaves appear on them, transplant the peppers into separate pots or cups. It is advisable to carry out the first feeding after transplanting the sprouts from the common box into the cups. You can "pickle" the seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate or phyto solution.
Seed stratification and preparation
To prepare seeds for planting, follow these rules:
- Sort out the planting material, and then soak the seeds in warm water or slightly salted solution.
- Those seeds that settle to the bottom can be used to cultivate the plant.
- It is worth rinsing the seeds, soaking them for 20 minutes, and then sending them to the refrigerator or cellar. This will help increase the germination rate.
- The seeds are treated with a growth stimulant before planting; it can be purchased at a specialized store.
Conditions for germination
Seeds are germinated by wrapping them in a thick cloth, you can use gauze. Beforehand, it is worth soaking them in water with a small amount of wood ash.
Attention! For the peppers to grow well, they need lighting. Therefore, it is better to germinate seedlings on the windowsill.
Before planting in a box or cup, do not forget about drainage, use enriched soil.
Preparing and planting pepper seeds
For growing seedlings of peppers, an earthen mixture is prepared, consisting of humus, earth and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. A tablespoon of ash is added to one kilogram of the earthen mixture. The finished seedling substrate should be light, loose.
Pepper seeds pre-soaked in warm water (50 ° C) for five hours. It is advisable to add a little potassium permanganate to the water for swelling so that the water has a slightly pink color. Then they are laid out on a damp cloth in a warm room for two to three days. Make sure that the fabric does not dry out, or you can lightly cover the seeds. This preparation promotes rapid seed germination.
Some owners, in the old fashion, sow seeds in large boxes with an earthen mixture in order to select strong sprouts after seed germination and, after picking, plant them in separate pots. But modern technologies offer to sow peppers in separate pots, fortunately in the trade you can buy ready-made plastic "greenhouses" for seedlings, consisting of separate cells. This allows, when planting in the ground, to take out seedlings with a clod of earth without injuring the plants.
Also for planting seeds, instead of an earthen mixture, you can use peat tabletsthat have a loose structure and do not require additional fertilization of seedlings. The peat tablet has a small indentation on one side.It is placed in a seedling pot with a deepening upward, and watered abundantly with water. After half an hour, the tablet swells and doubles in size. Two or three seeds of pepper are placed in the depression and covered to the top with a small amount of humus. Seedlings are planted in the ground together with a peat cup.
After sowing the seeds, the soil in the greenhouse is well watered and covered with plastic wrap or glass on top. It is desirable that there is an air gap between the glass and the ground.
The greenhouse is placed in a warm room (about 22 ° C), it is possible in a dark place until shoots appear.
How to properly care for peppers outdoors
Some varieties of pepper can also be grown outdoors. As a rule, they have increased resistance to external conditions and a smaller bush size. To achieve high productivity, it is important to follow basic grooming rules.
Water is added as the top layer of the soil dries up. During the heat, it is recommended to additionally spray the leaves with a hose or spray bottle. The average frequency of watering seedlings is 2 times a week at the rate of 7-9 liters of water per meter.
Mulch can be used to maintain moisture on the ground. Straw, peat, sawdust or small chips are suitable as it.
Top dressing of fruitful varieties
In the open field, fertilizing can be applied every 2 weeks (with a low concentration) or three times per season. Traditional scheme:
- 10 days after planting - organic or nitrogen-containing fertilizers, an additional 200 g of ash for each bush.
- During the flowering period, a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1: 5 or diluted bird droppings 1:10.
- During the period of fruiting formation - a mixture of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, 20 g of each agent.
Additionally, fertilizers are applied before planting and in the fall during the planned digging of the site. It is best to use organic matter, for example, cow dung; on depleted soils, add a mixture of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium sulfate, 20-30 g each.
The loosening procedure enhances the aeration and makes the substrate lighter. In the aisles, the soil is loosened to a depth of 10 cm, as well as in the root area of the bush to a depth of 5 cm. It is advisable to work in the early morning or before each scheduled watering. When using mulching, loosening is permissible up to 1 time per month.
To enhance fruiting from the plant, all excess leaves, as well as shoots, should be removed. The shoots below the first bifurcation are cut off completely, since they are not involved in the formation of vegetables. In addition, you need to pinch the lower buds and leaves in the upper part of the bush - they take a lot of minerals and water from the pepper.
Prevention and control of diseases and pests
Modern varieties of pepper are highly resistant to disease and pest infestation. With proper care, seed and soil treatment, the risk of infection is minimal. To avoid problems, at the beginning of the season it is recommended to spray the entire planting with any complex insecticide, as well as a solution of colloidal sulfur or copper sulfate.
As a prophylaxis, folk methods are also used, for example, an infusion of wood ash, a decoction of onion peels or ordinary soapy water. Processing in such ways is carried out every week after the next watering.