Corn (lat.Zea) - a genus of cereal plants, which includes six species, but only one of them has been introduced into the culture - annual sweet corn (lat.Zea mays), the oldest cereal grown by man. Cultivation of corn began on the territory of modern Mexico from 7 to 12 thousand years ago. In the 15th century BC, corn began to spread throughout Mesoamerica, and there was a need for new varieties of it, which served as an incentive for breeding experiments, which culminated in the 12th-11th centuries BC with the emergence of many varieties of plants.
Today, it can be said without exaggeration that all the ancient civilizations that lived in America (the Olmecs, Mayans and Aztecs) owe their appearance to corn, since the cultivation of this culture began highly productive agriculture, without which the emergence of a developed society would have been impossible. Before the conquest of America by Europeans, the corn plant had already spread to South and North America, where it was cultivated by the Iroquois from the 10th to the 16th century AD.
In Europe, corn appeared in the 15th century, and now it is grown all over the world.
Planting and caring for corn
- Landing: sowing seedlings - in early May, planting seedlings in the ground - in mid-June. Sowing seeds into the ground is carried out when the soil warms up to 10-12 ˚C.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: sandy loam, loamy, peaty, neutral or slightly acidic reaction.
- Watering: soil moisture on the site is maintained at 70-80%, spending 1-2 liters of water for drip irrigation of each plant. After planting, watering should be moderate, but at the stage of development of 7 leaves, both water consumption and watering frequency are increased, and when the threads on the cobs begin to darken, watering is gradually reduced to moderate.
- Top dressing: the plant needs nitrogen throughout the growing season, until the seeds ripen, but most of it must be added during the period of inflorescence formation. Potash fertilizers are required for corn in the first half of the growing season, and in the second, their amount is gradually reduced when feeding. Phosphorus is needed all the time, but in small quantities. The plant also needs manganese, zinc, boron and copper, solutions of which are used to treat corn on the leaves.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: wireworms, false wireworms, moths, meadow and corn moths, and oat flies.
- Diseases: It is affected by Fusarium on the cob and seedlings, helminthosporium, stem and pitya root rot, red rot on the cob, rust, dusty and blister smut.
Read more about growing corn below.
Corn plant - description
Sweet corn is a tall herbaceous plant, reaching a height of 3 meters or more. Maize has a well-developed fibrous root system, extending 1-1.5 m deep. At the lower nodes of the stem, supporting aerial roots can form, which do not allow the stem to fall and supply the plant with food and water. The stalk of corn is erect, not hollow, up to 7 cm in diameter. Large linear-lanceolate leaves can reach 10 cm in width and 1 m in length. On one plant there can be from 8 to 42. Flowers in corn are unisexual: males are collected on the tops of the shoots into panicles, and the female ones - into cobs tightly surrounded by leafy wrappers, hiding in the axils of the leaves and reaching in mass from 30 to 500 g, in length from 4 to 50 cm, and in diameter from 2 to 10 cm.One plant rarely forms more than two ears, at the tops of which a bunch of pistillate columns emerges from the wrappers, similar to a tuft of hair. The wind carries pollen from male flowers to these columns, and fertilization occurs, as a result of which large caryopses are formed - the fruits of corn. The kernels, arranged in vertical rows on the stem of the ear, and closely pressed against each other, have a rounded or cubic shape. One ear of corn can hold up to a thousand kernels, and their color can be yellow, reddish, blue, purple and almost black.
Growing corn from seeds
Sowing corn seeds
Corn is grown by seed method - seedling and seedling. Sowing corn for seedlings is carried out in cassettes with cells of 45 cm² or in peat pots with a diameter of 12 cm. Cassettes and pots are filled with a mixture of well-structured turf soil, mixed in equal proportions with rotted humus. To increase the moisture capacity of the substrate, you can add a hydrogel to it, but when filling the cells and pots with the soil mixture, keep in mind that the gel can absorb up to 500 volumes of water. The hydrogel will allow you to reduce the number of watering by 3-5 times, since the crystals that have absorbed water will gradually release moisture and give it to the soil.
Corn seeds are sown in early May, after germinating them for 5-7 days in a damp cloth or filter paper at room temperature. They put 3-4 grains of corn in pots, two in cells. The seeds are deepened by 3-4 cm, after which the soil is moistened with a warm solution of 4 g of Fundazol in 10 liters of water and the crops are transferred to a sunny windowsill of the eastern or southeastern exposure.
Growing corn seedlings
Corn seedlings develop very slowly, and it is advisable to organize additional lighting for them with a phytolamp or fluorescent lamp from the moment the shoots appear. During the growth period, seedlings are fed once or twice with Polyfid, Terraflex, Master or Kemira-hydro. When 3-4 leaves appear, leave one strong seedling in the cell, and two in pots, and cut the weaker plants with scissors above the ground surface. The growth and development of seedlings is accelerated from the moment of development of 4-5 leaves on them.
A week before planting the seedlings in the ground, they begin to harden them with daily sessions in the shade in the open air, gradually increasing the duration of the procedure until the seedlings get used to the new development conditions.
Corn is not dived because it does not tolerate transplanting very well.
Planting corn outdoors
When to plant corn in the ground
In open ground, corn is planted when frosts can no longer damage it - in early or mid-June. Please note that lowering the air temperature to 3 ºC can slow down the growth of seedlings to a complete standstill. If the temperature drops even lower, the seedlings will die. Corn is a thermophilic plant, so the area for it should be sunny and sheltered from the wind.
Soil for corn
The best soil for corn is considered to be a well-drained fertile and breathable black soil, in which cabbage, potatoes, beets, zucchini, tomatoes, cucumbers and squash grew before corn. It is necessary to prepare a plot for corn in the fall: it is necessary to remove weeds and bring rotted manure under deep digging. In the spring, if the soil on the site is heavy, it is loosened by adding chopped straw or sawdust, after which the surface is leveled.
How to plant corn outdoors
In the prepared area, holes are made at a distance of 50 cm from each other and plentifully watered seedlings are planted in them by transshipment. Try not to destroy the earthen ball, as this may cause the seedling to take root poorly. The planting scheme for corn should provide for the specifics of its development. It is advisable to plant seedlings not in one row, but at least in five, since otherwise there may be problems with pollination of corn. It is better to leave the distance between the rows one and a half meters - later you can plant melons and gourds in them. Plants in adjacent rows are staggered to improve photosynthesis of corn. In addition, with such a planting scheme, it is convenient to use a drip irrigation system.
What to plant after corn
If you've fed your corn properly during the growing season, crops such as basil, dill, and sage, as well as squash and beets, can be grown in the area afterwards.
How to grow corn
Novice gardeners consider corn an unpretentious crop and limit it to weeding and infrequent watering, but insufficient care can lead to a poor harvest and depletion of the soil on the site. The cultivation of corn requires regular care of the seedlings, while they are not yet strong - they are watered, weeded and necessarily spud so that the plants can acquire strong adventitious roots in the lower part of the stem, which will give them stability and help them grow and develop correctly. In addition, it is necessary to loosen the soil between the plants several times, apply top dressing and protect the corn from pests and diseases, which it has a lot.
Corn is moisture-loving: it can absorb 2-4 liters of water per day, but waterlogging is difficult for it - in water-filled soil due to lack of air, its roots die off, it stops growing, the leaves turn purple, and the corn harvest is threatened. Therefore, the soil moisture on the site is maintained at a level of 70-80%, that is, 1-2 liters of water are consumed for each plant. If there are no conditions for regular watering, you will often have to loosen the soil around the plants in order to retain moisture in it as long as possible - it is not for nothing that loosening is called dry watering.
After planting the seedlings, watering should be moderate, but from the moment 7 leaves appear on the plants, the water consumption and the frequency of watering are gradually increased until the stage of mass appearance of panicles. When the threads on the cobs begin to darken, watering is gradually reduced to moderate.
The best way to maintain soil moisture in a corn plot is to use a drip irrigation system, since water and nutrients dissolved in it flow directly to the plant roots, which saves both water and fertilizer.
Top dressing of corn
A good owner must fill the soil with organic and mineral fertilizers before planting corn. However, this does not mean that during the growing season it is not necessary to add top dressing to the soil. The fact is that, unlike other crops, corn increases its green mass throughout the growing season, so it will need feeding from spring to autumn. In addition, in each period of development, plants require certain nutrients, and if you fill the soil with all the fertilizers necessary for the season before planting, then too high their concentration can be a bigger problem than a lack of fertilizers.
Nitrogen must be applied to the soil before the seeds ripen. But the plant should receive the main amount of the element in the period before the formation of inflorescences. The most intensive absorption of potash fertilizers occurs in the first half of the season; in the second half, there is a reverse outflow of the element from the plant into the soil. Phosphorus is needed by corn in much smaller quantities, but throughout the season. Phosphate fertilizing is started during the preparation of the site, and phosphorus is stopped after the grains have ripened.
In addition to the three main elements, corn requires trace elements - primarily manganese and zinc, to a lesser extent boron and copper. Keep in mind that alkaline soils lack manganese and boron, while acidic soils tend to lack calcium. The lack of trace elements is compensated by foliar processing of corn.
The first feeding is usually applied during the period of appearance of the third and fourth leaves, and it consists of slurry or a solution of poultry droppings. The second top dressing should consist of ammonium nitrate (15-20 g per m²), potassium salt (15-20 g per m²) and superphosphate (30-50 g per m²). If you find a lack of specific elements, treat the corn with their solutions on the leaves. For example, if white stripes appear on the leaves, you need to spray the corn with a zinc solution, and if fertilization is delayed, a boron solution is required to process the plants.
Pests and diseases of corn
Unfortunately, there are quite a few pests and diseases affecting corn. Most often, corn is sick with fusarium on the cob and shoots, helminthosporiosis, stem and pitya root rot, red rot on the cob, rust, dusty and blister smut.
Fusarium on the cob widespread in agriculture, and during periods of high humidity and prolonged rains, epidemics of the disease occur. There are signs of fusarium at the stage of milky ripeness of the ears - a pinkish bloom forms on them, severely affected grains darken, lose their shine, loosen and collapse, and those that remain intact cannot be used as seed, since they can be infected. In order to avoid disease, it is necessary to dress the seeds before sowing.
Fusarium seedling is also a fairly common disease, in which the affected seeds are covered with a bloom of white or pink, and the sprout that emerged from the grain turns brown and dies. But even if he continues to develop, he lags behind other plants, he has weakened roots, a fragile stem, drying leaves. At best, such a plant will simply not yield a harvest. It is impossible to cure the disease, but it is possible to prevent the defeat of the disease: the caryopses should be treated with fungicidal preparations before sowing, the seeds should be sown on time and on a site well-warmed by the sun.
Helminthosporiosis infects leaf plates and corn cobs, forming brown and gray fusiform spots on them, surrounded by a dark border. A sooty bloom can sometimes be seen in the center of the spots. The spots grow, merge into a shapeless focus, which causes the leaves to die, a gray bloom forms on the affected ears, the seeds wrinkle, become covered with dark mycelium and rot over time. The causative agents of the disease can persist on seeds and crop debris of corn. To protect the crop from disease, you need to observe crop rotation, grow resistant to infection hybrids, treat the seeds before sowing and the soil on the site with fungicides, and after harvesting, it is necessary to remove weeds and plant residues of corn from the site.
Stem rot it can spread very quickly during prolonged rainfall, but in regions with a dry climate, it is almost never found. The onset of the disease is characterized by the appearance of dark spots on the lower part of the stem or internodes, and with the development of the disease, softening, decay and death of the stem occurs, while its core becomes pink in color, and the affected tissues are covered with many small perithecia with a diameter of no more than one millimeter. You can prevent the appearance of stem rot with the same preventive measures that have already been described.
Corn rust caused by a pathogen that is especially active in the second half of summer and continues its destructive activity until the end of the growing season: light yellow spots appear on the underside of the leaves, which gradually darken, then pustules with ripening spores no more than a millimeter in size are formed on them. The leaf tissue under the pustules dries up, breaks, and the spores scatter and infect healthy tissues and plants. It is necessary to fight rust with preventive measures and treatment of crops with fungicide solutions.
Dusty smut - an infectious disease of all grain crops, most often affecting maize in the southern regions.The defeat covers the inflorescences and ears of the plant, and the causative agent of the disease can accumulate in the soil for years without manifesting itself, but as soon as favorable conditions arise, it can cause a widespread epidemic that can destroy up to 40% of the crop. Sick inflorescences become a loose mass, the ears turn into a black lump. If the plant was affected at an early stage of development, it stunted in growth, becomes too bushy and ugly compared to healthy specimens. Sometimes the disease is not so obvious, but it negatively affects the growing season. To avoid contamination, grow smut-resistant hybrids and strictly observe crop rotation - compliance with these preventive measures allows you not to accumulate pathogens in the soil.
Bubble smut is caused by a basidal fungus and manifests itself as numerous blister formations on the cobs and leaves of corn. When the panicles are damaged, rough, pouch-shaped swellings appear on the flowers, but the largest galls are formed on the stalks and ears. During harvesting, large galls fall off and remain in the soil, and the next year they again infect the plants. Disease progresses during dry weather and when planting is too dense. During a massive epidemic, the disease can destroy up to 50% of the crop. This can be prevented by growing disease-resistant hybrids and planting corn according to a scheme developed by professionals. Do not forget to dress the seeds before sowing with the fungicide solution and remove weeds and plant residues of corn from the area after the end of the season.
Pitious corn root rot most often manifests itself in places with heavy soils and high humidity. The causative agent of the disease is activated during the germination of seedlings, affecting their root system - constrictions appear on the roots, root hairs do not form, as a result of which the roots rot and dry out, starting from the tips, and then the whole plant also dies. If the disease is mild, then you can observe a change in the color of the leaves and the lag of plants in growth. For intensive treatment and as a prophylaxis of the disease, corn is treated with fungicidal preparations or phosphonates.
Red rot on the cob dangerous in that it not only reduces the yield of corn, but also infects people and animals, causing damage to their nerve cells. The disease is detected during the period of milky-wax maturity: a white-red bloom appears on the upper ears, rapidly spreading and affecting both the core and the grains. As a result of damage, the caryopses are destroyed, and the wrapper becomes brown, dries up and tightly covers the diseased ear. Prolonged rains and low temperatures during the ripening period of the seeds contribute to the spread of the disease. Damage can be prevented by maintaining crop rotation, growing disease-resistant hybrids, dressing seeds before sowing, controlling the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied, deep digging and cleaning the site after harvesting from plant residues and weeds. Fight the disease should be fungicidal drugs.
The most dangerous pests for corn are wireworms, false wireworms, scoops, meadow and corn moths and oat fly.
For wireworms (click beetle larvae) and false wireworms (darkling beetle larvae) corn is the main victim, although they also gladly devour potatoes, sunflowers, beets and other vegetables, gnawing holes in their underground organs. If the density of insects per m² of the garden is 90 or more, the sowing at best thins by a quarter, but there have been cases of complete destruction of crops. The most active pests are at low air temperatures during the rainy season or in irrigated fields. To prevent the reproduction and development of wireworms, it is necessary to plow the field every autumn, observe crop rotation, pickle the caryopses before sowing with insecticides, and use pheromone traps against pests during the growing season.
Leaf-eating scoops can also seriously harm corn. They are ubiquitous and affect all terrestrial plant organs. The main danger is posed by winter, meadow and cotton moths, which reproduce from two to four generations of pests per season. The first and second generations mainly destroy the leaves of corn, while the third and fourth generations gnaw the cobs, seriously affecting the generative organs, which leads to a decrease in the yield and quality of the kernels. It is necessary to deal with scoops and their larvae primarily by agrotechnical methods - observing crop rotation, plowing the soil after harvesting, timely destruction of weeds. Pheromone traps can be used to control the larvae.
Swedish oat fly lives in a moderately humid climate - closer to the forest-steppe zone and in the area of irrigated fields. During the season, it reproduces 2-3 generations, which are equally dangerous for corn. You can protect the plant from flies with preventive measures: deep plowing or digging a site in the fall, followed by soil compaction, timely sowing of seeds and planting seedlings, as well as regular weed control. If the fly does appear on your corn, you will have to resort to treating the plants with insecticides.
Meadow moth more common in the steppe, forest-steppe and taiga zones. Of the four generations of the moth, the most dangerous is the first - rapidly breeding caterpillars. Interestingly, the number of moths manifests itself in cycles - once every 10-12 years, an invasion of pests occurs in such an amount that can destroy up to 60%, and sometimes the entire crop. Caterpillars are damaged by leaves and stems of corn, sunflowers, legumes and some cereals, potatoes, beets and hemp. The appearance of pests can be prevented by the already described agrotechnical methods, and caterpillars and moths are destroyed with biological products.
Stem moth. The main victim of the stalk moth is corn, although it also affects hops, soybeans, peppers, sorghum and millet. This pest develops in three generations, laying eggs on leaves and stems that do not die even in severe frosts. Symptoms of the presence of a moth are yellowing of the leaves and their central veins. The veins break, the leaf bends and dies. The harmfulness threshold of this insect is 6 per m2 of plantings. With strict adherence to agricultural technology, corn is more or less protected from the stem moth, but if it does appear, it is necessary to treat the plants with insecticides.
Maize harvesting and storage
The harvesting of sweet corn is started selectively upon reaching the cobs of milk maturity. How do you know when it's time to take the cob? Focus on the following signs:
- the outer layer of the wrapper has shrunk, and its color has become light green;
- the threads hanging from the cob are brown and dry;
- when pressed, white juice is released from the grains;
- the grains on the cob are smooth, yellow, closed in dense rows, without wrinkles or dents.
If you are late in picking corn, it will overripe and lose its taste and nutritional qualities, the grains will shrivel and will not boil well.
Preparation of corn for laying for long-term storage includes primary cleaning of the cobs, then drying and cleaning from grain and weed impurities. Intact cobs are sent for drying. They are freed from the leaves, but the wrapper is not cut off, the corn stigmas (thin threads that envelop the cob) are removed, the cobs are plaited with leaves and hung from the ceiling until completely dry in a well-ventilated dry room. Drying of corn is complete when the corn spills out of the cob with gentle shaking.
If you intend to store your corn for a long time, the corn should be husked, poured into plastic or glass jars, cardboard boxes, or cloth bags. Popcorn corn is stored in plastic bags in the freezer, and if necessary, put directly frozen in the pan.
Milk corn intended for boiling is kept in the refrigerator at 0 ºC for no more than three weeks. When stored at a higher temperature, corn loses one and a half percent or more of sugar per day - the higher the temperature, the greater the loss. It is best to keep dairy corn frozen or canned to preserve the nutritional value of the product. Moreover, if the freezer allows, you need to put corn in it right on the cob. To prepare corn for laying, two large containers are prepared - one with boiling water, and the other with cold water and pieces of ice. First, the cob, peeled from the wrapper and stigmas, is dipped in boiling water for a couple of minutes, and then in cold water for the same time, after which the corn is dried on a cloth, each cob is wrapped in cling film and placed in a freezer, where it is stored for up to 1.5 years without loss of quality.
Types and varieties of corn
Cultivated corn varieties are divided into six groups: dentate, waxy, flint, sugar, burst and starchy.
Toothed corn (Zea mays indentata)
In dent corn, the grains are large, elongated, and when ripe, a depression forms on their upper plane, which makes them look like teeth. These plants do not bush, they have powerful stems, most of the varieties, although fruitful, are late ripening. This fodder corn is grown mainly in the United States and is used for raising livestock and for processing into flour, alcohol and cereals.
Starchy corn (Zea mays amylacea)
- one of the oldest varieties of culture, widespread in the countries of America. It is also represented mainly by late varieties of medium-sized, medium- and strongly bushy plants. The grains have a convex top, a matte smooth surface, and a loose mealy inside. Mainly alcohol and starch are produced from these varieties.
Flint corn (Zea mays indurata)
has the widest distribution area. Its grain is smooth, shiny, with a convex top, white or yellow. It is used for the production of corn flakes, sticks and cereals. But the greatest demand is for early ripening high-yielding varieties obtained by crossing flint corn with dentate corn.
Burst corn (Zea mays everta)
- also the oldest of the varieties. A characteristic feature of the grains of this group of varieties is the ability to burst when heated. It is from bursting corn that popcorn is made. The surface of the grains in the varieties of this group is shiny and smooth. The varieties are divided into two subgroups - rice and pearl barley, which differ in the shape and taste of the grains. The popcorn bushes are well leafy and form many small, densely grained ears. Popcorn is grown all over the world.
Waxy maize (Zea mays ceratina)
represents a group of modified American varieties, distinguished by the smoothness and dullness of grains, the opaque outer layer of which resembles a wax of a hard structure. The inside of the grains is sticky and mealy. This is not a very common variety with a limited number of varieties received the greatest popularity in China.
Sugar corn (Zea mays saccharata)
is the most cultivated crop in amateur vegetable growing, which is also widely grown in agriculture. A characteristic feature of the varieties of this variety is the accumulation in ripening grains of a large amount of water-soluble sugars with a low starch content. It is the varieties of sugar corn that are used for canning. The variety is represented by low, bushy plants, forming several ears with grains of various colors, depending on the variety. Among the varieties of this variety there are golden corn, red corn and even black corn.
There is also an uncommon and not very valuable hybrid - sharp-grain or nose corn and a variety of Karagua - silage corn, which is grown in North America.
We offer you varieties and hybrids of corn with the highest qualities:
- Gourmet 121 - a high-yielding and disease-resistant variety with a growing season of 70-75 days. The plant is a bush up to one and a half meters high, on which cylindrical cobs up to 20 cm long with wide elongated juicy grains of sweet taste are formed. The variety is suitable for freezing and boiled food;
- Dobrynya - an early hybrid up to 170 cm high with large ears filled with grains of sweet taste. The variety is resistant to rust, mosaic and grows well on any soil;
- Pioneer - one of the best hybrids of flint corn, the advantages of which are frost resistance and the highest corn yield in all weather conditions. However, this variety is not suitable for summer cottage cultivation, since its grains are not very sweet and not the best taste. They are used for processing and for livestock feed;
- Spirit - a fruitful and resistant to diseases and pests hybrid, well withstanding treatment with pesticides. Spirit grains have a sweet taste, which compares favorably with the grains of other varieties;
- Syngenta - a productive hybrid of Austrian selection, adapted to the conditions of the middle lane. The toothed grains of this corn are rich in nutrients and are the raw material for cereals and animal feed;
- Early gold 401 - a low-growing variety of mid-season corn with ears up to 19 cm long and grains of a pleasant taste. The variety is suitable for canning;
- Oerlikon - a variety of popcorn, in which the grains greatly increase after heat treatment - the popcorn turns out to be elastic, large and very tasty. The grains of this variety have a high sugar content, which is not typical for bursting varieties.
Corn properties - benefits and harms
Useful properties of corn
Corn has medicinal properties that humanity has been using for a long time. In addition to starch, it contains phosphorus, nickel, potassium, copper and magnesium, vitamins D, C, K, PP and group B. Fatty oil, essential oil, saponins, gum-like and bitter glycoside-like substances, steroids stigmasterol and sitosterol are found in corn silk ... Corn leaves contain esters of phenol carboxylic acids (eg, caffeic acid and ferulic acid), quercitin, flavonoids, rutin, and some glycosides.
Doctors believe that regular consumption of corn kernels by improving metabolic processes in the body reduces the likelihood of stroke, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. And nutritionists say that corn, which is included in the diet of the elderly, contributes to the preservation and even improvement of vision, since yellow grains contain carotenoids. You just need to choose cobs with delicate milk grains, because overripe corn is poorly absorbed by the body.
Eating a tablespoon of corn oil at breakfast and dinner will protect you from skin diseases, asthma and migraines, increase the tone of the gallbladder and enhance the contraction of its walls. The value of corn oil is also that it contains unsaturated fatty acids - linolenic, linoleic, arachidonic, which are involved in metabolic processes and regulate cholesterol metabolism. Eating corn oil can reduce the tendency to thrombus formation in patients with coronary sclerosis.Corn oil is rich in biologically active phosphatides, which have a positive effect on the functions of brain tissue, regulate the content of cholesterol in the body and contribute to the accumulation of proteins in it - with a lack of phosphatides, fats accumulate in the body, and cholesterol is deposited in the tissues. Corn oil is also recommended for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.
Corn - contraindications
The pollen of pest-resistant genetically modified corn contains a dangerous poison that kills any insects, so you should refrain from eating grains of these varieties until scientists finally find out whether this poison is dangerous for humans. Today it is no secret that the consumption of food mutants increases the risk of allergic reactions, obesity and other consequences of metabolic disorders.
Any corn is contraindicated in exacerbation of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as it causes intestinal distention. It is undesirable to eat corn with thrombophlebitis and increased blood clotting, as well as people with low body weight, as it helps to reduce appetite. But corn oil, on the contrary, is contraindicated for people who are obese, as well as those who have an individual intolerance to the product.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Cereals
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Fruit Garden Plants Plants on K Cereals (Bluegrass, Cereals)
Planting and caring for anaphalis in the open field
This perennial is known for its unpretentiousness. It can be successfully grown in all conditions. Therefore, planting and caring for an anaphalis flower comes down to a set of simple activities.
When grown by seedlings, spring planting is the best option. Then it is easier for the plant to adapt to new conditions. The bush manages to take root and endure the winter in the future.
Anafalis can bloom even in the first year after moving to open ground.
Autumn planting of the plant is preferable when planting large seedlings or "delenok". They must be placed in open ground after flowering. In this case, the buds must be removed to stimulate root growth.
Site selection and soil preparation
For anaphalis, areas located in partial shade are best suited. However, the plant grows well in sunlit places. It is desirable that there is no stagnation of air on the site. The presence of drafts in this case is a plus.
Most varieties of anaphalis are not demanding on the composition of the soil. It shouldn't be too dry. Acidity is neutral.
Perennial anaphalis does not require a lot of nutrients. Planting in sandy and loamy soils is allowed, provided that they are sufficiently loose.
Anaphalis should be planted in the soil in accordance with the general technology. Then the flower fully adapts to open ground.
- Prepare a planting hole 25-30 cm deep.
- Place drainage layers of expanded clay, crushed stone or pebbles.
- Sprinkle with fresh loose soil.
- Place the seedling in the hole, pointing the roots to the sides.
- Cover with soil so that the upper roots are at a depth of 4-5 cm.
- Spill surface soil with water.
If it is necessary to limit the growth of roots, a sheet of slate should be placed on the bottom of the pit and along the walls. Also for these purposes brick, stone and wood are used.
Watering and feeding schedule
For anaphalis, moisture deficiency is not harmful. The shrub tolerates drought well. Regular watering is required during the flowering period, as well as to prevent premature drying of the stems. 5-10 liters of liquid are added under each bush, depending on the size.
For regular abundant growth, the plant does not require feeding
The introduction of fertilizers into the soil affects the growth rate of the roots of anaphalis, and does not affect the size of the bush itself. Therefore, there is no need for organic and mineral fertilizing. The exceptions are cases when anaphalis are planted next to other plants that are more demanding on the composition of the soil.
Loosening and mulching
Anaphalis roots need space. In order for them to grow normally underground, it is required to periodically loosen the soil. The procedure is carried out as it compresses, which is especially important after heavy precipitation or regular watering of the plant. In summer, soil loosening is carried out 2 times a month.
Soil mulching is carried out during the dry season. The material that retains moisture is introduced into the soil by 6-8 cm. Wood bark, straw, peat or compost are used as mulch.
Shearing is required for both large and stunted plants. The first is recommended to be carried out 2-3 weeks before flowering. Shoots are cut from the bushes, on which there are no buds. In the future, this stimulates the growth of peduncles and contributes to a more abundant flowering of the plant.
The second pruning is designed to prepare the bushes for wintering. First, wilted baskets with flowers are cut from anaphalis, then stem shoots to the ground. 3-4 cm of them are left from the surface, which can be covered for the winter with spruce branches or dry foliage to protect them from freezing.
Diseases and pests
Anafalis does not need protection from infections or insects. The plant is not affected by bacteria and fungi. Diseases are extremely rare, usually due to excessive watering. Excess liquid contributes to decay of plant roots, which leads to wilting of the bush. To prevent such a pathology, it is enough to observe the watering regime and add a drainage layer when planting.
Anafalis is resistant to diseases and pests, if the soil is not overmoistened
Almost all varieties of anaphalis exude a specific smell that is almost imperceptible to the human sense of smell. This scent is harmless, but it repels insects. Therefore, the perennial is not affected by pests that can cause significant damage.