Sorting, dressing, warming, soaking and growth stimulation, bubbling, pelleting, germination and vernalization of seeds
"From a bad seed - do not expect a good tribe"
The key to a high yield of vegetable plants is the high-quality preparation of their seeds for sowing. Most gardeners grow their main vegetable crops through seedlings, but they often have to resort to sowing individual vegetables with seeds in closed or open ground. In any case, the pre-sowing preparation of seeds must be approached very carefully, because it is known that "from a bad seed, do not expect a good tribe."
Most gardeners buy seeds for the season from seed shops that value their reputation and guarantee high quality goods. The same cannot be said about the sale of seeds by private sellers from hand. Often they purchase a large batch of seeds (sometimes expired), pack them themselves and, of course, cannot guarantee their quality.
"Branded" seeds pass the control of the State Seminary Inspection and, as a rule, comply with all GOST standards. On their packages there is often information indicating the sowing quality of the seeds. You need to know that the seed material infected with viruses and bacteria is not passed through the state control and is not subject to certification.
The most important indicators of seed quality include germination energy, germination capacity, viability, purity, sowing suitability, moisture.
Germination energy is the ability of seeds to germinate quickly and amicably.
Germination defined as the ability of seeds to form normally developed seedlings; this is the ratio of normally germinated seeds (for a certain period of time under optimal conditions) to their total number taken for germination.
Viability considered as the ability of seeds to germinate, which is established by the number of living seeds (germinating and dormant). It is assessed in seeds that have not passed the dormant period, as well as with an urgent approximate determination of their quality.
Seed purity characterized by the mass of seeds of the main crop
Every gardener, before purchasing new seeds for the season, needs to carefully review old stocks in order to remove and discard those that have expired. It is not worth sowing expired seeds, because you can be left without a crop. The expiration date of the seeds is usually printed on the bag in which you purchased them at the store. For sowing most vegetable crops (except for cucumber and other pumpkin seeds), fresh (last year's) seeds are preferable. Seeds of a group of pumpkin plants are best used after 2-3 years of storage.
Long before the start of the season, it is advisable for gardeners to draw up an approximate calendar of planting their seedlings in greenhouses, hotbeds or open ground so that it does not outgrow. It is important to take into account possible early and late spring frosts. It is worth recalling that sowing, for example, tomato seeds begins 40-45 days before planting seedlings in a permanent place, cucumber seeds - 30 days, celery - 80 days, pepper - 60 days.
The technology of high-quality preparation of seeds for sowing includes a number of techniques: sorting, dressing, heating, soaking and stimulating growth, bubbling, pelleting, germination and vernalization.
These procedures should be tried to be carried out in a complex (in a combination of individual elements of this technological chain), since they are designed to strengthen the immune system and obtain earlier friendly strong plant shoots; they also allow them, in spite of unfavorable weather conditions, to go through all their development phases in a timely manner, having experienced minimal pressure from pests, diseases and weeds.
When sorting the available seed is puny, incomplete, with suspicious spots on the surface of the seeds, it is better to separate for safety reasons, so that later you do not regret wasted time and effort. It is possible to carry out the simplest rejection of shrunken seeds using a 3-5% solution of sodium chloride. So, the cucumber seeds that have emerged within 3-5 minutes of exposure are removed as unreliable, and the seeds that have sunk to the bottom (full-weight) are washed and dried twice.
If amateur vegetable growers exchange seeds with their colleagues or use their own seeds, disinfection of such material is imperative, since a lot of fungal and partially bacterial infections can be transmitted through the soil and be located inside and on the surface of the seeds. With the seeds of cucumber, for example, infections of anthracnose and angular spot are transmitted, beets - peronosporosis and phomosis, cabbage - vascular bacteriosis, peronosporosis, phomosis, carrots - black rot, etc.
I think that it is still better to give preference to liquid plant protection products when etching. Of course, when soaking, the seeds must be kept for a certain time in the solution of the drug, then dried thoroughly (if this procedure is carried out in advance, long before sowing) or slightly dried (wet seeds are difficult to sow).
Although the use of preparations in a dry state is somewhat easier, it allows, when shaking, for example, seeds in a bag with a fungicide, a uniform (thin layer) coating. However, this procedure in an apartment is too dangerous for health, since it does not guarantee complete safety. In addition, most of the drugs approved for retail trade usually do not work on internal infection of many diseases (especially viral and bacterial ones) or work very weakly.
An example of such a drug is potassium permanganate, which suppresses superficial mycotic infection quite well, in contrast to the causative agents of bacteriosis and viruses. For example, tomato seeds are kept in its 0.5% solution for 5-8 minutes (at 30 ... 35 ° C). Also effective against phytopathogenic fungi is seed treatment for 15 minutes with a solution of a mixture of drugs (1 g KMnO7, 0.2 g boric acid, 0.1 g CuSO4 - per liter of water).
Some gardeners use a solution of calendula or garlic to disinfect seeds.
In the first case, the seeds are placed for 25-30 minutes in an infusion of dried flowers (a teaspoon in a glass of boiling water, after straining, add up to 1 liter of chilled boiled water).
In the second, a mass of grated garlic clove is diluted in 200 ml of cold boiled water, the strained solution is brought to 1 liter and the seeds are kept in a gauze bag for 30-40 minutes.
For a number of years of scientific work, I have quite successfully used for the treatment of seeds of various types and varieties of cabbage an aqueous infusion of wood ash and leaf juice of the well-known aloe tree, which acts as a growth biostimulator and exhibits bactericidal properties. A water infusion of wood ash is also useful. Ash contains almost 30 nutrients, including trace elements important for the plant. The seeds are placed in a daily infusion (half a glass of ash per 1 liter) for 4-6 hours. And aloe juice is prepared as follows: take four juicy aloe leaves, wash them thoroughly, dry them and keep them in a plastic bag in the refrigerator (13-15 days at 6 ... 8 ° C or 5-7 days at 2 ° C) to liquefy the juice. In the squeezed juice, the seeds are incubated for 4-6 hours and, without washing, are spread on a damp filter paper or gauze for swelling. This treatment is carried out 3-4 days before sowing.
To accelerate the germination of seeds of a number of vegetable crops (onions, carrots), it is advisable to carry out a preliminary soak... The seeds are poured into a container with a small amount of water so that it covers them slightly. The water is changed every 4-6 hours. Seeds of onions, carrots, beets and dill are soaked for 2-3 days, and for cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage, tomato, peas, radish - 8-12 hours. You can increase the germination activity of seeds of beets, carrots, onions, parsley by soaking them for 12-18 hours in a solution of boric acid (0.2 g per 1 liter of water), as well as in snow (melt) or magnetized water. Strengthening this quality of vegetable seeds is facilitated by heating them with the sun for 7-10 days.
To increase the yield of vegetables during pre-sowing soaking of seeds, aqueous solutions of epin (1-2 drops per 100 ml), 0.05-0.1% manganese sulfate, 0.001-0.005% copper sulfate, 0.03-0 , 05% zinc sulfate, 0.005-0.05% boric acid, 0.05-0.1% ammonium molybdate, 0.5% bicarbonate soda or 0.01% nicotinic acid ( withstand 24 hours at room temperature), they are able to activate the germination energy. Compounds in which humic acids, gibberelin and heteroauxin are involved have a great stimulating effect. Zircon also has a plant growth stimulating effect. They can soak vegetable seeds.
The results of scientists' research show that the seeds of many vegetable crops increase the germination energy and germination capacity if they are kept for some time (at least a week) at low negative temperatures (-2 ... -4 ° C) before sowing. At the same time, even short-term heating of seeds (at a temperature not higher than 40 ° C) reduces their infestation with pests and diseases.
Heat treatment of seeds (using hot water 50 ° C) of white cabbage for 25 minutes disinfects them (from infection of Alternaria, black leg and bacteriosis), tomato seeds in 20 minutes - from bacterial cancer and bacterial spot). The set temperature must be maintained during the entire heating period by adding hot water. After this treatment, the seed is kept in cold water for several minutes and dried. However, this effect of hot water somewhat reduces the germination of seeds, so the seeding rate is increased by 10-15%.
Shows good results bubbling seeds - soaking them in water saturated with air. For this purpose, the container is filled with water by 2/3, the tip from the aquarium compressor is lowered to the bottom. After filling the seeds, the compressor is turned on, periodically stirring the contents of the container. Sparging of pea seeds is continued for 4-6 hours, cabbage, radish and lettuce - 10-12, tomato, beets - 18-20, carrots, onions, spinach, parsley, celery, coriander and dill -18-24, pepper - 30 -36 hours. The effectiveness of this technique can be increased by using a solution of a mixture of 1 g of potassium nitrate and 1 g of potassium phosphate (per 100 ml of water). With a longer bubbling, seeds also reduce their germination.
An interesting technique for simultaneously stimulating seed germination, combating surface, internal and even soil infections of diseases is seed pelleting... Recently, seed companies have been offering seeds already filled in pelleted capsules. They are obtained by a special coating of seeds with a uniform layer of fertilizers, fungicides (usually TMTD) and microelements in automatic installations - pelletizers.
For wetting and gluing, a 0.02% polyacrylamide solution (1:10 by weight) is used. Potash and nitrogen fertilizers, microelements are introduced into the composition of the dragee shell. For 1 liter of adhesive solution take 40 mg of manganese sulfate, 10 mg of copper sulfate, 40 mg of boric acid, 300 mg of ammonium molybdate, 200 mg of zinc sulfate. Some companies include in the composition of the pelleted mass, in addition to fungicides, insecticides, others select the most important microelements for each agricultural crop. Shop pelleted seeds, as a rule, are planted directly into the ground, without soaking.
Although seed pelleting is quite troublesome, if desired, the gardener himself can prepare his seeds in this way. Dried and finely sifted lowland peat is taken as a filler. For 100 g of peat, 1.5 g of powdered superphosphate is used. As an adhesive, a solution of gelatin or an infusion of fresh mullein (1:10), filtered through a triple layer of gauze, is used. Trace elements are added to the prepared mass in the same amount as indicated above. Then the seeds are placed in a glass three-liter jar, slightly moistened with a solution so that they do not lose flowability. Add dry coated mixture in small portions, shaking the container in a circular motion, thus building up the shell on the seeds. The seeds obtained in this way are immediately sown or dried in a dark place and stored until sowing.
To obtain more friendly and strong shoots, swollen seeds tempered, keeping them for three days at - 1 ... -3 ° С, and then for 1-1.5 days - at 18 ... 20 ° С. Seeds of crops resistant to stalking (celery, parsley, carrots, onions per turnip), after soaking and the beginning of germination (no more than 5% of seeds), are subjected to partial vernalization. They are kept in a refrigerator, in snow or on ice at a temperature of -1 ° ... 1 ° C (for example, celery seeds - 20-24 days, parsley - 18-22 days, carrots and onions 15-20 days).
Have a nice harvest!
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection
Golden rules for sowing seeds
- Seeds must be sown in a timely manner. For some crops (carrots, parsley, dill, lettuce), the sowing season begins in late April - early May, when the topsoil thaws. Sowing in moist soil this early protects the seeds from drying out, which often happens when the seeds are planted later. But there are crops for which sowing in cold soil is contraindicated. These include beets, which are sown in a greenhouse or postponed until the end of May - early June, when the soil at a depth of 10-12 cm warms up to 7-10 ° C. Nigella onions are sown at home for seedlings, which allows you to get bulbs in the same year, in a greenhouse with the required humidity level and in open ground.
- It is important to protect the seeds from drying out. It is for this reason that the seed often simply does not come off. This is especially true for difficult germinating crops (parsley and carrots), as well as those that need special conditions (black onions and beets).
- The seeds need frost protection. Those seeds that have already sprouted and even grown seedlings of various crops can suffer from frost. The best protection would be to cover the beds with a film or special protective material. The beds should be covered immediately after sowing.
- Seeding too deep prevents germination. It is very important to calculate the planting depth - a large depth negatively affects seed germination. Most crops are recommended to be sown to a depth of 0.3-0.6 cm. Small seeds of flower crops and herbs are simply sown on the surface of the soil.
Three ways of sowing seeds
Seeds of any crop can be sown dry, wet or germinated.
- Dry seeds. They are sown quickly and easily, but the time of their emergence is quite long.
- Soaked seeds. Soaking the seeds and treating them with growth stimulants guarantees quick and friendly germination of crops. This sowing method is applied to seeds with questionable germination, as well as in the case of late sowing.
- Sprouted seeds. They will ensure the yield of early maturing varieties even if you missed the recommended sowing dates and planted them later.
Which seeds should be soaked and germinated and which shouldn't?
- soaking and germination is required for seeds that sprout slowly (parsley and carrots), require a lot of moisture (legumes and onions), and have special properties (beets).
- it is not recommended to soak quickly germinating seeds (radish, turnip, radish), as well as seeds that form mucus when soaked (basil).
- carrots are best sown in granular seeds or seeds placed on paper strips that cannot be soaked. You can only soak carrot seeds if you are confident that you can thin out the crops.
- Soaking small dusty seeds is categorically not recommended!
For small germinated seeds, use liquid sowing
In this way, carrots and dill, onions and parsley are sown. Liquid sowing involves sowing seeds on a cooled paste made from potato starch. Thanks to the paste, the germinated seeds are kept in suspension. The mixture should be homogeneous, without clots and foam, it is prepared no earlier than a day before use. Seeds are poured into a bucket of paste and gently mixed. Then, using a measuring glass, this mixture is poured into pre-prepared holes 1.5-2 cm deep. When pouring the paste with seeds into the hole, the hand with the glass must be moved quite quickly in order to prevent too thick sowing. Then the holes are covered with loose soil.
The specifics of sowing dusty and small seeds
Seeds of this type have remontant strawberries and annual flower crops. Such seed is susceptible to black leg disease and has rather poor germination rates.
- seeds are sown in low containers filled with loose, moist soil. Before sowing, the soil is specially compacted and added Trichodermin, which will protect crops from fungal diseases. The seed is not covered with earth, but is scattered over the surface of the soil
- the sown surface is additionally moistened from the sprayer, after which the container is placed in an open plastic bag, placed in a warm place and, if necessary, the soil is periodically moistened from the sprayer. After the first shoots appear, the bag is removed from the container and the container is transferred to a place with good illumination. To prevent black leg disease, crops are watered from a spray bottle with a solution that includes Rizoplan and black yeast. The sprouts are planted in the greenhouse in mid-late April. They are grown on biofuel before being planted in the ground in mid-May.
Sowing nightshade and melons
Solanaceous plants (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants) and melons (zucchini, pumpkins, cucumbers) are sown either directly into the ground or into sawdust. In the ground, seedlings grow rather slowly, its root system is weaker and more difficult to take root after transplantation. Seedlings growing in sawdust develop faster and are distinguished by a powerful root system, which is excellently taken into growth in a new place.
Growing seedlings in the ground:
- a fairly deep container is filled with moist soil
- seeds are sown at a distance of at least 2 cm from each other
- the crops are sprinkled with soil and rolled lightly.
Growing seedlings in sawdust:
- wet sawdust is poured into a shallow and flat container
- the distance between seeds must be at least 2 cm
- the crops are covered with sawdust, which is sprinkled with a layer of vermicompost after the first gatherings appear.
Further care of crops:
- the containers placed in plastic bags are placed in a warm place with a temperature of about 25-30 ° С
- after the first shoots appear, the temperature can be reduced to 18-26 ° С during the day and up to 14-16 ° С at night
- the containers are taken out of the bags and kept under fluorescent lamps for 12-14 hours daily
- diving of seedlings begins after the appearance of the first leaf.
How many days do vegetables germinate?
Temperature regime, 12 ° C
Temperature regime, 20-22 ° C
Disinfection of seeds from pathogens
Disinfection is one of the main stages of seed preparation for planting.
There are many ways to disinfect seeds:
- leave seeds of tomatoes, peppers, beans, beets, peas, all pumpkin crops in the sun. The seeds are poured onto a saucer and placed in the sunniest place (south window, glazed loggia) for a week. The sun's rays kill all pathogenic fungi that may be on the seed coat. Seeds germinate much more amicably
- seeds of peppers, eggplants and tomatoes can be disinfected in a solution of hydrogen peroxide (6 ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide per 200 ml of warm water at 40 ° C) by immersing them for 7 minutes. Then rinse the seeds thoroughly with water, dry and sow
- Another option is to soak the seeds for 20 minutes in a solution of 2 tablespoons of 3% hydrogen peroxide per 1 liter of water, then rinse with running water and sow. Hydrogen peroxide softens the seed coat and kills the pathogenic flora found on the seed surface
- seeds of peppers and tomatoes are kept in hot water (50 0 С) for 2 hours, then quickly cooled in cold water. Next, the seeds are pickled in potassium permanganate (1 g per 0.5 l of water) for half an hour. Then they are kept in ash water (1 tsp ash per 1 liter of water), after which they are not washed
- eggplant, tomato, cabbage and lettuce seeds are kept in aloe juice for 24 hours. Then, without washing, sow or germinate
- for the preparation of juice, leaves older than 3 years with an intense green color are used, which have lain in the refrigerator for 5-7 days.
Attention! Processing seeds of peppers, onions, celery and pumpkin crops with aloe juice is contraindicated!
- seeds of peppers, eggplants, tomatoes, cabbage crops (cabbage, kohlrabi, swede, broccoli, radish, radish) in gauze bags are immersed in a garlic solution (25 g of garlic gruel per 100 ml of water) in a tightly closed container for 1 hour. After the seeds are washed and dried
- seeds of many vegetable crops are dipped in gauze or canvas bags in hot water (50 0 C) for 20 minutes. Then chilled in cold water for 2-3 minutes
- seeds of parsley, celery, parsnips, onions, beets are kept in warm water for 2 days, changing every 4 hours. Beet seeds germinate on day 4, carrots - on day 5, parsley, celery, parsnips, onions - on day 7
- onion seeds in a gauze bag or simply wrapped in a cloth are placed in a thermos (water temperature 50 0 C) for 15 minutes, then cooled under running cold water for 1 minute. The seeds are dried and sown.
Preparing cabbage seeds for sowing seedlings
Cabbage is capricious and requires constant care, starting from the moment of purchasing raw materials for planting. Preparing cabbage seeds for sowing for seedlings is the first stage of care, which directly affects the quality and quantity of the crop obtained.
Preparing cabbage seeds for sowing seedlings
Why Soak Cabbage Seeds
High-quality preparation of the material before planting is a guarantor of an increase in yield by 20-30%. Soaking cabbage seeds is necessary for disinfection, which increases the vegetable's resistance to viruses and bacteria. Plants grow at the same time and develop faster.
Before soaking cabbage seeds before planting, carry out preparatory work:
- selection of seeds
- germination test
- warming up
How to choose seeds
The preparation of cabbage seeds is carried out after the choice of material according to a number of criteria:
- type and grade
- the region where the landing will take place
- soil condition
- ripening time
- disease resistance
- shelf life.
These rules are suitable for both white cabbage and cauliflower. Presowing treatment will be ineffective if you ignore any of the factors.
To carry out the calibration, it is necessary to prepare a solution of sodium chloride and place the seed there. Light seeds will float upward, while heavier ones will remain below. The seeds at the top can be collected and discarded. They are not suitable for sowing.
All remaining seeds are collected from the bottom and washed with clean water to remove salt. After that, they are dried so that they do not start to germinate ahead of time. Medium seeds are also suitable for sowing if they are soaked before planting.
The calibrated grains are checked for germination quality. To do this, take 100 units of material and put them on a damp cloth. A damp piece of cloth is placed on top.
Germination is carried out for 7 days at a temperature of 23 ° C-25 ° C. The grains are inspected and counted daily. On the third day, the uniformity of germination is determined, and after a week - the germination rate as a percentage.
Seeds must be disinfected
Soaking cabbage seeds is carried out for disinfection. The procedure is aimed at destroying the causative agents of viral diseases. Preparation of cabbage seeds for sowing without disinfection is ineffective.
For the procedure, a solution of potassium permanganate is used, after which it is washed with water.
Heat treatment is considered a more efficient method. The essence of the operation is the effect of warm water on the grains. The inoculum is wrapped in a gauze bag and immersed in water at a temperature of 50 ° C for 25 minutes. At temperatures above 50 ° C, the seeds will lose their germination, and below 48 ° C, the treatment will not give results. For this, a large amount of water is used, which reduces the rate of temperature change. A suvidnitsa is perfect for this method.
Disinfection can be done with garlic. 30-40 g of the plant is crushed and stirred in a glass of water. Grains are dipped into the mixture and kept there for 1-2 hours. After the procedure, the grains are thoroughly dried.
How to soak seeds before planting
Soaking is carried out both in plain water and in special solutions to stimulate culture growth. It is better not to use tap water for processing.
Soaking in water is carried out according to the following principle:
- They use settled melt or rain water, as well as boiled tap water or purchased non-carbonated water.
- The seed is spread out so that the water does not completely cover it. The container should be in a warm but dark place.
- Soaking is carried out 2-3 days before sowing. Do not pull with planting in the ground, since the grains germinate quickly.
- You can soak cabbage seeds in water using growth stimulants. To do this, choose any of the organic stimulants.
Use of special drugs
The most popular purchased products are:
Their use accelerates germination, improves the resistance of the crop to frost, drought, diseases and harmful insects. Processed seedlings are easier to plant in open ground.
To properly soak the seeds with Zircon, dissolve 2-3 drops of the product in 300 ml of water. Soak for 15-20 hours. The drug promotes the penetration of water into the grain. The result can be determined visually: the grain swells.
A solution of nitrophoska or other complex fertilizers can be effectively used for processing by soaking. For this, 1 tsp. the funds are dissolved in 1 liter of warm water, the seed is kept there for at least 12 hours, after which it is thoroughly washed with clean water.
You can do without chemicals. For this, an ash infusion is prepared from 2-3 tbsp. l. wood ash and 1 liter of warm water. Such a solution is kept for a day under a lid, after which it is filtered. The grains are immersed in liquid for 3-4 hours and then washed.
Additional processing methods
Seeds for seedlings are treated by bubbling. This method is similar to soaking, but differs by using oxygenated water. It can be obtained using an aquarium compressor.
For seeds that germinate for a long time, use the stratification method. The essence of the operation is to create approximate natural conditions. Grains mixed with soil are susceptible to high and low temperatures.
After soaking, the material is hardened. For this, the processed grains are kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours. The temperature inside should be in the region of 1 ° С-3 ° С: this increases the grain's resistance to cold and accelerates germination.
Soak cabbage seeds before planting or not, each gardener decides for himself. By correctly soaking the seed, you can eliminate the need for calibration and ensure maximum germination.
Seed preparation for sowing
Author: Sergey Mozgovykh
Presowing seed preparation improves their quality, accelerates germination, increases resistance to diseases, unfavorable growing conditions and overall plant productivity.
Popular wisdom says: "Do not expect a good tribe from a bad seed." Gardeners most often use seeds not from their own garden, and sowing qualities, it would seem, are not in their power. But it is not so. The main qualities - purity, good germination, high germination energy - largely depend on the pre-sowing preparation of vegetable seeds, sorting and processing.
Characteristics and preparation of vegetable seeds for sowing - garden and vegetable garden
Grape varieties A-O, P-Z
The fern plant appeared on Earth more than 400 million years ago, they were huge and made up entire forests - these were tree ferns.
Now ferns are much smaller, found in forests. Reproduction occurs by spores. The fern has been very popular as a houseplant since the 19th century.
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When all the crops grown have been harvested and stored, it is time to review the seeds left over from last year. In many vegetable crops, seeds, if stored properly, do not lose their germination for 4-6 years (Table 10). After such a check, you can go to the site http://amc.ua/features/semena-pochtoj to buy seeds of those crops that are not in stock, and this must be done in advance, without waiting for spring and sowing time.
The main quality indicators of vegetable seeds
To increase the intensity of germination and initial growth, pre-sowing preparation of seeds is important. There are several ways to prepare seeds: calibration, dressing, soaking and germination, heating, hardening, treatment with biologically active substances and microelements.
Calibration - the seeds are immersed in a 3-5% solution of kitchen salt and mixed. Light, underdeveloped seeds float up, they are collected and thrown away, and those settled to the bottom are suitable for sowing. They are washed 3-4 times in clean running water and dried until flowable.
Etching - seeds of cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes, squash, asters are soaked in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, then washed in clean water 2-3 times and dried until flowable.
Soaking and germination. The seeds are poured with water at room temperature (preferably rain or snow), after the water is absorbed by the seeds, it is added more. Seeds of carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery, dill, onions are soaked for 2 days, tomatoes, beets - 1 day, cucumbers, zucchini, squash, radish, radish, cabbage - 12 hours. The soaked seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth or paper and placed in a warm place (temperature 23-25 ° C). When the first shoots appear, the seeds are sown in moist soil, in sowing boxes, greenhouses, in the beds.
Warming up... Seeds of cucumbers and tomatoes are heated on batteries, over lamps, on a stove for 10 hours at a temperature of 40 ° C or 2 hours at a temperature of 55-60 ° C. Heating cucumber seeds increases the number of female flowers on the plant.