Environmental classification of pesticides

Environmental classification of pesticides

Vigilance and caution when applying chemical protection products in their areas

Recently, the media often talk about the ban on the import of certain vegetables and fruits into Russia due to the presence of pesticides in them. In addition, in the old literature on gardening, as well as in popular publications for gardeners, in the articles of the laggard owners of six acres, you may come across recommendations on the use of some outdated plant protection products, previously called pesticides, and now pesticides.

For example, there were publications in which it was proposed to use DDT, nitrafen, DNOC (dinitroorthocresol), HCCH (hexachloran), chlorophos, herbicide TXA (sodium trichloroacetate), Parisian greens, drug No. 30 and other drugs in a personal subsidiary farm or in summer cottages, which are currently out of production and banned for use on the territory of Russia. Their use leads to long-term negative consequences for the environment. They either persist in the soil for a very long time, or have long-term effects (mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, embryotoxicity, etc.), for example, a drug such as DDT can persist in the soil for up to 50 years. Moreover, the legislation provides for criminal liability for the use of prohibited drugs.

I will also note that only drugs approved for use in personal subsidiary plots can be sold to the population. In general, only drugs included in the "List of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use in the Russian Federation for the current year" can be sold and used on the plots. This guide is sent as an appendix to the journal "Plant Protection and Quarantine". Since this guide is used in organizations related to plant protection, gardeners should ask about dubious drugs from specialists from plant protection stations or teachers of chemical protection, entomology or phytopathology of agricultural universities.

I would also like to note that even the use of permitted plant protection products can have negative consequences for the environment and human health. Relatively serious health consequences can be caused by the use of medium and highly toxic drugs. For example, Decis, Bazudin are highly toxic pesticides, malofos, copper sulfate, and copper oxychloride are moderately toxic pesticides. Poisoning can occur if the regulations for the use of the drug are not observed (concentration of the working fluid, consumption rate, waiting period - the number of days from processing to harvesting, the maximum number of treatments) or safety measures (precautions).

Protection products (pesticides) are subdivided into 4 classes according to the degree of danger to the environment. Belonging to a particular hazard class is determined by several indicators, incl. by a lethal dose when introduced into the stomach, the ability to accumulate in the body and remain in the soil.

Hazard class 1 includes extremely dangerous drugs. Most of them have already been banned. These include DDT (prohibited), metabrom (prohibited), metaphos (prohibited), anti-rodent drugs: zoocoumarin, Storm (permitted), Rattidion, Norat (permitted), zinc phosphide-based preparations and others.

Class 2 includes dangerous (highly toxic) drugs: Decis, Bazudin, Bi-58, the herbicide Atrazine (prohibited in private household plots) and others.

The 3rd hazard class includes moderately hazardous (moderately toxic) drugs: karbofos, copper oxychloride, oxychom, copper sulfate.

Class 4 includes low-hazard drugs: Actellic, Bordeaux mixture, Roundup herbicide, biological products (fungicides: Planriz, Agat-25K trichodermin, pseudobacterin, insecticides: Lepidocide, Bitoxybacillin, Fitoverm).

Now let's dwell on how to protect plants without negative consequences. I will list safe plant protection measures:

  • compliance with crop rotation;
  • providing the plant with all nutrients, incl. microelements;
  • selection of resistant varieties;
  • tillage;
  • preventive treatments with immunomodulators: immunocytophyte, Novosil, Silk, Zircon, Epin, humates, as well as biopreparations.
  • use in conditions of high humidity, as well as at the initial stage of diseases of biological products or folk remedies, for example, herbal infusions that have a fungicidal (against fungi), insecticidal or repellent (repelling insects) effect.

I will give examples of the use of agrotechnical measures and folk remedies

Harmful objectsMeasures and means
Diseases:Folk remedies and biofungicides:
Late blightPlanriz, Agat-25K, Fitosporin
Gooseberry powdery mildewSlurry, strained and diluted 3 times
Brown spot of tomatoes (cladosporium)Weak solution of potassium permanganate, pseudobacterin
Potato scab and rhizoctonia, strawberry gray rotGrowing white mustard
Pests:Means, including biological products:
Sucking (aphids, thrips, bugs)Infusion of onion peels (400 g per bucket of water), garlic pulp (200 g per bucket)
Onion and carrot fliesSprinkle with tobacco dust or peat chips
Leaf-eating caterpillarsDandelion infusions (400 g per bucket), tomato tops, pyrethrum
Cruciferous fleasEM-5* (I know from my own experience)

* - EM-5 is not sold and does not appear in the "List of pesticides", but it can be prepared from Baikal EM-1.

In conclusion, I want to remind you that they are all safe for nature, and most of them are harmless for humans. I also hope that gardeners have understood that there is an alternative to "chemistry", and fruits and vegetables processed only with infusions or biological products can be considered environmentally friendly, but only on the condition that permitted chemicals have not been used on the site for the previous three years, and prohibited ones - and even more.

Alexander Zharavin, agronomist, Kirov


Features of the use of pesticides

Features of the use of pesticides

Pesticides are produced in different forms and by different manufacturers. These can be tablets, granules, powder, aqueous solutions, emulsions, and the like. It is important to carefully study the instructions before use. Some substances are less harmful than others, but due to misuse they can completely destroy crops. To avoid this, they are used exclusively in the dosage indicated in the instructions.

When using pesticides in agriculture, safety rules must be observed. Thoughtless spraying will definitely affect your health. Gloves, a mask, and a special protective gown with a hood must be worn. This will minimize the impact on the human body.

Quite often, the timing of the spread of pests on garden crops coincides, in order to cope with several problems at once, pesticides are mixed, making a rather dangerous mixture. Dealing with her must be done with extreme caution.

It is important to note that some products cannot be mixed with others; this can greatly harm the garden, plants and crops.

  • Preparations that contain sulfur and oil emulsions cause burns on the leaves when sprayed.
  • If you mix pesticides and biological products, this, most likely, will lead to the destruction of not only harmful, but also beneficial microorganisms - the use will become meaningless.
  • Foliar dressing is not carried out in conjunction with spraying with pesticides, since the effectiveness of both products will be reduced.
  • Lime significantly reduces the effect of pesticides, so they are not used together either.
  • Mixing drugs with similar properties is usually not practiced - it makes no sense.

Use diluted pesticides immediately after preparation. They are not harvested for the future.


Ways of exposure to insect pests

On a note!

The drugs can be continuous action where different types of pests are affected . AND, selective action when the drug only acts on certain insects. For example: antihelmetic is used against various worms on plants and animals, but nematicides are used only against roundworms.

Acaricide ... Anti-ticks. For example: Apollo, Neoron, Omite, Nissoran.

Insectoacaricides ... Here, I mean, pest control, which requires a special approach. These include: Aktellik, Mitak, Vertimek.

Aficides ... Such insecticides fight only aphids.

Larvicide ... Such preparations are adapted for the destruction of larvae and caterpillars of pests.

Ovicide ... It affects the pest in the bud. Here, the drug acts on insect eggs.

Universal ... It can fight several types of pests.

Nematocide ... Such drugs are used only to kill roundworms.

Repellent ... Plants that repel insect pests.

How to apply insecticides

Preparations for controlling insect pests are available in such forms as crayons, spray, granules, powder, and simply in liquid form.

Treatment methods with drugs are: spraying, dusting, we put into the ground, traps (poisoned baits).

Optimal conditions... To prepare a working solution of an insecticide, the water should be + 10 ° С - 16 ° С, and the acidity within 5.5 - 7 pH. I would like to note that the water can be acidified with citric acid or vinegar. Note that you cannot use water directly from a well or well. You need to wait for it to warm up. Next, we look at the ambient air temperature, which should be within 12 ° C - 22 ° C above zero (this is important).

On a note!

We carefully read the instructions and work. The drugs can be toxic and therefore the use of insecticides is dangerous. Don't forget about safety precautions.

Active substance plays a primary role in any drug. And therefore, it is written on any package with an insecticide. Here you need to understand that different drugs, but with one active ingredient, act in the same way. See the table below.

Active substance Drug names, description (briefly)
Imidacloprid - systemic insecticide Commander, Confidor Extra, Biotlin, Colorado, Bison, Golden Spark, Monsoon, Tanrek
Malathion - non-systemic, acaricide Iskra M, Antiklesch, Fenaxin-Plus, Fufanon-nova (concentrate of malathion emulsion), Inta-TsM, Karbofos (malathion powder)
Pyrethroid - cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin Inta-Vir, Spark, Spark Double effect (in a potassium tablet for immunity), Kinmix, Tsunami, Senpai, Lightning KE, Decis
Complex preparations Inta CM (cypermethrin + malathion), Alatar (cypermethrin + malathion), Knockdown (cypermethrin + creolin)
Diazinon - non-systemic wide spectrum Anteater, Ant, Muratoks, Muratsid, Flycatcher, Thunder, Thunder-2, Zemlin, Medvetox, Pochin, Provotox
Bio-based Akarin, Fitoverm, Iskra-Bio, Lepidocid, Bitoxybacillin

On a note!

With prolonged use, addiction (resistance) of pests to the drug can occur, therefore it is recommended to alternate drugs with different components.


WHAT PESTICIDES ARE THERE?

Now let's try to understand the abundance of drugs that fill the shelves of shops for gardeners and truck farmers.

Separately, I would like to say about biological products of bacterial nature. They are safe for humans and animals, for plants, fish and entomophages. Therefore, they are referred to the 4th hazard class - low hazard.

Biological products are used to treat agricultural crops in open and closed ground conditions in all phases of their growing season. True, they will be effective only if:

1. The number of pests is small. During the period of mass infection of plants with pests or diseases, the effectiveness of biological products may not be high enough. In the event of a massive attack, chemical plant protection products should be used. Otherwise, everything may end in loss of crops.

2. Carry out processing at an optimal temperature (18-25 °) and not too high humidity

3. Carry out treatments when the pests reach the optimal age.

The short term of action of drugs of biological nature is also important. This leads to an increase in the number of treatments, and hence the cost of purchasing them. And the shelf life of biological products, as a rule, is limited to 2-3 months.

In addition, biological agents, as a rule, are not able to control pests found in the internal tissues of plants.


Classification groups of pesticides

There are many classification groups of pesticides, so drugs can be classified and divided depending on their chemical composition, object of use, nature of exposure and other characteristics. Let's consider the main types of pesticides.

Chemical composition... The classification of pesticides by composition allows us to distinguish two groups of drugs: organic and inorganic.

These are the largest groups of pesticides, therefore, for convenience, some classes of drugs are also distinguished within the group. The main organic pesticides include:

  • organochlorine pesticides
  • organophosphorus pesticides (derivatives of the following acids: phosphoric, thiophosphoric, dithiophosphoric, phosphonic)
  • organometallic preparations
  • alkaloids (containing niacin).

The nature of the impact... Here pesticides are released, the purpose of which can be the prevention and treatment of plant diseases or the destruction of pests.

Special purpose... This classification group divides all drugs according to the purposes for which they are used. The following classes and types are distinguished:

  • herbicides - used to control weeds and various harmful plants. Mainly used when processing large areas of crops in agricultural production
  • insecticides - This class of chemicals is designed to carry out pest control. They are used in plant growing, and in horticulture and horticulture
  • fungicides - this type of pesticide is used in plant growing to combat various types of fungi that are harmful to plants
  • zoocides - this category of pesticides is aimed at combating warm-blooded animals, including rodents. It is used both in the fields and in places where products are stored (warehouses, currents, elevators, etc.)
  • molluscicides - a pesticide category for slug control
  • nematicides - they are used to combat parasites such as roundworms

The degree of danger of the drug... This classification of pesticides is no less important than the previous ones. The following drug hazard classes are distinguished:

  • first class - drugs in this category are the most potent

IMPORTANT! Pesticides of the first class of toxicity are prohibited for private use in the backyard.

  • the second class - pesticides of this class are highly toxic substances. Can be used both in fields and in personal plots
  • the third class - it includes pesticides of average toxicity
  • fourth class - this includes drugs of low toxicity.

Impact type. Depending on how the chemical elements contained in the pesticide affect the target, the following classes are distinguished:

  • contact group - the death of a pest or parasite occurs through direct contact with a chemical
  • systemic group - pesticides of this category affect the vascular system of the plant. The pest dies when it eats the roots of the plant
  • intestinal group of drugs - from the name it is clear that the drug first enters the digestive system of the pest, after which death occurs
  • fumigative group - death occurs when a pest inhales this type of pesticide.


Classification and brief characteristics of fungicides, acaricides, insecticides

Brief characteristics of pesticides.

When using pesticides, it is very important to use drugs of different chemical classes to prevent the emergence of resistant pest populations.

I recommend using soluble powders (VG) and having minimum consumption rates. Next, I give a brief description of the conventional chemical classes or the principle of action.

Fungicides - chemicals used to kill parasitic fungi

As a rule, fungicides that are effective against ascomycetes (this class includes powdery mildew) are effective against many other pathogens, but less effective against diseases caused by oomycetes (this class includes downy mildew). Fungicides effective against oomycetes are also effective against other pathogens of many diseases, but less effective against diseases caused by ascomycetes.

Therefore, many fungicides are combined, i.e. they contain several active ingredients.

Class of fungicides Triazoles: Characterized by a systemic, sufficiently long-lasting and broad spectrum of action. The preparations have an acropetal effect, that is, they are able to move beyond the point of plant growth, providing protection for young growing organs. Quickly absorbed by foliage. Not phytotoxic at recommended consumption rates. They are used against powdery mildew, rot, rust, netted spot, scab, septoria, cercosporellosis, rhynchosporium oidium, gray rot .. Recommend Speed.

1) Speed, Split, Difenoconazole

3) Impact, Vincit. flutriafol

5) Bayleton, Tosonite, triadimefon

8) Real. Premis25, triticonazole

9) Raxil, Terrasil tebuconazole

12) Falcon, combined fungicide (d.v. tebuconazole, triadimenol, spiroxamin)

13) Folicur, combined f-d. tebuconazole, triadimefon

14) Shavit, combined f-d (d.v. triadimenol, folpet)

15) Rex, Allegro Plus epoxiconazole

17) Alto, cyproconazole and propiconazole

Class of fungicides Benzimidazoles. They are effective against powdery mildew, cercosporellosis, fusarium root rot, gray and white rot, fusarium wilting, ascochitosis, snow mold, dusty and hard smut, rhizoctoniae, pyriculariasis, phomosis, anthracnose.

They have a systemic effect. Low toxicity to humans. I recommend using 0.2% watering method. Well absorbed through the root system and carried up the vascular system. Not phytotoxic, i.e. do not burn plants. It can also be used as a seed dressing agent with a 2% suspension. The best fungicides to combat root rot. I recommend Benlat or Fundazol.

1) Ferazame, the Terminator. Carbendazim, Derozal. Shtefazal, Bavemtin, BMK

2) Benlat. Fundazol. Agrocyte, benomyl

3) Vial, Vincit, Tecto, thiabendazole

Class of fungicides Strobilurins - systemic, immunostimulating action. They are used against powdery mildew, rot, rust, scab, peronosporosis, late blight, mildew, and other spots. Almost all phytopathogens of fungal origin fall into the zone of action of this group of drugs. Strobilurins destroy mushrooms of 4 classes: oomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes. They have an acropetal effect, that is, they are able to move beyond the point of plant growth, providing protection for young growing organs. Resistant to temperature extremes, quickly penetrate the plant, providing long-term protection. Ideal as a preventive treatment against plant diseases. I recommend Flint.

4) Cabrio Top, piaklostrobin

Fungicide class Hydroxyanilides: A fairly new group.

1) Teldor, fenhexamide, is the best fungicide for combating gray and monilial rot, powdery mildew. Non-phytotoxic, not hazardous to humans and the environment. Perfect for processing flowers. Contact long-term action.

Fungicide class Carbamates - have a systemic effect. Can be used by watering the substrate. They penetrate the roots and are carried up the vascular system.

1) Previkur, propamocarb, - systemic and stimulating action, a wide spectrum of action against oomycetes. (stem and root rot, downy mildew fungi)

3) Topsin-M, thiophanate methyl. Effective against powdery mildew, scab, moniliosis, cercosporosis.

4) Fundazol, Benlat, benomyl, Agrocyte.

Fungicide class Piperazine derivatives. Protective and healing action.

1) Saprol, triforin - effective against powdery mildew, gray rot, scab, powdery mildew.

Class of fungicides Pyrimidinamines. Systemic or limited systemic action. Used against scab, powdery mildew, moniliosis.

Fungicide class Imidazoles - effective against powdery mildew fungi

Class of fungicides derived from hydroxycarboxylic acids - systemic action

1) Vitavax. Carboxin. Systemic seed dressing.

Class of fungicides Dithiocarbamates Contact action. Therefore, they are most often used in a mixture with other active ingredients. Effective only as intermediate or final treatments for plants.

1) Polycarbacin, poliram, metiram

3) Anthracol, propineb, - zinc-containing. Fungicide with bactericidal properties.

4) Acrobat (mancozeb - complex of maneb i tsineba)

5) Tattoo, combined f-d,. mancozeb (second d.v. propamocarb)

6) Ridomil-Gold combined f-d, mancozeb (second d.v. metalaxil)

Acetamides: and oxazolidine derivatives

1) Thanos. Combined f-d. (cymoxanil, famoxadon) - effective against late blight, alternaria, mildew.

Class of fungicides derivatives of amino acids. Phenylamides. Effective against downy mildew fungi. Systemic action. Apply no more than once a season.

Class of fungicides fluorinated pyrol derivatives

Fungicide class Organophosphorus - effective against powdery mildew fungi

Afugan - effective against powdery mildew fungi.

With the active ingredient fosetyl aluminum.

Effective against false mealy fungi. Systemic action.

1) Allett, aluminum fosetyl

Fungicide class Morpholine:

2) Allegro Plus combined f-d. (Fenpropimorph)

Fungicide class Aromatic oximes:

1) Alegro plus, kresoxim-methyl

Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects.

Insecticide class Pyrethroids. They are characterized by fast continuous action, high efficiency and low toxicity for warm-blooded animals. They decompose quickly in the external environment. They have a big drawback - addiction (resistance) in destroyed organisms to this class of compounds after several repeated uses. Low consumption rate. It is advisable to mix with systemic or hormonal insecticides. I recommend Caesar.

1) Fastak, Alphagard, alpha-cypermethrin

2) Thalstar, Caesar. Semaphore, Bifenthrin - Insenctoacaricide

3) Sherpa, Arrivo, Inta-vir, Cymbush, cypermethrin

6) Karate. Lambda cypermethrin

8) Kinmix, beta-cypermethrin

9) Vantex gammacyhalothrin

Thiourea insecticide class:

Pegasus - insectoacaricide, limited systemic, fumigation, ovicidal action. Wide spectrum, low toxicity to humans.

Insecticide class Organophosphorus. They are characterized by a limited systemic wide spectrum of action. I do not recommend using it due to its high toxicity to humans. In exceptional cases, I recommend Actellik.

1) Actellic, pyrimiphos-methyl, - insectoacaricide

2) Sumithion, Fenitration, Ovadophos, Metathione

3) Zolon. Fozalon. Benzophosphate. - insectoacaricide

4) NurelD, Pirinex, Dursban, Matador chlorpyrifos - the strongest of the combined organophosphorus insectoacaricides, but very toxic to humans.

5) Bazudin. Diazinon. Diazol, Thunder-2, Thunderbolt, Bunchuk, Medvedoks. - can be used to combat soil-dwelling pests.

6) Bi-58- Dimethoate. Rogor-S, Dimetrin, Accent, Pilarmax, Danadim - insectoacaricide

7) Fufanon - Phosbecid, Karbofos, Malathion - insectoacaricide.

8) Vofatox, Phosphamide, Parathionmethyl, Parachute, methylparathion. - used to combat soil-dwelling insects.

Insecticide class Neurotoxins. They are characterized by a wide spectrum of action, low consumption. Practically non-toxic to humans. Can be used for root and foliar applications. I recommend Mospilan, Confidor Maxi.

Neonicotinoids: systemic action

1) Aktara, Cruetzer, thiamethoxam, (oxadiazines)

2) Confidor, Leader, Vital, Antizhuk, Warrant, Zeus, Zenith, Ratibor, Tanrek, Gaucho imidacloprid. (Imidazoles)

3) Prestige, imidacloprid (imidazoles)

4) Calypso, thiacloprid, (Cyanamides)

5) Mospilan, acetamiprid, (acetamides)

6) Dantop, Ponche, Apaches (guanidine derivatives)

Nicotinoids: contact and intestinal action.

6) Regent, fipronil, (Phenylpyrazoles) - continuous contact-intestinal action, very low consumption rate.

7) Bankol, bensultap, (sulfonic acid derivatives) contact-intestinal action.

Insecticide class Hormonal.

Inhibitors of chitin synthesis and growth: Virtually harmless to the environment. Narrow selective spectrum of action. They also have an ovicidal effect. Adults are not killed, but sterilized. Can be used in conjunction with pyrethroids or neurotoxins.

1) Insegar, fenoxycarb (carbamates)

6) Apploud. buprofezin is the 1st insecticide for whitefly control.

Insecticide class Avermectins: Low toxicity to humans, wide spectrum, low pest resistance. Possess insecticidal, acaricidal and nematicidal activity. I recommend Vermitec.

Insecticide class carbamates. Systemic action. High insecticidal acaricidal and nematicidal activity. Highly toxic.

Class of spirocyclic phenyl substituted tetronic acids.

1) Oberon. JUDO, (Spiromesifen) Effekiven against thrips of many other insects and ticks. translaminar action plus ovicidal inhibitor (LBI). biosynthesis of lipids.

2) Kontos, Movento, (Spirotetramat). In addition to translaminar drugs, these drugs also have good systemic properties, but poor contact properties. Therefore, they are effective mainly against sucking pests (aphids, worms, ticks, whitefly)

Acaricides are chemicals used to kill ticks. All acaricides have a contact effect. The systemic properties of the drugs have not yet worked well enough. Therefore, quality processing is very important. If it is impossible to properly spray, I recommend using preparations with fumigant properties.

I recommend Sunmight and subsequent treatment with Nissoran. From a spider mite - Apollo.

For emergencies, Omite.

1) Omite, propargite - Continuous action, also has fumigating properties.

2) Sunmight, Taurus, pyridaben (Diazins) continuous action. Excellent eradicating properties. Low toxicity. I do not recommend using it more than once a year. The pest creates stable populations very quickly.

3) Neoron., Bromopropylate - continuous action

4) Flumite, flufensin is a hormonal acaricide, similar in action to Apollo. Low toxicity.

5) Neoron., Bromopropylate - continuous action

6) Apollo, clofentesin - An excellent hormonal acaricide against spider mites, non-toxic to humans. Destroys eggs, larvae. Does not work on adults, but sterilizes them. Longest protection period.

7) Borneo, Borneo (Etoxazole)
Hormonal acaricide. Recommended against spider mites, Tetranychus and Panonychus

8) Nissoran, Hexythiazox (carboxamides) - Hormonal drug. A wide range of actions. Low toxicity. Destroys eggs, larvae, nymphs. Does not work on adults, but sterilizes them.

9) Borneo, Borneo (Etoxazole)
Hormonal acaricide. Recommended against spider mites, Tetranychus and Panonychus.

10) Mitak, amitraz. Insectoacaricide. A wide range of actions. Effective acaricide.

11) Demitan, Magus, phenazaxine. Insectoacaricide. - a wide range of actions. Low toxicity.

12) Orthus. Kiron (fenpyroximate), a class of pyrazoles. A wide range of actions. Small consumption rate. Low toxicity.

13) Masai, Piranika. (tebufenpyrad) Pyrazole class. A wide range of actions. Small consumption rate. Low toxicity.

14) Oberon. JUDO, (Spiromesifen)

It has good insecticidal activity against whitefly and side against thrips, very broad acaricidal spectrum of action.

Sulfur-containing: - fungicides - acaricides - contact action. It makes no sense to use them, there are more effective and less phytotoxic drugs.

Copper-containing ones have almost continuous fungicidal and bactericidal protective, contact action. I recommend using it when the disease has an undetermined pathogen and only as an intermediate treatment.

Molluscicides are chemicals used to kill molluscs and slugs.

1) Metaldehyde - Granules are laid out on the surface of the substrate or soil.

1) Basamid Granulate, dazomet, tiazone. - soil sterilizer. Continuous nematicidal, fungicidal, herbicidal insecticidal action, phytotoxic.

Next, I list the drugs that can be seen on sale in the markets, which are potent substances (SDYAV). The sale of these drugs (often expired or taken from chemical burials) is illegal and poses a great danger to a gullible buyer.

1) Organophosphate nematicides such as Heterofos, Etaphos, Miral, Isazofos, etc.

2) Used for seed dressing in plants. Carbamates group. The active ingredient is carbofuran. Such as Carbation, Furadan, Hinufur, etc.

3) Organochlorine - I do not know where they are dug up, but DDT, HCH, Chlorophenolates, etc. are found.

5) Preparations used for disinfection of storage facilities. Fosteck. Fostoksin, Foscom. Mastoxin, d. - aluminum phosphide. And based on d.v. Magnesium phosphide.

Do not buy anything hand-held in spontaneous markets and dubious stalls.

80% of all products are at best expired, of poor quality, at worst - not at all what is written on the label. With modern printing equipment, all these holograms, etc. - not a problem for shady packers. Indeed, the packaging can contain very toxic substances. Also, with prolonged or improper storage, many drugs decompose into even more toxic compounds. The use of questionable drugs can cause irreparable harm to your health.

Try to buy only from stores that are representatives of manufacturers.

Several rules for the use of pesticides:

All pesticides have, to varying degrees, cumulative carcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects. Therefore, you should not neglect safety measures, because a negative effect on health can manifest itself only after a while.

First of all, you need to use at least a respirator, because the fastest absorption into the blood occurs through the lungs, bypassing the hepatic barrier. You can not drink alcohol on time, even the slightest hit of pesticides in the body. Under the influence of many substances, alcohol turns into poisonous acetaldehyde. Do not underestimate the toxicity of biological pesticides. They also have carcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects.

From my own experience, milk, vitamin E and a bath (sauna) have the best detoxifying effect.

Toxicity of pest control drugs, especially in apartments and other residential areas.

The second most important indicator, and sometimes the first, especially for closed rooms, is the volatility of the drug. Penetrating into the lungs of a person, pesticides are immediately absorbed into the blood, bypassing the hepatic barrier, spread throughout the body, immediately poisoning the brain and other internal organs. Every substance, even solid, can evaporate. And the main indicator is vapor pressure. I will not bother you with physics, I will say right away that the lower this indicator, the more volatility, and therefore the less harmful the drug for the lungs.

Vapor pressure is usually measured in Pa at 20 degrees C

The larger the figure in the 10- * degree - the less volatility.

That is, 1.0 · 10-2 is ten more toxic than 1.0 · 10-3

up to 1 10-2 evaporate very well, have good fumigation properties

up to 1 · 10-3 evaporate well, have moderate fumigation properties.

up to 1 10-5 hardly evaporate

up to 1 · 10-6 we can say that they practically do not evaporate.

Vapor pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 20 С

Vapor pressure 6.8 10-6 Pa at 20 C

Vapor pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 25 С

Vapor pressure 1.9 10-2 Pa at 20 C

Vapor pressure 1.13 10-5 Pa at 20 C

Vapor pressure 1.67 10-2 Pa at 20 C

Parathionmethyl (vofatox, metaphos, parachute)

Vapor pressure 1.3 10-3 Pa at 20 C

Vapor pressure 1.3 10-2 Pa at 20 C

Vapor pressure 4 10-2 Pa at 20 С

Vapor pressure 2.5 10-3 Pa at 25 C

Steam pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 20 С

Vapor pressure 3.4 10-6 Pa at 20 C

Vapor pressure 4.5 10-5 Pa at 25 С

Steam pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 20 ° С

Vapor pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 20 ° C

Steam pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 20 С

Steam pressure less than 1 10-6 Pa at 20 С

Spirodiclofen, Envidor Spiromesifene, Judo, Oberon, JUDO
Vapor pressure less than 1 • 10-5 Pa at 20 С

Carbosulfan, Marshal.
Vapor pressure 4.1 • 10-5 Pa at 25 C. But! Its decomposition product carbofuran is a hundred times more toxic and has a vapor pressure of 2.7 x 10-3 at 33 degrees Celsius. Evaporates well. Has a half-life of a month! A very persistent and toxic substance.


Notre poison quotidien / Our daily poison (2011)

Danger on your plate (2010)

The silent snow is the silent poisoning of the world.

Pesticides in tea: a bitter aftertaste (2017)

Silence of the Bees (2007)

Bananas! * / The Banana Menace / Bananas! * (2009)

Bananaland. Blood, Bullets, Poison / Banana land. blood bullets & poison (2015)

Fish of Mass Destruction / Poisson: élevage en eaux troubles (2014)

In agricultural production, chemical plant protection products are actively used. Chemicals today remain the most massive, cheapest, effective and convenient way to control pests.

A large number of chemical compounds are called pesticides, which differ from each other both in chemical structure and in the nature of their action. Experts use different classifications of pesticide preparations: chemical, hygienic, industrial.

The most relevant industrial classification for us is based on the purpose and composition of drugs, as well as the purpose and scope of their application. According to their purpose, pesticides are divided into agents for fighting various insects (insecticides), bacteria (bactericides), weeds (herbicides), fungi (fungicides), rodents (rodenticides), snails and slugs (molluscicides), worms (nematicides), etc. Pesticides also include preparations that are used to remove plant leaves (defoliants), dry plants on the root (desiccants), to regulate plant growth (retardants), to destroy plant flowers (defoliants).

Pesticides are produced in various commercial forms - in the form of powder, granules, emulsion concentrates, microcapsules, dusts, tablets and suspensions. Sometimes they can be produced in the form of solutions in organic solvents, in the form of aerosols and granulates suspended in water.

According to their chemical composition, the active substances of pesticides are divided into two groups: inorganic and organic. Thus, there are organochlorine, organophosphorus, organomercury, cyanide compounds, derivatives of carbamic, thio- and dithiocarbamic acids, phenol, symmetriazine, guanidine and urea, preparations of arsenic, sulfur and copper, alkaloids and many others.

When standardizing pesticide preparations and indicating the scope and order of their use, a classification by the degree of toxicity (potent, high, medium and low toxic substances) is used.

There is great potential in our country for the growth of production and use of pesticides. Experts note positive trends in the development of the industry and an increase in demand for chemical plant protection products. In total, there are several hundred pesticide producers in our country. But 84-85% of the market in monetary terms is occupied by only ten companies. Moreover, five of them own 62% of the market. These include both the largest transnational corporations (BASF, Bayer, DuPont, Dow, Syngenta) and Russian enterprises (August, AFD Chemicals, SAHO Khimprom, Shchelkovo Agrokhim).

Meanwhile, the most pressing problems remain a large number of counterfeit and falsified products on the Russian market, a complex and expensive registration procedure, as well as the release by domestic producers of environmentally friendly new generation pesticides, which are much safer and more effective.

To open your own production of pesticides and obtain a license for this type of activity, you will need special premises and equipped warehouses for storing products, which must comply with all sanitary and building codes and regulations and meet fire safety requirements. That is, all premises, including warehouses and production facilities, must be equipped with burglar and fire alarms. Before starting activities, it is necessary to obtain the conclusions of the bodies of sanitary supervision, environmental supervision and the fire service.

The equipment requires technological lines for the production of various types of pesticides and lines for packaging finished products. Not a single Russian enterprise carries out a full cycle of production of chemical plant protection products: as a rule, the goods are made on the basis of components supplied from abroad. For this reason, the cost of domestic pesticides largely depends on the prices of imported raw materials.

The most important (and essential) item of expenditure is the salary of a qualified staff of specialists who will work in your production. They must have an appropriate (agronomic and chemical) education.

Your range of products must be constantly updated in accordance with the changing requirements of health authorities for the safety of drugs for humans and the resistance (resistance) of insects to them. The State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use on the Territory of the Russian Federation is published once a year. It lists the manufacturing companies of each drug, its composition and instructions for use.

One of the characteristic features of this market is the prevalence of commodity lending. Ten years ago, the subsidy scheme for the purchase of chemicals changed dramatically. The size of subsidies decreased from 40% to 15%, and they began to be issued not to pesticide producers, as before, but to agricultural enterprises. Since the latter often do not have enough funds, manufacturers are forced to provide them with commodity loans (their volume may exceed 50% of turnover). According to the latest official data, only 31% of the total volume of plant protection products is purchased by farms on a 100% prepayment, and the rest place orders with payment by installments.

In addition, the organization of distribution presents a certain difficulty. Companies ensure their presence in the market through direct sales or through a network of distributors. However, the majority of enterprises operating in this segment have to sell their products through branch networks.

Do not forget about the long and complicated registration procedure for new drugs. Since all pesticides are toxic to one degree or another, they must undergo a mandatory environmental impact assessment and registration. Moreover, the period for registration of drugs in Russia is the longest in comparison with all other countries of the world - at least 2.5-3 years. All this pleasure costs a very impressive amount (on average, $ 200 thousand per item). This is the reason for the small number of modern drugs, especially those intended for not too widespread plant crops produced by domestic chemical manufacturers.

The profitability of the business for the production of plant protection chemicals is about 20%.


Pesticides: Protection for Plants or Poison for the Environment?

Pesticides: Protection for Plants or Poison for the Environment? - Section Biology, Pesticides: Protection For Plants Or Poison For The Environment? Candidate Chem.

Pesticides: Protection for Plants or Poison for the Environment? O. Maksimenko, Candidate of Chemical Sciences. What are pesticides? Are they not harmful to plants and humans? Do summer residents need them or should they abandon their use once and for all? In early spring, gardeners rush to the store to buy everything they need for the new season on their favorite site, and again they are faced with the question of whether or not to buy pesticides. On the one hand, this “chemistry” protects the crop effectively, but on the other, is it not dangerous? The First Deputy Minister of Health of the Russian Federation, Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation, Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences G. Onishchenko kindly agreed to answer the most frequently asked questions of readers.

The interview is conducted by O. Maksimenko, a special correspondent for the Science and Life magazine, Candidate of Science (Chemistry). - Gennady Grigorievich, every year I see the same picture: armed with a knapsack with a sprinkler, my neighbor goes on a "hunt" for the Colorado potato beetle, then for leafworms, fights powdery mildew and weeds.

Every year I think that after such processing the fruits of the earth can be hazardous to health, and I hope for harmless (alas, it seems, for pests too) tinctures of garlic and tobacco and other folk remedies “without chemistry”. And every year my neighbor treats me with his apples, cucumbers and potatoes - because my crop was lost either because of one misfortune, then because of another. So is it possible to find a reasonable compromise - use pesticides and not harm my health? - First of all, let's figure out what pesticides are.

By definition, these are chemicals that exhibit toxic (biocidal) properties. The word itself has Latin roots: "pestis" - an infection and "cido" - I kill. Pesticides are used to control pests and diseases of plants and animals, weeds, to regulate plant growth, pre-harvest drying and removing leaves. We can say that this is a human weapon, with which he "fights" for the crop with competitors - insects, weeds or pathogenic fungi.

Depending on who or what certain pesticides are directed against, several classes of them are distinguished. These are insecticides - preparations for the destruction of insects, herbicides - to destroy weeds, fungicides - to protect plants from fungal diseases, and so on. - So, all pesticides are toxic to some form of life, but how harmful are they to humans? Will he not have to choose between a large harvest and health, or even life itself? - I am a doctor by education, and I still consider my first professional commandment - “do no harm”. After all, a medicine can cure, and maybe kill, the question is in the dose and method of application.

The same applies to pesticides. Of course, like medicines, they can and should be used - but only very competently, in strict accordance with the instructions, and only those that have passed the state registration. And I would like to dwell on this in more detail. It must be admitted that the first pesticides had a number of shortcomings - simply because they were the first, and their creators could not answer questions that were not even posed at that time.

Therefore, these drugs, sometimes with relatively low efficiency, were very toxic not only and not so much for insect pests or plant pathogens, but for humans and the environment. Moreover, such substances as, for example, DDT, slowly decomposed into natural conditions, entered the food chains, accumulated in them, and this sometimes led to dire consequences. Finally, we must not forget that many pesticides and chemical agents are generally close relatives.

An example of such a relationship is organophosphorus compounds, but some pesticides of this class are still approved for use as biocidal agents. However, since then, scientists have created drugs of a new generation, whose effectiveness is sometimes orders of magnitude higher than that of their predecessors. To minimize the potential danger to humans and the environment, pesticides are now targeted.

This means that at the recommended concentrations they are low-toxic for humans, and for the target organism they are already deadly. Another way to reduce harmful effects is to use compounds that quickly degrade in the biosphere. Most new generation drugs have both of these qualities. - But how to ensure the safe use of pesticides? After all, the owners of personal subsidiary plots do not have special knowledge and skills? - Unfortunately, no one ever checks how summer residents use or store certain pesticides.

But, judging by the results of inspections of collective farms (and they are just checked regularly), there are problems - after all, after all, as Woland said in Bulgakov's work, people are people. And in large farms, the situation with the storage of pesticides, as well as with the disposal and disposal of those that are no longer suitable for use, is extremely difficult, if not monstrous.

Pesticides are often stored in completely unacceptable conditions. A significant part of the warehouses is in unsatisfactory condition and is not guarded, in other words, pesticides are heaped in a pile in half-destroyed sheds, on which not only locks, and sometimes there are no doors. And such warehouses in the Kursk, Saratov and Kostroma regions are in large part: 72-89 percent, that is, 7-9 out of every 10. Moreover, it is often completely impossible to find out what exactly and where is stored in the warehouse - the labels are lost, the inscriptions are erased. For owners of subsidiary farms, the picture is often the same. Purchased long ago and already unusable pesticides are scattered in the corner or on the far shelf in the shed, in torn bags, and the owner himself does not remember for a long time what is there. In the end, he either uses them, as they say, “as God puts on his soul,” or simply throws them into the trash one day, not caring at all that this can cause irreparable harm to himself and the environment.

Another very important problem is that people use the same, familiar and familiar pesticides.

Now the assortment of these agrochemicals is very large, there are hundreds of names, but those few whose names have long been "heard" are bought and used the old fashioned way. For example, in Altai, out of the entire mass of pesticides, only 9 items are used, in the Saratov region - 20, but in There are already 126 different drugs in use in the Kursk region.- Why can't you use the same drugs all the time? - On the one hand, it has a negative effect on the environment and, accordingly, on humans. Poisonous chemicals accumulate in food chains, and pests adapt to them and cease to notice - like a cockroach from a joke that feeds on dust.

On the other hand, the advantages of new drugs, which are more effective and less dangerous both for humans and for the environment in general, are not used. As a result, where small amounts of a highly targeted pesticide could be dispensed with, rapidly decomposing into relatively harmless compounds, gardens and vegetable gardens continue to be treated with huge amounts of chemicals, which, as they say, kill all living things.

This is, of course, a metaphor, but the essence of the matter is just that. That is why it is so necessary to conduct extensive explanatory work among the population on how to properly use, store and dispose of pesticides. In other words, we must not be lazy persistently and constantly explaining to people how to correctly use these, of course, useful, but unsafe chemicals, how to use them in this way. so that you can get a good harvest, and not harm yourself, your beloved, and those around you.

Unfortunately, there are two polar opinions about pesticides. One of them is excessive caution, fear of “all chemistry”. But, as we have already said, this position is not constructive - it looks like a principled refusal to take any kind of medicine in case of illness. You can, of course, do without pesticides and grow a small amount of vegetables, flowers and fruits on your personal plot (how much will survive anyway), but why give up the opportunity to protect the crop? At the other extreme, there is a “devil-may-care” attitude towards the potential danger of pesticides both for the person himself and for his environment.

And the point here is not only that both the heads of large farms and amateur gardeners habitually rely on "maybe". Unfortunately, from time to time, irresponsible assurances appear in the press that modern pest control is not at all dangerous - like table salt or even less.

And if the first extreme threatens only with the loss of a part of the crop, then the second is much more dangerous. That is why we again and again draw the attention of the population to the fact that when using pesticides it is necessary to observe what is called the boring words "safety measures". Otherwise, the consequences can be disastrous, and the price of cucumbers-tomatoes from your garden will be clearly too high, since perhaps the amateur gardener himself, and his children, and neighbors will have to pay for the frivolity.

Pay in the literal sense of the word with health, and sometimes with life itself. - What are the basic rules that should be followed when working with pesticides? - So, the first thing a person does is buy pesticides. Now is the time for this. Spring, seedlings on the windowsill warms the soul, pests wake up after hibernation and are ready to pounce on their favorite garden and vegetable garden.

It's time to stock up on protective chemicals. How can this be done correctly? The main thing is not to buy them anywhere: along roads, in electric trains and other questionable places, from random people. You only need to go to shops, and even there you must be vigilant. Please note that all drugs intended for retail trade (and therefore allowed for use by individuals) must be in the manufacturer's packaging and packaged in small portions (no more than the amount required for the treatment of 0.1 ha) ... By the way, the label, like the instructions for use, must be mandatory, and on each package.

Of course, the packaging must be intact and the expiration date is in order. Otherwise, there is a high risk of buying either a low-quality pesticide, or one that can only be used by specialists. There is a list of pesticides permitted for use, and, depending on the potential threat to humans and the environment, they are divided into groups or classes.

There are four such groups in total, and private citizens who do not have either special knowledge or equipment are allowed to use only the least harmful compounds - those belonging to the third and fourth hazard classes. Such drugs are indicated in the list with the letter "L". Of course, this list - the State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use on the Territory of the Russian Federation - is constantly updated.

New chemicals appear, and after appropriate verification (whether the use will harm humans and the environment), they are entered into the appropriate section of the catalog. On the contrary, some drugs from the catalog are deleted from the catalog if research reveals their danger. Therefore, in a store that protects its reputation (as well as a license and, accordingly, money), you are unlikely to be sold a pesticide that is not in this list of drugs approved for use by individuals.

Of course, it is best to have this list yourself - especially since we recently released it with a circulation of 10,000 copies. In this case, the rule “trust but verify” is as relevant anywhere else. There are other "pitfalls" that are easy to get around if you know how to just follow simple instructions. What are they? So, you bought the drug and you are sure of its quality, it's time to put it into practice. Of course, the main and first thing you should do is to carefully study the instructions (as we say - regulations) and follow them exactly.

It contains all the necessary information and how to use the drug correctly, that is, the consumption rates, concentrations, the frequency of processing and the necessary safety measures are indicated, including the time that must be waited after the application of pesticides before proceeding with other gardening activities. garden work on this site. There is no need to take the initiative - here it is superfluous; it is better to follow the instructions meticulously - then the treatment will be both effective and not dangerous.

Further, it should be remembered that it is possible to treat the beds with pesticides only in the morning (before 10 o'clock) and in the evening (after 18), in calm or almost calm weather. Even a slight breeze must be taken into account - because of it, the chemical can get into the neighboring area or, even worse, people. The greenhouses should be treated with pesticides after you have already carried out the rest of the work in it - we weeded everything, spud, tied it up, etc. After processing, the greenhouse must be closed with a lock, a warning sign is hung and in no case are they included in it until the end of the term processing specific to each drug. Prepare any tools you may need in advance.

I must say that the common misfortune of all owners of personal subsidiary farms is that when working with pesticide solutions, they use a variety of, sometimes completely inappropriate devices: hand sprayers, hydraulic control units, brooms, brushes, and so on. In fact, you can only use knapsack sprayers, and with a barbell not shorter than 1.2 m, so that drops of solution do not get on the skin, eyes or respiratory organs. In addition, special clothing is needed to work with chemicals - best of all, a cotton robe, trousers or overalls, leather or rubber shoes, a hat or cap, rubber gloves and, if specified in the instructions, glasses and respirators.

It is important to store all this equipment separately from the rest of the clothes and not be lazy to wash every time after working with pesticides, moreover, with laundry soap.

Anything that cannot be washed should be properly wiped with soapy water and then rinsed with clean water. So, you get to work. To do this, first, in most cases, the drug is diluted with water. Of course, this is also done strictly according to the instructions, and most importantly - in special dishes, in no case in food. You cannot smoke, eat or drink during work - however, if you are equipped according to the rules, you will not succeed.

It is important to make sure that the chemical is delivered strictly to its intended purpose - and not to you, neighbors and nearby beds that do not need treatment. In general, it is better to cover the latter with polyethylene, as, incidentally, and water intake columns, if they are located in the area of ​​possible drift of the drug. You can work only one hour - no more. After work, it is best to shower, rinse your mouth and change clothes, wash and wash equipment and tools that have been in contact with the pesticide.

At the same time, to wash the inventory, either table vinegar is added to the water, or a soap and salt solution is used. Dirty water must be poured into a specially dug hole, away from wells - at a distance of at least 15 m.By the way, although metal or plastic jars from pesticides are sometimes very beautiful and seemingly convenient, use them for domestic needs, and even more so store in them water, food or fodder in no case. Paradoxically, but this happens - containers from pesticides can sometimes be seen in the most unexpected places.

What to do with unused pesticides? They can be left in storage, but with care. First, each package should be carefully closed, with a label and instructions on it. Various pesticides are not dumped “in bulk” on the floor in the barn, and even more so under the open sky. They are neatly laid out on the shelves of the utility room, in places inaccessible to children and animals. Now it is important to maintain the required "waiting period", that is, the time from processing to the moment when the crop can be harvested.

You have done everything in your power to ensure that the pesticide helps you get a good harvest and does not bring any harm. As they say, eat to your health! Good luck in the new season! Pesticides from the point of view of a chemist Details for the curious Depending on the chemical structure of pesticides, several large groups are usually distinguished: organochlorine compounds organophosphorus compounds carbamate derivatives chlorophenoxy acid derivatives pyrethroids.

There are pesticides of a completely different chemical nature - for example, substituted triazines and azoles, as well as derivatives of hydroquinone and benzoic acid. Representatives of the first and second groups, as a rule, are very dangerous, and in many countries the use of these pesticides is gradually abandoned, replacing them with more modern and safe ones. The mechanisms of action on living organisms of pesticides of different groups are different. For example, carbamates and organophosphorus compounds interfere with the work of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Why is that bad? The fact is that AChE is a specific enzyme of the nervous system.

It is needed to destroy acetylcholine, a substance that is produced by the end of a nerve and transmits a nerve impulse. After that, acetylcholine must be quickly deactivated, otherwise the synapse will be unprepared for the transmission of the next nerve impulse. Therefore, acting on acetylcholinesterase, pesticides of these two types block the transmission of nerve signals, which leads to disruptions in the functioning of the nervous system as a whole.

When the action of the AChE enzyme is blocked, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft (the gap between two nerve endings), resulting in impaired nerve transmission, seizures, paralysis and death. Incidentally, this is exactly how the military poisonous substances sarin, soman and V-gases work. Organochlorine compounds are even more dangerous: highly toxic and biologically active, they are stable in the environment and living organisms and have the ability to accumulate in food chains.

The products of their degradation or transformation, which are more stable than the original pesticides, also retain high toxicity. Examples of organochlorine pesticides are the notorious DDT (n, n-dichlorodiphenyltrich lorethane) and chlorine derivatives of dioxin. Some representatives of this class of substances are the strongest poisons, tens of thousands of times more toxic than potassium cyanide. DDT is a very common insecticide in the past. Some aquatic organisms selectively absorb DDT and its related compounds from the water, as a result, organisms at the end of the food chain can accumulate toxic substances in very high concentrations.

So, if the concentration of DDT in seawater is only 1x10-9 g / l, then in sea fish it is 5x10-5 g / kg (50 thousand times more!), And in birds of prey eating fish, the concentration of this toxicant is already 1x10-2 g / kg (10 million times more than in water). So, although the production and use of DDT in our country was banned back in 1972, it can still be found at all levels of the biosphere, even in the adipose tissues of penguins in Antarctica.

All living things in Vietnam still suffer from dioxins. Almost half a century has passed since the US troops sprayed the forests with these defoliants, and dioxins (they decompose very slowly and are not even washed off with water, since they are insoluble in it) remain in the soil. how easy it is to remove a layer of earth and extract dioxins from it with organic solvents.

True, recently Moscow scientists have developed a new method - instead of organic matter, to use supercritical water, since, as they found out, superheated water under pressure acquires the properties of a non-polar solvent, but this method, although it is safer from an environmental point of view, is also not simple and expensive. pesticides, the person uses as an active principle, as a rule, their toxicity.

The action of modern drugs is usually more sophisticated, and approaches to their development are changing. For example, when creating a pesticide, you can use the phenomenon of biotransformation, when a relatively harmless substance in the target organism is transformed into a toxic one. For example, a weakly toxic acephate (a propesticide, that is, a precursor of a pesticide) in the body of an insect pest turns into a selectively acting insecticide methamidophos. The effect of chlorophenoxy acids is very interesting.

By replacing plant growth hormones, they provide the weed with an abnormally rapid development, as a result of which the weed dies from depletion of energy reserves. These are very effective herbicides. Pheromones can be used as an extremely selective means of pest control (from the Greek "fero" - I carry + "hormone" - excitability). The fact is that these chemicals are involved in the relationship between individuals of the same species. In other words, pheromones allow living creatures to exchange information with each other using their sense of smell: to recognize “their own” by smell, to attract partners of the opposite sex, to warn of danger.

Insect pheromones can be obtained artificially, although this is a very difficult task, and introduced into the ecosystem, as a result, insects will be disoriented and the mating process will be disrupted. That is why synthetic acenol (a mixture of three substances: cis- and trans-dodecenylacetates and dodecanol) is successfully used to disorient some species of moths: plum, apple and others.

Of course, one should not forget about the time-tested traps, into which insects rush to an attractive aroma for them, for example, the smell of food or attractants - sex pheromones, and can no longer get out of these traps. Relatively recently, Moscow chemists, employees of the Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis. A.V.Topchiev, developed a method for producing synthetic pheromones, which effectively lured into traps both the harmful gypsy moth, the pink bollworm butterflies (a pest of cotton), and leafworms, the main pests of orchards.

Finally, as a pesticide, you can use just abrasives, that is, powders with hard, durable grains that have a specific "cutting" shape. After the insect runs over the abrasive powder, it simply dries up and dies - from desiccation, because the sharp edges of the grains scrape off the top layer from the chitinous integuments of the pests, which prevents the evaporation of moisture from the body.

And since abrasive insecticides are made from natural materials, such as pumice, corundum or diatomite (rock), they are practically not poisonous and are not dangerous either for humans or for pets. ... Erisman of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, the State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use in the Russian Federation includes 65 pesticides that can be used in personal subsidiary plots.

Of these, 15 are fungicides (to combat fungal plant diseases and various fungi), 36 are insecticides (to combat harmful insects), 13 are herbicides (to combat weeds). The most widely represented group of insecticides is pyrethroid derivatives (for example, Fastak, Inta-Vir, Sumi-alpha, Sherpa), as well as other chemical classes (Aktara, Mospilan and others). It should be noted that pests often develop resistance (resistance) to insecticides, in particular to pyrethroids.


Watch the video: Types of Pesticides