Cabbage is a popular and healthy product. It is rich in vitamins. Early varieties allow you to get fresh fruits as early as July. A detailed description of all the features will help you easily decide where and when you can use this variety of Cossack cabbage.
Characteristics and features of the variety Kazachok F1
Cossack F1 - a hybrid of early ripening. The time from planting seedlings to full maturity is 45 to 50 days. The head of cabbage has a greenish round shape. On the cut it is white or slightly yellowish. Medium density, usually about 1.5 kg. Plant height 25-30 cm, head of cabbage 20-25 cm in diameter. stump is small. The vegetable has a good fresh taste. Does not crack. Most often used fresh.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the advantages thanks to which the Cossack woman gained popularity among gardeners are the following:
- Getting an early harvest.
- Withstands frosts down to -5 degrees.
- Disease resistant black leg, mucous and vascular bacteriosis.
- The crop ripens at the same time, you can immediately release the entire garden.
- The head of cabbage does not crack.
The disadvantages include intolerance to extreme heat. In hot weather, growth slows down, and the head of cabbage may not set at all.
Cossack should not be grown in the southern regions.
Perhaps not everyone will like its rapid, simultaneous ripening. The disadvantage can be eliminated by planting the fruits of medium and late cabbage together with the Kazachok variety.
How to grow seedlings correctly
Planting and caring for the variety is similar to caring for cabbage varieties, only the timing of planting seeds for seedlings differs.
Sowing of seeds begins in mid-March, 40-45 days before transplanting into the ground. For this, use shallow containers. Previously, the earth is well spilled with water. Seeds are sown in rows, after germination they need to be thinned out. Further, we maintain the temperature no higher than 6-7 degrees, otherwise the seedlings will begin to stretch and grow weak. After a week of hardening, we increase the temperature to 15 degrees during the day and 12 at night.
After 10 days, when the seedlings have two true leaves, they dive. This will improve the lighting of the plant and strengthen its root. Seedlings need to be deepened to the cotyledonous leaves, the roots should be shortened by a third.
When growing seedlings, avoid excess soil moisture, water after the surface is completely dry.
Use water above 18-20 degrees. Compliance with these rules of care will help to avoid the appearance of a black leg.
It's also important to remember good lighting. In April, there is a short daylight hours, so supplement the seedlings with artificial lighting. Use special phyto-lamps or simple fluorescent lamps.
We create good conditions for growth
It all starts with a properly prepared bed. The plant needs a lot of light, it does not tolerate cold winds, plantings are shaded from the northern streams. It will receive good lighting all day if the ridges are located from north to south.
You should also remember about predecessors. Cruciferous plants are not allowed. Cucumbers, potatoes or onions are good for this.
The soil should be fertile, rich in peat and humus, not acidic. To do this, add dolomite flour, which also increases the magnesium content, which improves the palatability of the fruit.
It is better to prepare the beds in the fall. Remove plant residues, loosen the soil. We apply organic and mineral fertilizers. In the fall, you can bring in fresh manure, by the spring it will burn out and will be useful. Add potassium and superphosphate. Sand or peat is mixed with heavy soils. In low places, high ridges are made so that the plants do not get wet.
A good way to increase soil fertility and clean up is sowing green manure. For this culture, it is good to use cereals and legumes, mustard.
We transplant seedlings into open ground
If you have been preparing the beds in the fall, there will be much less work. We loosen the soil, remove weeds, add nitrogen fertilizers. Starting from May 5, we transplant the seedlings to the garden bed. We apply the planting scheme - 45 cm by 45 cm. We plant only healthy, strong plants. We fill the wells with water, deepen the plants to the cotyledon leaves.We choose cloudy days when planting plants; on sunny days, the seedlings need to be shaded for the entire first week.
Next, water, loosen, feed. The hybrid Kazachok is resistant to various pests and rot, does not get sick with a black leg. This makes maintenance easier.
How to care for a plant outdoors
Cabbage loves warmth and moisture. In the heat, watering is needed at least three times a week, do not let the soil dry out. Watering should be done in the evening, when there is less evaporation. The water should be warm. Abundant watering for early cabbage is important in July - during the formation of heads of cabbage.
We mulch with peat, humus or just soil. Together with hilling, it retains moisture and nourishes the roots. Cabbage is fed with a complete mineral fertilizer (in the composition of phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium), with the addition of trace elements. We apply the first doses of fertilizers three weeks after planting in the ground.
Do not forget to remove weeds from cabbage beds in time. They shade plantings, take away food, serve as a breeding ground for pests and diseases.
Diseases and pests
The variety is highly resistant to blackleg and mucous bacteriosis; rather resistant to vascular bacteriosis and keel.
Diseases of cabbage: downy mildew, gray and white rot, fusarium wilting. There are many drugs available to combat them. It is better to use products that are safe for humans and the environment. The drug "Fitosporin-M" is just that and gives a good effect. It is useful to treat the ridges with copper-based products: Bordeaux mixture, bankol, phosphate.
Cabbage pests include some butterflies and flea beetles. You can use Fitoverm or dust the plants with mustard, ground pepper, tobacco dust.
Harvesting and preservation
In good weather conditions, this hybrid is ready for harvest at the beginning of July. The emergence of a fresh vegetable when there are no others yet makes it popular. Rounded, dense, tolerates transportation well, has a presentation. Heads of cabbage ripen at the same time, which is convenient for delivery to the market.
Cabbage is stored for three months, does not rot, does not lose its taste.
Early varieties cannot be salted and pickled. Used for fresh salads.
The choice of a crop variety for growing in the garden is a very important point. With a large selection of seeds on the market, you can always find what is convenient and beneficial for you.
This one should be attributed to the average in terms of ripening. Harvesting should take place 15-110 days from the moment of germination. The bushes are characterized by a semi-spreading rosette. The leaves are 55-67 cm in diameter, and their height reaches 20-28 cm. The leaves are juicy and have a slightly wavy edge. The head of cabbage is strong and round. Its weight is 0.75-1.2 kg, and its height is 17 cm. The Kazachok variety is characterized by excellent taste of cabbage. The fruits also have tender leaves, which contain many vitamins. They can be used to prepare various salads.
The next advantage of the variety is its resistance to such ailments as black leg, mucous bacteriosis. But Kazachok does not have such a strong immunity to vascular bacteriosis, keel and powdery mildew. But how the cultivation and care of Kohlrabi occurs is described in this video.
The following advantages of the variety include:
- high yield - from 1 m2 you can get up to 8-10 kg
- suitability for cleaning with the use of technology
- excellent marketability even during long-term storage
- head of cabbage cracking resistance
- excellent taste
- high concentration of nutrients in the leaves of the plant.
Description and characteristics of early white cabbage
Early ripening varieties differ from mid-ripening and late ones in several ways. The main ones include:
- low yield
- full technological maturation period - up to 110 days
- head structure
- preferably fresh
- not stored for a long time
- the tastes of all early varieties are similar
- if overripe, the heads of cabbage will begin to crack
- heads grow small - up to 2 kg
- frost resistance
- resistance to shooting.
In early varieties of cabbage, the forks are looser, the core is often dense and hard, and closer to the surface, the leaves are very tender and juicy. It is advisable to use it in cooking without heat treatment in order to preserve all the useful substances. You can cook hot dishes, but then it should be borne in mind that the cooking time for this variety is much shorter.
Salting and fermenting is permissible only for a short time, since such dishes from these varieties quickly deteriorate. But for their cultivation, you can use both seedling and non-seedling methods.
Cabbage variety Kazachok (F1)
Cossack is a hybrid of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) of early ripening. In 1996 it was included in the state register of the Russian Federation. Approved for use in all regions of Russia. Suitable for commercial production. Authors of the variety: A.V. Kryuchkov, G.F. Monakhos, S.V. Koroleva, N.N. Vorobyov and L.D. Bondarenko. Originators: All-Russian Research Institute of Rice (Krasnodar) and the Selection Station named after N.N. Timofeeva (Moscow).
The period from full germination to the onset of technical ripeness is 95 - 110 days, from planting seedlings in the ground to harvesting - 45 - 55 days.
The leaf rosette is semi-raised, 55 - 68 cm in diameter, 21 - 28 cm high. The number of leaves is 16 - 21. The leaves are small, rounded, sessile, with a short petiolate margin of the leaf, slightly cut. The color of the leaves is dark green with a bluish tinge and a waxy bloom of medium intensity. The leaf blades are coarsely wavy, slightly wavy along the edge, with a weak nerve of medium density.
Heads of cabbage are dense, rounded, 15 - 17 cm high, with an average weight of 0.8 - 1.2 kg. The outer color of the head of cabbage is green, in the section it is yellowish-white. Covering leaves are smooth, without anthocyanin bloom. The internal stump is 6 cm, the external one is 8 - 10 cm. The yield of marketable cabbages is 31.8 - 41.6 t / ha, which exceeds the indicators of the Transfer standard by 20 - 200 c / ha. The yield for 1 collection is 36 - 88 c / ha, which is 6 - 11 c / ha higher than the standard. Productivity per sq. meters - 3.5 - 5 kg.
The hybrid Kazachok is recommended to be consumed fresh. The chemical composition of cabbage is as follows: dry matter - 7.2%, ascorbic acid - 42.9 mg%, total sugar - 4.2%, protein - 0.8 - 1.3%.
This variety is highly resistant to blackleg, fusarium wilt and mucous bacteriosis, moderately resistant to keel and vascular bacteriosis.
Advantages of Kazachok cabbage: excellent taste of fresh products, amicable return of an early harvest, unpretentiousness, suitability for mechanized harvesting, marketability, high yield, resistance to common diseases.
The disadvantages include the poor resistance of heads of cabbage to cracking.
The best varieties of early cabbage
An early vegetable is called a vegetable that ripens 75-100 days from the moment of germination. Most often it is consumed fresh or stewed, added to borscht and cabbage soup. It is not always suitable for storage in winter, but it usually keeps well until December-January. These include the varieties described below.
Early cabbage "Rinda" is intended for fresh consumption, for heat treatment and storage in winter. However, the maximum period that a vegetable can withstand is 4-5 months. The fruits have a dense head of cabbage and sweet in taste, dense, pale green color with thin, soft leaves. Thanks to this, it is easy to prepare and suitable for a wide range of dishes: borscht, salad, cabbage rolls, etc.
Rinda ripens early enough - 75-85 days after disembarkation. The plant grows well and is not demanding to care for, therefore it is easy to grow in the field. It is very productive and gives excellent results in both subtropical and temperate continental climates. Ripe heads weigh about 3-7 kg, have a marketable appearance and easily tolerate transportation.
- Small stump
- High germination rate
- Seedlings are very robust with proper care
- Pest resistance
- Feels great in various types of soil.
- To increase the yield, it is recommended to regularly loosen the soil.
Rinda can be planted in greenhouses, but it must be grown by seedlings, with further planting in open ground.
This is a hybrid, registered in the state register of the Russian Federation in 1996 and grown in all regions of Russia, both for itself and for commercial purposes. This is facilitated by undemanding care and normal behavior on soil of various types - from loamy to black earth. The authorship belongs to several breeders: A. V. Kryuchkov, S. V. Koroleva and some others.
Kazachok is one of the leaders in the content of ascorbic acid. It contains more than 42.9% of this substance, the rest is protein, sugar, etc. Thanks to this, it is indispensable in winter, when the immune system is attacked by various viruses.
Kazachok is the best variety of early cabbage; it takes about 90 days from the moment of germination to ripening. However, in the absence of frost, with regular watering and feeding, this period can be shortened. There are about 17 leaves per head, which are perfectly preserved - they are practically not attacked by pests and curl evenly. The vegetable has an intense green color and a pleasant, sweet taste.
- Rich chemical composition
- Excellent yield - 31.8-41.6 t / ha
- Small stump
- Leaves are not tough
- The fruits are juicy.
- Average resistance to keel and vascular bacteriosis
- Cracking is possible during drought.
According to reviews, Kazachok has excellent taste and is suitable for mechanized harvesting. Therefore, very often it is grown in large volumes for further sale, which is also facilitated by its excellent safety during transportation and presentation.
Red cabbage owes its name to the unusual color of the heads of cabbage - red-violet with whitish veins. This species is resistant to heat and low temperatures, prefers an abundance of light and a lot of moisture. When growing in the shade, the heads of cabbage become faded and loose. Red cabbage contains a rich set of nutrients typical of cruciferous vegetables (vitamins A, C, K, B, potassium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus and magnesium) and anthocyanins, antioxidant colors typical for red vegetables.
In shape, red cabbage is identical to its white cousin. Heads of cabbage are round or flat-round in shape. Foliage usually begins to tear in the first summer month, without waiting for the full formation of heads of cabbage. As well as the white-headed species, it is divided into early varieties, middle and late ones. The red-headed variety is tasty both after heat treatment and in a fermented state. Late-ripening species have a long shelf life.
The best varieties of red cabbage:
In spring, small forks of new harvest cabbage can be seen on the shelves of markets and shops. This is an early cabbage, bred by breeders specifically for quick ripening. The leaves in the heads of cabbage are not as dense as in the late varieties of cabbage, but the taste and aroma are the most memorable, because it is the first!
Qualities of early cabbage popular varieties
The main advantage of early cabbage varieties is their rapid maturation (from 100 to 120 days from the moment of planting in the ground), resistance to cold weather and resistance to cracking. Forks are usually small in size and often loose.The main disadvantage of early maturing varieties is the short shelf life. But as a result of successful selection, one can already find cabbage varieties with a long shelf life (up to 5-6 months).
Note! If stored improperly, early cabbage can quickly disappear and lose its quality.
Among the varieties of early white cabbage, vegetable growers distinguish the following:
- June - ripe heads of cabbage of light weight 1-2.5 kg with green leaves, rounded. Vegetables ripen in 100 days, and this moment falls on June. Hence the name.
- Cabbage Copenhagen Market - rounded dense heads of cabbage of the variety ripen in 58-65 days to a weight of 1.5-2.5 kg.
- Transfer F1 is a hybrid, loved by many growers for its fast ripening (100-110 days), dense and juicy forks with a low weight of up to 1.5 kg. You can make salads from it.
- Kazachok is an early ripe cabbage with a ripening period of 106-112 days. The variety is intended for outdoor cultivation.
- Dumas F1 - refers to hybrid varieties of early maturing cabbage. Dense forks have yellowish tender leaves on the inside, green on the outside, weigh 0.8-1.5 kg. The ripening period for this variety is 90-100 days.
- Etna cabbage is a hybrid of medium ripening, it can be stored for a short time (up to 3 months). The forks are dense and have a high yield (80-100 t / ha).
- Golden hectare - the main varietal feature is the possibility of long-term storage, unlike many early varieties of white cabbage. Heads of cabbage weighing 1.6-3.3 kg have a round shape, light green color, do not crack, ripen in 100-110 days.
- Rinda F1 - the hybrid ripens in 75-80 days, the head of the cabbage is round and dense, weighs 3.0-7.0 kg. The variety is suitable for summer sowing.
- Tobia F1 is a very productive hybrid (9-10 kg / sq. M), ripening in 3 months. Forks (5-7 kg) are covered with green leaves on top, and have yellowish leaves inside. Heads of cabbage do not crack even if they overgrow. The disadvantage of the variety is the impossibility of long-term storage of the crop. If the storage temperature is not observed, it can quickly deteriorate and turn pink.
Features of growing early cabbage
Knowing the ripening period of early cabbage varieties, you can calculate the timing when it is better to sow seeds in different regions. Usually the crop is fully ready for harvest 80-120 days after sowing.
If in Ukraine seeds of early cabbage are sown in mid-February (in April, seedlings can already be planted in open ground), then in the Urals and Siberia, where spring comes later, it is more rational to sow in mid-April.
Early cabbage seeds are sown in different ways:
- in seedling boxes
- in cassettes
- in cups,
- in peat pots
- using peat tablets
- in biocontainers
- into a snail.
To get the earliest harvest of cabbage, experts recommend planting it in greenhouses. In this case, the seeds are sown for seedlings at the end of February and artificial lighting must be used.
Conditions required for growing:
- Quality seed is half the battle. Seeds are best purchased from specialized stores. Be sure to pay attention to their shelf life (should be 3-4 years, no more).
- Choose a variety of early cabbage that matches the climate of the growing region.
- The seedling potting mix should be light and moist. Cabbage planting areas should have adequate lighting. After the formation of 3-4 sheets, the seedlings are planted in open ground.
- The optimal planting and care scheme for cabbage seedlings is 30 × 60 cm.
- When planting in the beds, the roots of the seedlings are not buried deeply.
- Regular hilling is the key to a good cabbage harvest.
- Early varieties do not tolerate hot weather well and require frequent watering.
- Cabbage must be fed with fertilizers, the first feeding is performed after the seedlings take root in the beds.
- So that the seedlings after transplantation do not get sick and can get better every day, small amounts of wood ash are scattered under the roots.
Additional characteristics of early varieties
In order to give preference to any variety of early cabbage for cultivation in summer cottages, it is worth studying information about them.
Cabbage Copenhagen Market
Heads of cabbage are quite dense, with a beautiful rounded shape. The juicy leaves of light green color are very delicate and quite pleasant to the taste. It is possible to use cabbage not only in the preparation of homemade dishes such as soups, side dishes, salads, but also for salting.
Cabbage Copenhagen Market
The fruits ripen almost simultaneously, 115 days after the germination of the shoots and 60-65 days after planting the seedlings in the ground. Heads of cabbage are large compared to other early varieties (1.3-2.5 kg). The yield of the variety reaches 4.5 kg / sq. m.
When describing Copenhagen cabbage, one cannot fail to note its main advantages: it tolerates spring frosts well and the heads of cabbage are not prone to cracking when the soil is waterlogged. The disadvantage is the short shelf life of the fruit.
The June variety has an excellent indicator - a high yield of 6.4 kg / sq.m. Medium-density forks are round or round-flat weighing 1.2-2.4 kg. The outer leaves of a green color become light green to the middle of the head. The taste of cabbage is delicate and popular with consumers
The growing season of the variety is 90-100 days, forks ripen at the same time, which is convenient for quick picking of fruits.
Important! The variety is cold-resistant, can tolerate frosts of 2-5 ° C without damage, which is very convenient for early planting in open ground.
The main disadvantage of the variety is the tendency to cracking when the soil is waterlogged. This should be taken into account by gardeners when growing a June variety of early cabbage.
Cabbage variety Transfer was registered in 1993 in the state register of the Russian Federation. It is allowed to grow throughout Russia, except for the northern regions. The weight of the round heads of cabbage with an average density is small: 0.7-1.5 kg.
The outer leaves are green-white with a waxy coating. The edge of the leaves is wavy. Cabbage ripens in 100 days, the yield is high - 7 kg / sq. m. Leaves are susceptible to attack by a cruciferous flea. It is impossible to salt and ferment it. Not stored for a long time.
The Kazachok variety is especially appreciated by gardeners for its high resistance to various pests. It is distinguished from other varieties by a wide leaf rosette. A ripe head of cabbage with a diameter of 60-65 cm has a height of only 22-28 cm. The leaves of a rounded fruit are dark green on the outside with a bluish tinge and a slight waxy coating.
Inside, the core is painted white with a cream shade. The juicy leaves are rated as good and excellent. The forks weigh 0.8-1.2 kg, the yield of the variety is up to 4.6 kg / sq.m. Technical maturity falls on days 105-112.
Heads cracking at high humidity is not observed. Well resists mucous and vascular bacteriosis and black leg. There were no particular drawbacks during cultivation.
Etna cabbage, the description of which is given on the seed packet, belongs to the varieties of medium ripening, but unlike other early varieties, it is stored a little longer - up to 3 months. The growing season is up to 115 days from the moment of emergence.
Heads of cabbage reach weight when ripe 2-3.5 kg.
On a note! This variety is resistant to fusarium.
It is allowed to grow cabbage even on depleted soils, provided that its plantings are not thickened. The main disadvantage of many early varieties of cabbage is its short shelf life. To extend the period of using such cabbage, it is recommended to sow seeds for seedlings in parts, not at the same time.
As a result of selection, varieties of medium-late hybrids were bred, which are stored for a long time, ripen in the summer, like the early varieties, but a little later. For example, the Aggressor variety is a promising hybrid, good for growing in stressful conditions and has good resistance to diseases such as fusarium. It is also allowed to grow this cabbage as a late variety.
Early white cabbage, like cauliflower varieties, is a real wealth of fiber, vitamins and proteins, which are so useful in early summer to replenish the deficiency of these elements. And to grow it yourself on your site or buy it in a store is a matter of taste for everyone. Having studied the early varieties of white cabbage, names and characteristics, it will not be difficult to get a good harvest.