The content of vitamins, enzymes, organic acids, phytoncides in vegetables

The content of vitamins, enzymes, organic acids, phytoncides in vegetables

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Eat to your health. Part 6

Vitamin K (menaquinone, phylloquinone). Half of vitamin K (phylloquinone) enters the liver of the human body with plant foods, the other half (menaquinone) is produced in the human body by intestinal bacteria. It ensures normal blood clotting, plays a significant role in the metabolism of bones, connective tissue, and ensures normal kidney function.

With its lack, newborns experience bleeding from the nose, mouth, navel, urinary tract, stomach and intestines; bloody vomiting, tarry stools, multiple hemorrhages - intracranial, subcutaneous and intradermal, in older children and adults - free bleeding (hemorrhage) from the nose, gums, stomach and intestines, intradermal and subcutaneous hemorrhages, poorly healing wounds, increased fatigue, in women - painful menstruation.

Doctors recommend the use of vitamin K in pathological conditions accompanied by hemorrhagic syndrome and hypothrombinemia, pneumonia, liver disease, chronic liver damage.

The recommended daily dose for an adult is 50-100 mcg. A typical diet contains 300-500 mcg of vitamin per day, so vitamin deficiency is extremely rare. The effect of vitamin K is weakened by taking large doses of vitamin E.

Taking synthetic vitamin K can cause hemolytic anemia, high bilirubin in the blood, yellowing of the skin and eyes. This does not happen when natural forms derived from plants are taken.

Soybean oil, spinach, collard greens, cauliflower, broccoli, seaweed, watercress, head lettuce, beans, cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes are high in vitamin K.

Vitamin P (bioflavonoids) Are plant polyphenols (rutin, kakhetins, quercetin, citrine, naringin, cynarin, etc.). The name of the vitamin comes from the word penetrate. These substances, together with vitamin C, increase the elasticity and strength of small blood vessels, stimulate tissue respiration, and affect the activity of the endocrine glands. The need for vitamin P increases with infectious, vascular diseases, after surgery, with prolonged use of certain drugs, during X-ray and radiotherapy.

Vitamin P deficiency occurs when there is a prolonged shortage of fresh fruits and vegetables. It leads to fragility, fragility and impaired permeability of small vessels - capillaries. There are pains in the legs when walking, in the shoulders, general weakness, lethargy, fatigue. Small hemorrhages appear in the form of pinpoint rashes in the area of ​​hair follicles, especially under tight clothing. The daily requirement of the body is about 50 mg per day.

There is a lot of vitamin P in red pepper, eggplant peel, red and white cabbage, sorrel, tomatoes, parsley, lettuce, spinach, artichoke, melon, potatoes.

Flavonoids also have the properties of vitamin P and protect vitamin C from degradation. They give plant products a yellow to orange color. Beets, eggplants are famous for their high content of flavonoids, which prevent the destruction of vitamin E in our cells, and also prevent cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Vitamin U (methylsulfonium) has antiulcer effect. It is used as an effective fast-acting agent for the treatment of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as ulcerative colitis, gastritis, intestinal lethargy, etc. That is why they decided to call this chemical compound (from the word ulkus - ulcer). Its content in plants, and, consequently, their antiulcer activity is determined by the soil and climatic conditions of growing and the time of harvest. In the southern regions, where there are more sunny days, the content of vitamin U in fruits and vegetables increases significantly.

It was found that vitamin U is unstable, easily destroyed at high temperatures and under the influence of oxygen, but tolerates low temperatures and drying well.

Later, this substance was found in varying amounts in many grains, fresh milk, raw egg yolks, some animal and vegetable fats.

Vegetables also contain biologically active substances that have antimicrobial action that increases the adaptive capacity of the body, i.e. phytoncides... These complex organic compounds are produced by plants to protect them from various pathogens and pests. They have bactericidal and fungicidal (fungi - fungi) properties, and are one of the factors of plant immunity. Getting into the human body with food, these biologically active compounds disinfect living tissues, suppress the processes of putrefaction and fermentation in the intestine, and increase resistance to various diseases. They are often referred to as herbal antibiotics. Phytoncides have a powerful antimicrobial, antiviral, preservative effect, and help to weaken the effects of radiation. At its core, it is a collection of various essential oils, organic acids, glycosides, which are subdivided into volatile and non-volatile compounds. The use of fresh vegetables, rich in phytoncides, has a stimulating effect on the immunobiological process in the body, helps to improve the oral cavity, improve food absorption, remove stones from the kidneys, improve well-being, stimulate cell regeneration, and wound healing.

Not all types of vegetable plants are equally rich in plant antibiotics, moreover, differences are observed even in the redistribution of one variety cultivated in different environmental conditions. The root, leaves and seeds of carrots, parsley and celery are also characterized by strong bactericidal properties.

Vegetables also contain enzymes - specific proteins that play the role of catalysts in the body.

Organic acids represented by such the most common as apple, lemon and oxalic. Tartronic, salicylic, formic, succinic, benzoic acids are found in smaller quantities.

They actively participate in metabolism, increase the secretion of saliva, enhance the secretion of bile and pacreatic juice, improve digestion, dissolve unwanted deposits in the body, retard the development of bacteria, regulate the activity of biologically active substances, regulate acid-base balance, have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal intestinal tract. The alkalizing effect of organic acids contained in vegetables is essential for the health of the human body. They contribute to the better assimilation of flour and cereals, potatoes, meat, fish, eggs, dairy products. Moreover, they give products a pleasant taste and quench their thirst.

Organic acids are found in almost all vegetables and fruits. More than other vegetables, they are found in rhubarb, sorrel, tomatoes, spinach.

Salicylic acid has antipyretic, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antirheumatic effects. It is found in berries, pumpkin. Therefore, vegetables and fruits are used in the treatment of colds.

Tartronic acid inhibits the conversion of carbohydrates into fats, thereby preventing obesity and atherosclerosis. It is found in eggplants, cucumbers, cabbage.

Dyes (pigments)determine the color of vegetables and fruits. They are used to judge the variety, quality and degree of ripeness. The pigments contain chlorophyll, carotene, xanthophyll, anthocyanins and other compounds.

Green fruits and leafy vegetables contain an essential substance for our blood - chlorophyll... It just gives the green color to vegetables and fruits. By the way, the structural formula of chlorophyll is very similar to the structural formula of blood hemoglobin, they differ in that in the first case, the element of magnesium is in the center, and in the second, iron. He is a diligent worker who participates in the processes of cleaning the liver, blood, nasal and frontal sinuses, and improves digestion. It has long been used to enhance hematopoiesis, restore hemoglobin, for the prevention and treatment of anemia. Under the influence of chlorophyll, blood is quickly restored in case of radiation damage. It has a stimulating and antioxidant effect. Chlorophyll also increases the activity of antibiotics, stimulates the healing of wounds and ulcers. It is used for atherosclerosis of the cardiac vessels, high doses of chlorophyll are used for hypertension.

Chlorophyll is abundant in cabbage, green onions and leeks, lettuce, spinach and other green vegetables.

Anthocyanins have the properties of vitamin R. They contribute to the elimination of heavy metals from the body. This was first noted by Japanese scientists after the events in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They are also used as an antiviral agent. The most rich in anthocyanins are vegetables and fruits with dark red and blue-violet colors, especially beets, red cabbage, eggplants, violet-colored varieties of kohlrabi, basil, and onions.

Glycosides - complex organic compounds. They give a specific, usually bitter taste and aroma. So contained in cucumbers cucurbitocin (from cucurbita - pumpkin) gives the cucumbers a bitter taste. It helps to protect the body from cancer.

Capsaicin (from capsicum - pepper) is contained in pepper, moreover, in spicy pepper it is much more. It helps to improve appetite and food digestion. Lactucin (from lactuka - salad) reduces nervous excitability, has an analgesic and hypnotic effect. Solanin (from solanation - nightshade) is found in potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes. In small doses, it has a therapeutic anti-inflammatory and stimulating effect of the heart - especially the myocardium, can lower blood pressure, improve bowel function. In large doses, it can cause poisoning, resulting in nausea, vomiting, and intestinal upset.

Saponins, which are abundant in asparagus, spinach, beets, have anti-inflammatory and anti-sclerotic effects.

To be continued →

Valentina Perezhogina,
candidate of agricultural sciences


The value of vegetable plants in human nutrition and the national economy.

Vegetables are an extremely capacious concept that has very blurred fuzzy boundaries. The most acceptable definition of vegetables was given by Professor V.I. Edelstein, who called vegetables "herbaceous plants cultivated for the sake of their juicy parts for human consumption." Such plants, which the population of our planet uses as vegetables, include more than 1200 species around the world, of which 690 species belonging to 9 botanical families are the most widespread. Vegetables are extremely important in human nutrition. They are a source of carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other very important nutrients; they also contain fiber, starch, pectin, and hemicellulose. Many vegetables, such as cabbage, tomatoes, peppers and others, contain about 3-5% sugar, some varieties of onions - up to 15%. Sugar determines the taste of many vegetables. It is of great importance for sauerkraut and tomato processing. Vitamins, which are almost completely absent in other foods, are of particular value to the human body. Let us briefly dwell on the characteristics of the most important vitamins contained in vegetables. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) ensures normal metabolism, oxidative processes in the body. With its lack, the nervous system relaxes, the work of the blood vessels deteriorates, fatigue, drowsiness or, conversely, insomnia appears, and efficiency decreases. Carotene (provitamin A). With a lack of vitamin A in food, growth is disturbed, the body's resistance to many infectious diseases, in particular to influenza, decreases, the protective properties of the skin are weakened. Carotene has a beneficial effect on the work of the lacrimal, sebaceous and sweat glands, increases the body's resistance to diseases of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and intestines. In adults, with a lack of carotene, night blindness is observed, in which at dusk a person does not distinguish objects. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is very essential in the regulation of the body's vital functions. With a lack of this vitamin, mental and physical fatigue sets in, appetite is lost. Long-term lack of vitamin B1 in the body leads to a low temperature, headache, insomnia, gastrointestinal disorders, pain in the extremities. The daily requirement for this vitamin is 2-4 mg. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). Its significance for the body is manifold. It has a great influence on carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, on visual acuity. Vitamin B2 activates the liver, stomach, regulates blood circulation. The daily intake of vitamin B2 is 2.5-3.5 mg. Vitamin B6 (folic acid) contributes to the formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is especially necessary for people with anemia. The daily requirement for this vitamin is 2.4 mg. Its greatest content is in the leaves of parsley, sorrel, salag, spinach, and green peas, in carrots, cauliflower, tomatoes. Vitamin E. With a lack of this vitamin, neuromuscular disorders are observed in newborns. Consumption of the required amount of vitamin E prevents aging and increases efficiency. Its highest content is in peas - 4.5 mg, cabbage - 1-2.5, green onions - 2.4, carrots - 1.2 mg per 100 g, etc. Fresh, unprocessed vegetables contain enzymes necessary to improve metabolism , which determine the nature and rate of chemical reactions in the body (for example, horseradish). The highest content of the peroxidase enzyme was found in celery, horseradish, and radish. Some vegetables are rich in phytoncides - volatile substances with a specific odor that can inhibit the development of microbes and bacteria harmful to humans. Garlic, onion, horseradish, radish, etc. contain especially a lot of these substances. These plants are best consumed fresh. Many vegetable plants contain aromatic substances that improve appetite and promote better absorption of animal products. Such plants include parsley, celery, parsnips, various types of onions, basil, coriander, mint, cucumber ladder, as well as cucumbers, radishes, well-known to everyone. The use of a wide range of vegetables significantly improves nutrition and makes it more complete. According to scientific data, for normal life and good working capacity, on average, a person needs 126 kg of vegetables, 110 kg of potatoes, 31 kg of melons and gourds per year.Since fresh vegetables are not grown all year round, canned vegetables should also be consumed. In terms of the content of vitamins and other nutrients, canned vegetables are not inferior to vegetables stored during the autumn-winter period. Spicy vegetables. Spicy vegetables are a necessary part of most meals used in daily meals. Unlike spices (spices), they have a pronounced biological activity, contain vitamins C, B6, carotene, folacin. This complex of vitamins exhibits a biological effect even with a relatively small amount of spicy vegetables in the diet. Dill. The specific aroma of dill is due to the presence of essential oil in it, which contains such aromatic substances as felandren, terminene, limonene, carvone and aniol. The content of essential oil in dill reaches 2.5%. Young plants (up to 10 cm in height) are used as a seasoning for food. Older plants with a hardened stem are used as an aromatic spice in pickling cucumbers and making marinades. 100 g of dill contains 100 mg of ascorbic acid. Chewing dill seeds after a plentiful fatty meal improves digestion, relieves the feeling of heaviness in the stomach. Parsley. The leaves and root of parsley contains an essential oil that gives it its characteristic odor. Parsley can be root and leaf: the former uses roots and leaves for food, the latter uses only leaves. 100 g of parsley contains 1.7 mg of B-carotene and 150 mg of ascorbic acid. Parsley is high in iron (1.9 mg). Onion. There are several types of onions used in food. The best known are onions, leeks and onions. The pungent smell of onions depends on the content of essential onion oil, which contains sulfides. The amount of essential oil in onions is 0.037-0.055%. Onions contain a variety of minerals and vitamins. Green onions (feathers) are of the greatest vitamin value. Ascorbic acid in 100 g of green onions contains 10 mg, in 100 g of leeks - 35 mg, onions - 10 mg. Green onions are high in B-carotene (2.0 mg per 100 g). Garlic. Garlic is a spicy vegetable with a sharp taste and aroma. It contains essential oil (0.005-0.009 g per 100 g). As a source of ascorbic acid, garlic is of no value, but it has bactericidal properties due to the content of phytoncides in it. Garlic is also important as a medicinal plant. It is used in the treatment of vascular and many other diseases. Horseradish. The sharp taste of horseradish depends on the presence of allyl mustard oil in it, the amount of essential oil in horseradish is 0.05 g per 100 g. Horseradish is distinguished by a high content of ascorbic acid (55 g per 100 g) and is a source of phytoncides. Many herbs and roots are used as spice vegetables in different countries and regions. The need for spicy vegetables is about 2% of the total intake of vegetables. Rhubarb. From the leaves and stalks of rhubarb, cut before the flowering of the plant, you can prepare salads, jelly, compote, pie filling. It is important that rhubarb preparations do not interfere with digestion processes, do not affect the secretion of the gastrointestinal tract, but enhance peristalsis only at the level of the large intestine. Cucumber herb is an ancient medicinal plant. Its leaves with the smell of fresh cucumber are added to vinaigrettes, okroshka, cold borscht. Cucumber herb has a beneficial effect on the metabolism. Young lettuce leaves are called the breakfast of kings for a reason. Indeed, no other plant has such a delicate and exquisite taste. Its healing properties have been known for a long time. The substance contained in the salad - lactucin calms the nervous system, improves sleep, and reduces the incidence of atherosclerosis. Organic acids prevent salt build-up. Pectins stimulate the intestinal tract. Almost all known vitamins are contained in lettuce leaves. Leaves are eaten fresh, separately or together with radishes, cucumbers can be used to make sandwiches from them. Spinach contains proteins, sugar, ascorbic acid, B vitamins, vitamins P, K, E, D, minerals: magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, iodine. All this makes spinach one of the most valuable dietary foods. It contains secretin, which has a beneficial effect on the work of the stomach and pancreas. Spinach is especially useful for anemia. Sorrel, which is used before flowering, improves digestion, reduces putrefactive fermentation in the intestines. Traditional medicine recommends sorrel juice as a choleretic agent. It is also a rich source of vitamin B. Sorrel leaves can be dried without losing their nutritional value.

Date added: 2015-01-29 views: 29 | Copyright infringement


Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

Age restrictions: +6

Current page: 1 (the book has 12 pages in total) [available passage for reading: 5 pages]

Storage of fruits and vegetables

The value of fruits, berries and vegetables for humans

Fruits, berries and vegetables play an important role in human nutrition. They are valuable mainly for the content of carbohydrates, vitamins, organic acids, mineral, aromatic and other biologically active compounds.

So, carbohydrates are "fuel", which, when burned in the body, supports its vital activity and efficiency (starch and sugar). Pectin substances related to them have antibacterial properties and are capable of removing heavy metals from the body. Fiber helps to normalize digestion.

B vitamins are most commonly found in agricultural plants.1, IN2, IN3, IN6, C, PP, E, provitamin A. Not being a plastic material and not possessing energy value, being present in minimal quantities, they nevertheless take an active part in the regulation of many biological processes. In the human body, vitamins are either not synthesized at all, or are synthesized in insufficient quantities and therefore must be regularly consumed with food.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is a part of a number of enzymes that regulate carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, it is necessary for the normal activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems, takes part in the regulation of the activity of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive glands. The formation of immunity to various infectious diseases also occurs with the participation of vitamin B1... This vitamin is not synthesized or accumulated in the human body. Its main source is plant products (soy, peas, beans, buckwheat, cabbage, spinach, potatoes, rice, wheat, rye, etc.).

High temperature, high pressure and the use of soda in the manufacture of products from products containing vitamin B1, pretty much destroy it.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is an integral part of enzymes that take an active part in oxidation reactions, as well as regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. A deficiency of this vitamin in the body leads to a disruption in the synthesis and assimilation of amino acids (which is expressed in growth retardation), stomatitis, damage to the mucous membrane of the lips (single and multiple cracks), seborrhea (oily peeling of the skin, rashes), to damage to the conjunctiva of the eyes, resulting in visual acuity decreases and photophobia appears.

Like thiamine, riboflavin does not accumulate in the body and therefore must be ingested with food. Of agricultural plants, soybeans, beans, lentils, spinach, peas, beans, and cabbage are the richest in them.

Vitamin B2 keeps well in food after cooking.

Vitamin B3 (pantothenic acid) primarily affects carbohydrate and fat metabolism. With its participation, the functioning of the endocrine glands (adrenal and thyroid glands), the synthesis of hemoglobin are regulated.

Deficiency of this vitamin is manifested by damage to the nervous system (paralysis, neuritis), impaired skin pigmentation, premature graying of hair.

Pantothenic acid in the human body is partially synthesized by intestinal microorganisms. In plant foods, it is found in sufficient quantities in peas, soybeans, onions, cabbage, corn and beans). Vitamin B during cooking3 partially destroyed.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) plays an important role in protein metabolism, in particular, in the processes of synthesis and decomposition of amino acids, it actively affects fat metabolism, regulating the use of unsaturated fatty acids by the body, it is included as an integral part of the molecule of a number of enzymes that regulate carbohydrate metabolism and takes part in hematopoiesis (maturation shaped elements of red and white blood).

Vitamin B6 synthesized in the human body by the intestinal microflora. The richest in pyridoxine are barley, corn, beans, soybeans, potatoes, cabbage, and carrots. It preserves well when cooked.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid) stimulates blood formation by increasing the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and increasing hemoglobin levels. Participates in the synthesis of amino acids and protein, and also increases the body's resistance to the action of toxic substances.

With a lack of folic acid, functional intestinal disorders occur, the oral mucosa is affected, and anemia develops.

A sufficient amount of folic acid is found in parsley, beans, lettuce, spinach, cabbage, onions.

Vitamin H (biotin) is a part of many enzymes and is involved in almost all types of metabolic processes. Partially synthesized by human intestinal microorganisms. It is found in sufficient quantities in tomatoes, soybeans, rye, carrots, melon, corn, onions. Stores well in food after cooking.

Vitamin P (polyphenols, flavonoids). This group of biologically active compounds includes a number of substances with P-vitamin activity (chalcones, catechins, flavones). Vitamin P normalizes the activity of the thyroid gland, lowers blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, and stimulates the bile secretion function of the liver. But the main function that vitamin B performs in the body is to reduce the permeability of blood vessels. Its effect on the body is most fully manifested when combined with vitamin C. It is contained only in plant products (oranges, lemons, black currants, green walnuts, spinach, plums, cabbage, almonds, tea). Vitamin P is not synthesized in the human body.

Vitamin PP (niacin, nicotinic acid) is part of the enzymes that regulate the higher nervous activity and the functions of the digestive organs involved in cellular respiration, protein metabolism. Its influence on the functional state of the cardiovascular, digestive and hematopoietic systems is significant. Niacin lowers blood pressure, intensifies blood flow, stimulates the formation of red and white blood corpuscles, hemoglobin enhances the production of gastric and pancreatic juices, improves the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract.

In the human body, vitamin PP in a small amount can be synthesized by the intestinal microflora or formed in tissues from tryptophan.

Buckwheat, peas, beans, soybeans, asparagus, turnips, peppers, potatoes, apricots, eggplants, tomatoes, spinach contain the greatest amount of it. Vitamin PP is well preserved in food after cooking.

Vitamin A (retinol) is necessary for the optimal course of the growth and development of a young organism, the normal functioning of the skin and mucous membranes. An important role belongs to him in the implementation of the visual function. Vitamin A is directly involved in the formation of rhodopsin and iodopsin pigments in the retina.

With a lack of vitamin A, growth is delayed, hair falls out, visual acuity decreases, the skin and mucous membranes become dry, ulcerated. Resistance to infectious diseases decreases, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiration, and nervous system are observed.

Vitamin A is a part of only animal products, however, plants contain pigments, the so-called carotenoids, which are provitamins A, from two molecules of which one molecule of vitamin A is synthesized in the human body. The highest content of provitamin A is distinguished by carrots, red peppers, tomatoes, green onions, chokeberry.

During culinary processing, vitamin A and carotene are not destroyed, and in the presence of fats, the absorption of this vitamin increases significantly.

Vitamin E (tocopherols) affects all types of metabolic processes in the body. It promotes the assimilation of proteins and fats from food, the deposition of glycogen in the liver and muscles, has an effect on the assimilation and metabolism of vitamins A and D, actively affects the generative function, contributes to the normal functioning of muscle tissue, the preservation of its structure affects the production of various hormones in the body.

In the human body, vitamin E is not synthesized, but in case of excess intake, it can accumulate in adipose tissue. Especially a lot of this vitamin is found in vegetable oils, in plants in certain quantities it is found in wheat germ, in lettuce, beans, corn, cabbage, etc.

Vitamin E is well preserved in foods after various types of cooking.

Vitamin K (phylloquinone) increases blood clotting, stimulates the formation of prothrombin in the liver, helps to normalize the process of blood clotting, helps to strengthen the walls of capillaries, normalizes the motor and secretory function of the intestines, and accelerates tissue regeneration.

The main source of this vitamin is plant foods. There is a lot of it in spinach, cabbage, pumpkin, carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, soy. Vitamin K retains well after cooking.

Organic acids improve the activity of the digestive tract, affecting the composition of the microflora. Almost all organic acids are energy sources.

Mineral salts are indispensable for the body, their content is especially significant in vegetables. And although canning does not destroy mineral salts, they are partially washed out during washing and cooking.

Potassium salts maintain the acid-base balance in the blood and body tissues, increase the excretion of water and sodium chloride through the kidneys. The role of potassium is also great in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Iron takes an active part in the process of hematopoiesis, is part of some enzymes that regulate tissue respiration.

Calcium and phosphorus are the main parts of the bone tissue and are part of the blood. In addition, calcium influences the processes occurring in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. Phosphorus is a part of proteins, nucleic acids. Phosphorus compounds ATP and creatine phosphate are involved in energy metabolism.

Magnesium, copper, cobalt and manganese are involved in blood formation. Magnesium, in addition, is necessary for the formation of bones, regulation of the work of nervous tissue, in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

Sodium takes part in the creation of the necessary buffering capacity of the blood, regulation of blood pressure, water exchange.

Chlorine is involved in the formation of gastric juice, in the formation of plasma, activates a number of enzymes.

Sulfur is an important element, the value of which is determined by the fact that it is part of the sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine, cystine), as well as a component of some hormones.

The presence of iodine is necessary for the functioning of the thyroid gland, for normal intellectual development.

Vegetables, fruits and berries are a real pantry of nature, which contains everything necessary for a good nutrition of a person, for his healthy and active life. But, unfortunately, the period for using fresh vegetables, berries and fruits is limited, however, harvesting at the optimal time, storing them at the most optimal temperatures and relative humidity, with the necessary gas composition of the medium, allows them to extend their shelf life and preserve their nutritional value as much as possible.

Cleaning of fruits, berries and vegetables

There are four degrees of maturity of fruits and vegetables: consumer, technical, removable, physiological.

In consumer maturity, fruits and vegetables have the appearance, color, taste and aroma characteristic of this variety, are most nutritious in terms of nutrition, and have the best consistency. At consumer maturity, berries, stone fruits, apples and pears of summer varieties intended for immediate consumption are harvested, as well as vegetables.

In technical maturity, when the productive (eaten) plant organs reach a state that meets the requirements for fruits, vegetables or berries for sale, storage or technical processing), fruits and vegetables are harvested that can ripen during storage, as well as fruits and berries intended for processing, since they do not boil over.

Autumn and winter varieties of apples and pears, citrus fruits are harvested at the ripeness. Consumer maturity occurs in autumn varieties after two to three weeks, and in winter varieties - after several months of storage.

Physiological maturity of fruits and vegetables occurs at a time when their pulp becomes flabby, and for apples - mealy and tasteless. At physiological maturity, fruits and fruit vegetables are harvested if they are intended for obtaining seeds. It should be noted that potatoes and a number of vegetables (onions, root crops) also reach physiological maturity by the end of the growing season, when they are harvested, they have the same consumer and physiological maturity.

The degree of maturity of vegetables and fruits is determined according to various characteristics: color (fruits, tomatoes, berries), pulp density, seed color (apples, pears), density of a roach (cabbage), taste, etc.

Harvesting is selective and continuous. Selective harvesting is carried out several times as the products mature (melons, zucchini, tomatoes, cucumbers, cauliflower, apples, pears, berries, etc.). Continuous harvesting is used for root crops, onions, late varieties of cabbage, many types of fruits, potatoes.

With all types of harvesting, it is necessary to prevent mechanical damage to vegetables and fruits. The apples are removed with the stalk. Pears, cherries, cherries, strawberries, peppers, melons are also removed from the stalk. Black currants are harvested with separate berries, red and white currants - with clusters, grapes are removed in bunches.

The order of harvesting late vegetables is determined by their relation to low temperatures and autumn frosts. Earlier, those plants are removed that grow worse during a cold snap and whose keeping capacity decreases from the action of small frosts: beets, carrots, root vegetables from the cruciferous family.

It is necessary to harvest cabbage for long-term storage at the optimal time, since with early harvesting in warm weather, cabbage has time to wither, become infected with pathogens and during storage gives large losses from diseases. On the root, white cabbage tolerates frosts down to -7 ° C, and harvested cabbage is damaged by such frosts. With repeated frosts, the stability of the cut heads of cabbage decreases, after thawing, microorganisms that cause decay settle on the outer leaves.

Food storage

For long-term storage of fruits and vegetables, storages, cellars, warm basements, undergrounds, closets, canopies, piles, trenches, and pits are used.

Depending on the duration of storage, storages are divided into two main groups: temporary - trenches, heaps, pits and permanent - storages, cellars, warm basements, crypts, underground.

Temporary storage

Burty. The most acceptable way of storing potatoes, root vegetables and white cabbage is wrapping. A burt is an oblong embankment, inclined on both sides, and covered from above with an insulating material. It is made to store the resulting crop for one season. Burts are ground-based, when potatoes are poured onto a flat surface, and semi-ground ones, when shallow pits are dug.

Semi-earth (buried) pile. For such a pile, a pit 25 cm deep is dug in the direction from north to south. The best pit width for seed potatoes is 170-200 cm. For short-term storage of healthy potatoes, you can make a wider embankment (up to 4 m). The length of the pit can be arbitrary, but, nevertheless, it is better when it is no more than 20-25 m. The height of the pile embankment with its width at the base of 2 m can be 90-100 cm.

Usually, potatoes are stored in several piles on one site. The burtovaya platform is placed near the places of growing potatoes in a place not flooded by rain and melt waters, not far from the road.

A ventilation duct with a width and depth of 20-25 cm is being dug along the central axis of the pit. It extends beyond the pit and is 25 cm longer than the coverage in the end part of the pile. The part of the canal that goes beyond the pit is tightly closed from above with boards so that earth does not get into the pit and the canal. In ground heaps, the ventilation duct is placed directly on the surface of the earth and made in the form of a lattice tent, made up of separate one and a half meter sections. To prevent straw and earth from getting into the ventilation duct, the ends are made without cracks.

To cover the ventilation ducts, lattice sections with a length of 1.5 and a width of 0.5 m are prepared in advance. The section consists of strips with a width of 2-3 cm and gaps between them 2-2.5 cm. The sections are laid on the ventilation duct and fastened to each other. The resulting continuous ventilation grill covers the part of the duct located under the product. During the formation of a mound of potatoes or other products, a collar thermometer or specially made tetrahedral tube-cases with an inner section of 3 × 3 cm are placed inside, into which thermometers are inserted at the end of the rod. The collars are ventilated through the ridge and the ventilation duct. The heaps are covered with straw and earth. Straw to full thickness is laid in a dense layer from bottom to top so that the crest of the heap overlaps. After that, the pile is sprinkled with a thin layer of earth from the sides. The crest of the pile remains under a straw cover until the first frost. In rainy weather, it is temporarily covered with roofing material or plastic wrap. When the potatoes are cooled to +4 ° C before the onset of stable frosts, the ventilation ducts are tightly covered with straw, and the pile is completely covered with earth. If the temperature in the piles drops below + 1 ° С, the piles are additionally covered with heat-insulating materials - peat, straw, straw manure or snow. With heavy snowfalls, leading to excessive cover of the heaps, they are periodically cleared of snow.

Storage in trenches. This storage method requires 2 times less straw or other thermal insulation materials than storage in piles. Trenches are used when groundwater is deep. The depth and width of the trench is from 60-80 cm (in the southern regions) to 1.5-2 m (in Siberia). From above, the trenches are covered with a layer of straw: in the central regions it is 30-40 cm, in Siberia - up to 70 cm. Then a layer of earth is poured (from 40 to 70 cm, depending on the zone).

Usually, various types of trenches are used: shallow, deep with ventilation channels, with an interlayer with the ground and without an interlayer, and ordinary.

Trenches and heaps are equipped with (natural) simple ventilation. Its main purpose is to cool potatoes and vegetables in the autumn. The principle of operation of the supply and exhaust ventilation is based on the difference in air pressure, that is, on the air draft upward due to the temperature difference in the product stack and outside. Warm air, being lighter, leaves through the exhaust pipe, while cold air enters through the supply channel. The ventilation system consists of supply and exhaust ducts. The inlet channel runs in the middle of the base of the shoulder, at the end ends there are exits to the outside. In piles with potatoes and root vegetables, they are made in the form of a groove with a section of 20 × 20 cm or 30 × 30 cm covered with lattice shields, transverse slats or brushwood, so that individual copies of the product do not fall through. This channel allows the colder outside air to flow into the stack by gravity. The heated air is removed from the stack through the exhaust ducts (pipes). They are tetrahedral boxes made of boards with a cross section of 20 × 20 cm or 15 × 15 cm. In the lower part, passing in the layer of vegetables, they are made lattice, and in the upper part, passing through the shelter, they are solid so that the earth does not fall into them. A visor is installed on top of them, which protects products from rainwater. Exhaust pipes, depending on the characteristics and quality of the vegetables laid for storage, are installed every 2-4 m along the length of the pile.

One of the disadvantages of vertical chimneys is that warm and humid air is removed only from the adjacent areas of the stack, and the remote areas are hardly cooled. Water flows near the exhaust pipes, the products sweat and freeze, since here the shelter turns out to be less dense and reliable. Therefore, ridge exhaust ventilation is used. When storing vegetables in dry, cool weather, the crest of the trench is covered only with straw, through which warm air is removed. However, such conditions are rare, and it is often rainy in the fall. In such cases, a horizontal exhaust channel is installed - boards knocked together at an angle of 90 °, which are laid on a pile of vegetables with an exit at the ends to the outside. In this case, the trench along the ridge can be immediately covered with straw and earth, without fear of wetting the straw and freezing the product. It is only necessary to close the end holes in time.

The advantage of a horizontal ridge exhaust duct over vertical exhaust ventilation pipes is also that in this case warm and humid air is removed from the entire product stack evenly.

Pit. The simplest storage - an earthen pit - is designed to store, most often, a small batch of potatoes, and occasionally root crops. It is dug in an elevated area with low groundwater levels. Depending on the density of the soil, it is dug with straight or inclined walls. The most acceptable shape of the pit is round, however, sometimes they are made rectangular. In dense clay soil, a pit is dug in the shape of a jug. It is not recommended to do this in sandy soil, as it will collapse.

Dig a hole as follows: draw a circle with a diameter of 1 m and dig the neck of the jug, then, digging into the depths, gradually expand the hole to a width of 2-2.5 m in diameter. The depth of the pit-pitcher should be 1.5-2 m. To prevent melt water from entering the pit, a roller is laid out of the removed clay around the opening of the neck. Such a storage is closed with a lid set with a slope for rolling off rainwater. A well-made pit-pitcher serves without repair for 30-40 years. In winter, it will maintain a more constant temperature and humidity than in an ordinary basement. Potatoes in such a pit do not sweat and do not germinate for a long time.

Potatoes are stored in small pits without ventilation. In large ones, a ventilation pipe is installed from boards or four stakes driven into the bottom of the pit and entwined with a straw bundle.

Potatoes are lowered into the pit using a bucket. Two ropes are tied to the bucket: one to the bow and the other to the bottom. After the bucket reaches the floor, pull the rope attached to the bottom. In this case, the bucket is tipped over and the potatoes are spilled out. Tubers with this method of filling are not injured. After filling the pit-jug with potatoes, the neck is closed with straw and a lid.

For the first two weeks, potatoes release a lot of moisture when breathing, so the straw layer should not be thick. Later, the layer is brought to 50-70 cm, depending on the conditions of local winters.


What secrets does the cabbage stump keep?

In the stalk of cabbage, in the so-called stalk, during the growth and formation of the head of cabbage, all substances from the soil and the air are stored.

Along with useful chemical compounds, nitrates, nucleotides (radical particles) accumulate, which can cause in the body:

  • manifestation of allergic reactions
  • food poisoning
  • abdominal cramps

If the cabbage is grown on its own plot, then the owner will worry about the regulatory use of nitrogen fertilizers. Unscrupulous cabbage plantation owners, for the sake of quick profits in the form of an early harvest, can abuse the use of nitro compounds.

An indicator of the quality and normal dose of nitrates in the stalk is the color of its cut. Dark or pink spots indicate an excess of the maximum permissible concentration of nitrogen-containing substances.

It has been proven that the taproot of the white-headed vegetable gardener and the stump, beloved by many since childhood, have an antitumor effect. The grated peeled parts of the vegetable can be added to various salads. Infusion of seeds is used in the treatment of arthritis, as an antihelminthic and diuretic.


Roots, herbs, fruits and berries

Vegetables, fruits and berries are extremely important in nutrition. Deficiency in this part of the diet is the most common nutritional mistake with serious negative consequences. Immunodeficiency, infectious diseases, the manifestation of negative heredity and other troubles can be prevented or significantly weakened if we understand the role of vitamin-like factors, biologically active substances in general, macro- and microelements in human nutrition when adapting to a real environment.

Table 7. Content, metabolic characteristics and human needs for minerals

M and kro elements The elements Metabolic characteristics Content and distribution in the body Presence in food Daily requirement, mg
Calcium (Ca) Excitation of nerve and muscle cells, blood clotting, activation of enzymes, building material for teeth and bones 1000-1500 g, 99% in bones and teeth, 1% in free form Milk, dairy products, vegetables, nuts. fruits 0.8-1.0 g
Phosphorus (P) Part of energy-rich phosphorus compounds, nucleic acids, building material for teeth and bones 500-800 g, 80% in skeleton Milk, dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, nuts, legumes 1.2 g
Magnesium (Mg) Enzyme activation, nerve and muscle stimulation 20-30 g, 50% in skeleton Green vegetables, potatoes, nuts, legumes, fruits 0.4-0.5 g
Sodium (Na) Regulation, osmotic pressure, activation of enzymes 70-100 g, 60% in extracellular fluid Table salt, smoked products, sausages, cheese 4-5 g
Potassium (K) Regulation, osmotic pressure, excitation of nerve and muscle cells, activation of enzymes, collagen synthesis 150 g, 90% in intracellular fluid Vegetables, potatoes, nuts, legumes, fruits 3-5 g
Chlorine (Cl) Regulation, osmotic pressure, formation of gastric acid 80-100 g, 90% in intracellular fluid Table salt, smoked products, sausages, cheese 5-7 g
M akroelements Iron (Fe) Component of hemoglobin and myoglobin, a number of enzymes, oxygen transport 4-5 g, 69% in hemoglobin and polylobin Liver, meat, yayua, rye products, legumes, onions, spinach, brewer's yeast 10-18 mg
Iodine (I) Component of thyroid hormones 10-15 mg, 99% in the thyroid gland Sea fish, milk, iodized table salt 100-200 mcg
Fluorine (F) Preventing dental caries 2-3 g, 96% skeleton Herbal products, tea, drinking water 2-4 mg
Copper (Cu) Component of blood proteins and a number of enzymes 80-100 mg, 45% in muscle, 20% in liver, 20% in skeleton Fish, eggs, potatoes, nuts, legumes 2 mg
Zinc (Zn) Enzyme activator 1-2 g, 90% in erythrocytes Beef, liver, peas, cereals 10-15 mg
Manganese (Mn) Part of enzymes and skeleton 10-40 mg. Distributed to the skeleton, liver, glands, and other organs Liver, cereals, soy, fruits, legumes, spinach 5-10 mg
Cobalt (Co) Component of vitamin B12, erythrocytes 1-2 mg. Distributed to the kidneys and other organs Liver, nuts, vegetables, fruits, yeast 100-200 mcg

Vegetables and fruits are among those products that can be least replaced by any other food products. The value of vegetables and fruits as food products lies in the fact that they are the main suppliers of: vitamins, pectin fibers and active fiber, alkaline mineral elements, organic acids and carbohydrates.

The important physiological properties of vegetables and fruits include their influence on the work of the digestive glands. In addition, they normalize the vital activity of beneficial intestinal microflora, reduce the intensity of putrefactive processes, increase the motor function of the stomach and intestines, increase peristalsis and thus improve intestinal emptying. Vegetables and fruits are of great importance for maintaining acid-base balance in the body and preventing acidotic shifts. They contain a balanced active complex of minerals that show an alkalizing effect in the body.

The biological composition of vegetables, fruits and herbs is extremely rich. They contain all the vital nutritional components.

Carbohydrates

The carbohydrate content in most vegetables does not exceed 5%, but in some of them, for example, in potatoes, the amount of carbohydrates reaches 20%, in green peas - 13%, etc. Mainly carbohydrates in vegetables are represented by starch and, to a lesser extent, sugars , with the exception of beets and carrots, which are dominated by sugars. Fruits are richer in carbohydrates than vegetables (on average, they contain 10% carbohydrates).

Sahara (glucose, fructose, sucrose) are most fully represented in fruits. A feature of sugars in fruits and vegetables is a significant content of fructose. In vegetables, sugars are also presented in three types - glucose, fructose and sucrose. The largest amount of sugars is found in carrots (7.0%), beets (9.0%), watermelons (8.7%) and melons (9.0%). In other vegetables, there are few sugars. Sucrose predominates in carrots, beets and melons. Watermelons are an exceptionally rich source of fructose.

Cellulose widely represented in vegetables and fruits (1-2%). There is especially a lot of fiber in berries (3-5%). Fiber, as you know, belongs to indigestible substances. Vegetables and fruits (potatoes, cabbage, apples, peaches, etc.) are a source of predominantly delicate fiber, which is broken down and absorbed quite fully.
In the light of modern scientific concepts, fiber of vegetables and fruits is considered as a substance that promotes the elimination of cholesterol from the body, as well as has a normalizing effect on the vital activity of beneficial intestinal microflora.

Pectin substances

In vegetables and fruits, pectin substances are presented in the form of protopectin - a dense, insoluble substance contained in the cell walls, and pectin - a soluble substance found in the cell sap. When cleaved, protopectin can serve as a source of pectin. The cleavage of protopectin occurs under the influence of the enzyme protopectinase, as well as during boiling. The hardness of immature fruits is explained by the significant content of protopectin in them during ripening, protopectin is split, the fruits become softer and are enriched with pectin. Ripe vegetables and fruits are significantly richer in pectin than unripe ones. When fruits are heated, protopectin also breaks down to release pectin, so baked fruits, such as baked apples, are richer in pectin than raw ones.

Pectin content in vegetables and fruits (g per 100 g of edible part of the product):

It can be noted that oranges, cherries and radishes are the richest in pectin.

Mineral elements

Vegetables and fruits are a rich source of various mineral salts: potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, etc. The salt composition of vegetables and fruits is characterized by an alkaline reaction. In this regard, they play an important role in maintaining the acid-base state of the body. Vegetables and fruits are the main suppliers of potassium and iron, which makes them essential for the mineral supply of the body.

Potatoes are characterized by a high potassium content (568 mg per 100 g of edible part), due to which the body's need for potassium is provided (2500-5000 mg). There is a lot of potassium in dry fruits. For example, dried apricots (dried apricots) contain 1717 mg of potassium per 100 g of edible part, in prunes - 864 mg, in raisins - 860 mg, etc. Apricots, quince, pears, plums, apples, melons, etc. are rich in iron. A significant amount of iron is found in white cabbage, carrots, oranges, cherries.

The iron of vegetables and fruits is well absorbed and is most fully utilized in the body. This is explained by the presence of ascorbic acid and other substances in vegetables and fruits.

Vitamins

In providing vitamin nutrition and meeting the body's need for vitamins, vegetables and fruits occupy one of the first places. They contain vitamin C, P-active substances, carotene (provitamin A) and almost the entire group of vitamins B. Vegetables and fruits are especially important as suppliers of vitamins C, P and carotene. It can be assumed that the supply of these vitamins to the body occurs exclusively due to vegetables and fruits.

The most important of the vitamins contained in vegetables and fruits is vitamin C. Rosehips, black currants, citrus fruits, etc. are known for their high vitamin C content.

However, the provision of the body with vitamin C is
comes mainly from ordinary, daily consumed vegetables and fruits - potatoes, cabbage, garden herbs, onions, etc.

Fresh vegetables, fruits, berries are distinguished by the highest content of vitamin C. Thus, 100 g of potatoes immediately after harvesting contain 25 mg of vitamin C, and in winter - only about 10 mg. Unripe fruits, like overripe ones, contain less vitamin C.

Vegetables and fruits supply the body with vitamin P (or P-active substances). The biological action of P-active substances has much in common with the action of vitamin C. Synergism is noted, that is, mutual enhancement of the action when these vitamins are used together.

The third most important vitamin, supplied mainly by vegetables and fruits, is vitamin A in the form of the provitamin carotene. According to modern scientific data, carotene plays an independent important role in the function of the adrenal glands and in the formation of the hormone of the adrenal cortex. Carrots contain a lot of carotene (9 mg per 100 g of product). This amount exceeds the daily requirement of carotene for humans. There is a significant amount of carotene in tomatoes, apricots, onions, green peas and other plant products colored orange and green.

Vegetables and fruits also contain other vitamins: B1, B2, PP, K, inositol, choline, etc. Vegetables, especially leafy ones, are a source of folacin, which is involved in hematopoiesis. Consumption of vegetables in their raw form allows you to fully satisfy the body's need for vitamins.

Organic acids

The most important component of fruits and berries, as well as some vegetables (tomatoes, sorrel, etc.) are organic acids, which not only have gustatory value, but also participate in some metabolic and digestive processes. Organic acids help alkalize the body. Including a large amount of alkaline components, they are oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) in the process of transformations in the body and leave a significant supply of alkaline equivalents in the body. Organic acids have an effect on the digestive processes, being a strong causative agent of pancreatic secretion and intestinal motor function.

Organic acids are found in a wide variety of fruits. The fruits contain mainly malic, citric and tartaric acids. Malic acid predominates in fruits, citric acid in berries. Citrus fruits contain a significant amount of citric acid (in lemons - 6-8%). Grapes contain tartaric acid (0.2-0.8%). A small amount of tartaric acid is found in red currants, gooseberries, lingonberries, strawberries, plums, apricots, etc. Some fruits contain traces of succinic, oxalic, formic, benzoic and salicylic acids. Succinic acid is found mainly in unripe fruits, gooseberries, currants, grapes, salicylic acid - in strawberries, raspberries, cherries, formic - in raspberries.

Especially you should pay attention to oxalic acid, which is associated with a number of adverse effects on the state of the body. Most often, vegetables and fruits with a high content of oxalic acid are limited in the diet. These include sorrel, spinach, rhubarb, and figs. 100 g of sorrel contains 360 mg of oxalic acid, 100 g of spinach - 320 mg, rhubarb - 240 mg, figs - 100 mg. Oxalic acid forms unfavorable bonds that contribute to metabolic disorders, especially salt metabolism. It can be formed in the body itself from carbohydrates, as well as during the metabolism of ascorbic acid. To some extent, the source of oxalic acid is such a daily consumed product as beets (100 mg in 100 g of product).

Essential oils

The biological role and physiological significance of essential oils present in vegetables and fruits are not well understood. First of all, essential oils give plant products their flavoring color. Acting on the olfactory centers, essential oils enhance the secretion of digestive juices and thus improve digestion. There is evidence of the stimulating effect of aromatic substances on the nervous system. The presence of essential oils in garlic, onions, oranges is very pronounced. In oranges, essential oils are concentrated mainly in the peel (zest), the amount of essential oil in it is 1.2-2.1% of the mass of the skin. The essential oil of oranges contains citral, linalool, etc.

However, the effect of essential oils on the body cannot be recognized as unambiguously beneficial. Vegetables and fruits with a high content of essential oils irritate the secretory apparatus, mucous membranes of the digestive tract, kidneys, etc.

Vegetables as digestive stimulants

One of the important physiological properties of vegetables is their stimulating effect on the secretory function of all digestive glands, and vegetables retain this ability even with different forms of processing (juice, soups, mashed potatoes). Cabbage has the greatest sokogonny effect, and carrots have the least. Vegetables regulate gastric secretion, and therefore the use of various combinations of vegetables with other food products allows you to influence the processes of gastric digestion in the required direction. Known inhibiting gastric secretion effect of raw undiluted vegetable juices - cabbage, beetroot, potato, etc. Raw potato juice is successfully used to reduce gastric secretion and for the treatment of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Perhaps the therapeutic effect of raw potato juice depends on the solanine it contains, which has an atropine-like effect. Vegetables stimulate bile production. The most active in this regard are the juices of radish, turnip and carrot. The effect of vegetables on the biliary function and the flow of bile into the duodenum is expressed to an insignificant extent. The combination of vegetables with fats is most effective in stimulating bile production and increasing bile secretion. Vegetables have a significant effect on the secretion of the pancreas: whole vegetable juices inhibit the secretion, and diluted ones excite.

The most important property of vegetables is their ability to increase the absorption of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Spicy vegetables

Spicy vegetables are a necessary part of most meals used in daily meals. Unlike spices (spices), they have a pronounced biological activity, contain vitamins C, B6, carotene, folacin. This complex of vitamins exhibits a biological effect even with a relatively small amount of spicy vegetables in the diet.

Dill The specific aroma of dill is due to the presence of essential oils in it, which contain such aromatic substances as felandren, terminene, limonene, carvone and aniol. The content of essential oil in dill reaches 2.5%. Young plants (up to 10 cm in height) are used as a seasoning for food. Older plants with a hardened stem are used as an aromatic spice in pickling cucumbers and making marinades. 100 g of dill contains 100 mg of ascorbic acid. Chewing dill seeds after a rich fatty meal improves digestion, relieves the feeling of heaviness in the stomach.

Parsley The leaves and root of parsley contains an essential oil that gives it its characteristic odor. Parsley can be root and leaf: the former uses roots and leaves for food, the latter uses only leaves. 100 g of parsley contains 1.7 mg | 3-carotene and 150 mg of ascorbic acid. Parsley is high in iron (1.9 mg).

Onion There are several types of onions used in food. The best known are onions, leeks and onions. The pungent smell of onions depends on the content of essential onion oil, which contains sulfides. The amount of essential oil in onions is 0.037-0.055%. Onions contain a variety of minerals and vitamins. Green onions (feathers) are of the greatest vitamin value. Ascorbic acid in 100 g of green onions contains 10 mg, in 100 g of leeks - 35 mg, onions - 10 mg. Green onions are characterized by a high content of p-carotene (2.0 mg per 100 g).

Garlic Garlic is a spicy vegetable with sharp taste and aroma properties. It contains essential oil (0.005-0.009 g per 100 g). As a source of ascorbic acid, garlic is of no value, but it has bactericidal properties due to the content of phytoncides in it. Garlic is also important as a medicinal plant. It is used in the treatment of vascular and many other diseases.

Horseradish The sharp taste of horseradish depends on the presence of allyl mustard oil in it, the amount of essential oil in horseradish is 0.05 g per 100 g. Horseradish has a high content of ascorbic acid (55 g per 100 g) and is a source of phytoncides.

Many herbs and roots are used as spice vegetables in different countries and regions. The need for spicy vegetables is about 2% of the total intake of vegetables.

Rhubarb From the leaves and stalks of rhubarb, cut before the flowering of the plant, you can prepare salads, jelly, compote, pie filling. It is important that rhubarb preparations do not interfere with digestion processes, do not affect the secretion of the gastrointestinal tract, but enhance peristalsis only at the level of the large intestine.

Cucumber herb - an ancient medicinal plant. Its leaves with the smell of fresh cucumber are added to vinaigrette, okroshka, cold borscht. Cucumber herb has a beneficial effect on the metabolism.

Leaves of young lettuce in vain they call it the breakfast of kings. Indeed, no other plant has such a delicate and exquisite taste. Its healing properties have been known for a long time.The substance contained in the salad - lactucin calms the nervous system, improves sleep, reduces the incidence of atherosclerosis. Organic acids prevent salt build-up. Pectins stimulate the intestinal tract. The lettuce leaves contain almost all known vitamins. The leaves are eaten fresh, separately or together with radishes, cucumbers can be used to make sandwiches from them.

Spinach contains proteins, sugar, ascorbic acid, B vitamins, vitamins P, K, E, D, minerals: magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, iodine. All this makes spinach one of the most valuable dietary foods. It contains secretin, which has a beneficial effect on the work of the stomach and pancreas. Spinach is especially useful for anemia.

Sorrel, which is used before flowering, improves digestion, reduces putrefactive fermentation in the intestines. Traditional medicine recommends sorrel juice as a choleretic agent. It is also a rich source of vitamin B. Sorrel leaves can be dried without losing their nutritional value.

Nettle contains a huge amount of bioactive substances - organic acids, mineral salts of iron, phosphorus, silicon, vitamin K, vitamin C, protein and tannins. For medicinal purposes, its tonic and choleretic properties are used.

Leaves dandelion contain many vitamins and minerals, salad from them stimulates the secretion of bile and improves appetite. You can make a chicory substitute from dandelion roots. Dandelion roots contain polysaccharides, organic acids, vitamins and trace elements.


Pear varieties for orchards of the Central Black Earth Region

Summer:
1. Early ripening from Michurinsk
2. Allegro
3. Severyanka red-cheeked
4. Chizhovskaya
5. August dew

Early autumn:
1. In memory of Yakovlev
2. Dessert Rossoshanskaya
3. Marble
4. Veles
5. Bryansk beauty
6. Bryansk souvenir
7. Autumn Yakovleva
8. Beauty Chernenko

Autumn:
1. Alyonushka
2. Selyanka
3. Just Mary

Winter:
1. Yakovlevskaya
2. Nika
3. Miracle woman
4. Extravaganza
5. Novella
6. Elena
7. Belarusian late
8. January.

You wanted to plant a pear on your site. A natural question arises: “Where is the best place to buy planting material?". Saplings of fruit crops, including pears, must be purchased in fruit nurseries, production departments of research institutes and specialized stores. They sell mainly zoned varieties.

Most of the sold seedlings are annuals. A small number of two-year-old pear seedlings are grown, which have a crown of 3-5 branches. There are significantly fewer seedlings with a closed root system on sale than with an open one. This is due to certain difficulties in growing and transporting. They are more expensive but can be purchased and planted throughout the growing season.

Here are a few rulesWhat you need to pay attention to when buying seedlings:

  1. Each bunch should have a label with the name of the variety.
  2. The bark is not wrinkled, smooth to the touch, without cracking and mechanical damage.
  3. The root system must be well developed (the number of main roots is 3-5, the length is at least 25 cm).
  4. It is important that the roots are not dried out. Normal roots do not break when bent strongly. If you make a small incision, we will see white fabrics.
  5. Seedlings with an open root system should be without leaves, and in the spring with unblown buds.

Seedlings with an open root system can only be planted in spring (late April - early May) and autumn (late September - late October). What is the landing time to choose? In autumn, the set of varieties is larger and the quality of the planting material is better. When planting in autumn, favorable conditions are created for the regeneration of roots and the survival of seedlings. However, unfavorable winter conditions can damage and weaken trees planted in autumn. Planting pears in spring guarantees a good survival rate of trees with timely regular watering.

When choosing landing sites it should be borne in mind that the pear loves well-lit and wind-protected places with deep groundwater. Almost all types of soils are suitable for pears, except for saline, sandy and crushed stone. It grows well on chernozems and chestnut soils with a neutral reaction. Before planting on acidic soils, liming must be carried out and the use of physiologically acidic fertilizers is unacceptable.

Landing patterns depend on the strength of growth of varieties and rootstocks. Vigorous varieties on a seed stock are placed 6-7 x 4-5 m, medium-sized 4-5 x 3-4 m.If a pear is grafted on a quince, the distance in the row spacing can be reduced to 3-4 m, in a row - to 1.5- 2m.

One-year unbranched seedlings are shortened at a height of 80-90 cm from the ground. In two-year-old seedlings, the side branches are cut at the same level. The center conductor is cut 20-30 cm above the pruning level of the main branches.

It should be noted that the roots of the pear are of the rod type. When digging, they are heavily pruned. Therefore, the first year after planting, the trees experience stress, which is manifested in the presence of a small one-year growth. In most cases, only in the second year they begin to grow actively. Therefore, careful post-plant care is required, aimed at creating optimal conditions for plant survival. This is timely watering, weed control, loosening of near-stem circles, foliar and root dressing, treatments against pests and diseases. The implementation of basic agrotechnical measures will contribute to the normal growth and development of trees, as well as to obtain high annual yields of pear fruits.


Watch the video: Vitamin C: Metabolism and Function